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Full text of "Annual report of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, 1892"

TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 



OF ONTARIO 



PBINTED BY ORDER OF TEE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 




TORONTO : 
PRINTED BY WARWICK & SONS, 68 & 70 FRONT STREET WEST. 

1893. 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Affiliated Societies 133 

Agricultural College Advisory Board. . . 71 

Agricultural Divisions 4 

Alkaline Wash 45 

Annual Meeting 5 

Ansjutin's Apricots 100 

Anthracnose of Raspberry 88 

Antonovka 94, 95 

Apple Bucculatrix 113 

Apple Growing 26 

Apple Inspection 65 

Apple Inspector, Duties of 66 

Apple Scab 32, 82 

Apples, Best for Profit , 40 

Apples for Stock 68 

Apples, Yield in Ontario 63 

Apricots, Russian 100, 106 

Arnold 121 

Babuskino, or Grandmother Apple .... 102 

Baldwin Apple .- 41 

Barberry 132 

Beall's, Dr., Address 90 

Bee Keeping and Fruit Growing 34 

Bessemianka Pear 97 

Beurre Romain 103 

Black Knot , 37,38 

Blenheim Apple 41 

Bohemian Queen Cherry 101 

Bordeaux Mixture , 43 

Botan 18 

Botanical Laboratory 90 

Brant County Fruit Growers' Association 133 

Bubach Strawberry 50 

Burlington Horticultural Society 133 

By-Laws , 3 

Canker Worms 112 

Carbolic Acid Emulsion 45 

Catalogue of Fruits 137 

Cheney Plum 14 

Cherry Rot 8(5 

Cherry, Russian 101 

Chickasaw Plums 15 

Clay Farms 28 

Columbian Exhibition 9 

Columbia Raspberry 118 

Concord 70 

Constitution 3 

Cranberry Pippen 42 

Curculio Proof 18 

Dempsey, P.C 10, 121 



Page. 

Dempsey Pear 10 

DeSoto Plum 13, 14 

Diseases of Fruit Trees, Act on 24, 37 

District Fruit Lists 142 

Duchess A pple 40 

Enemies of Horticulture 42 

Enhance Strawberry 50 

Experiment Stations for Fruit 47, 73, 78 

Eye Spotted Bud Moth 113 

Fall Web Worm 113 

Fertilizers for the Garden and Orchard . 125 

Flemish Beauty 110 

Forest Garden 14 

Fruit Catalogue 137 

Fruit Exhibit . 73 

Fruit Exhibit at St. Petersburg 105 

Fruit Experiment Stations 73 

Fruit Growing on Clay 28 

Fruit in Lambton County 127 

Fruit Statistics 68 

Fungi Affecting Fruits 79 

Fungicides 21, 22, 43 

Gandy Strawberry 50 

Garden, My 122 

Gillespie 50 

Golden Russet 42 

Gooseberries 61 

Gooseberry Mildew 85 

Grand Duchess of Olga Apple 103 

Grapes 69 

Grapes, Committee on . . 74 

Grapes, Most Productive 69 

Grapes recommended .... 76 

Gravenstein 40 

Grimes Golden 41 

Hamburg Pear 103 

Hansell Raspberry 119 

Hardy Russian Pears 108 

Haverland 50 

Hawkeye Plum 12, 14 

Hawthorn 132 

Hedges 131 

Heebner Raspberry . 119* 

Hellebore 45- 

Hei stine Raspberry 119* 

History of Association 0, 

Honey Locust 132 

Honey, Price of 36 

Ida 14 

Imported Currant Sawfly 113 



IV. 



Page. 

Inspection of Fruit 64 

Kandyl Synap S9 

Kara Synap 98 

Kerosene Emulsion 45, 59 

Koslov Morello 95 

Lambton County, Fruit in 127 

Lettuce growing under Glass 128 

Liegal's Pear Ill 

Lithnnian Pippin Ill 

Local Fruit Growers 4, 75 

Long Pear , 108 

Mercuric Chloride as an Insecticide. ... 116 

Mildew of the Grape 84 

Miner Plum 16 

Morello C herry 95 

My Garden 122 

Native Plums 12 

Native Plums, Advantages of 17 

New Fruits 77, 119 

Newman Plum 15 

New Raspberries 118 

Niagara Grape 69 

Nina Pear Ill 

Norway Spruce 132 

Notes on New Fruits 119 

Nozzles 24 

Obituary 78 

Officers 2, 74 

Olga Apple 104 

Ontario Apple .' 30,41,120 

Pana Pear . , 108 

Peach Yellows 81 

Pear Blight 81 

Pear Culture, Experience in 53 

Pear Leaf Blister Mite 113 

Pear Orchard, Location 54 

Pears, Report on 60 

Pears. Russian 97. 108 

Pear Tree Psylla 56 

Peterboro' F. G. Ass 135 

Planting Trees 54 

Soil, choice ■ f trees, etc 54 

Plum Leaf Fungus 87 

Plum Knot 80 

Plum Rot 19, 23 

Plums, Native 12 

Pomace for Stock 68 

Powdery Mildew of the Gooseberry 85 

Powdery Mildew of the Grape 84 

Potato Rot 22 

Pottawattamie Plum 15 

President's Address 7 

Princess Strawberry 50 

Problem of our time 123 

Prunus Americana , 14 

" Dimissa 14 



Page. 

Prunus Domestica 13 

" Serotina 14 

Psylla on Pear 56 

Purple Yosemite Plum „ 15 

Pyrethrum 45 

"Raspberries, new 118 

Raspberry Anthracnose 88 

Red Panna Pear 109 

Report of Fruit in Lambton County 127 

Ribston Apple 40 

Rollingstone Plum 14 

Rostov Pea 97 

Russian Fruits 94 

Russian Pears 97 

Sapieganka Pear 101, 102 

Sary Synap Apple 99 

Scab 32 

Sheep in the Apple Orchard 114 

Shot-hole Fungus 87 

Slutsk no 

Spraying 46,112 

Statistics of Fruits 61 

St. Lawrence 40 

Stone Antonovka ,- , 94 

Strawberries 50 

Strawberries for Home Use 52 

Strawberries for Market 52 

Strawberries, Twenty Years' Experience 

with 52 

Strawberry Leaf Blight 87 

Synap Apple 98 

Thinning Fruit 27 

Thompson's Early 118 

Tobacco 45 

Tobacco Rot 84 

Tomatoes as a Greenhouse Crop 130 

Treasurer's Report * 70 

Trenton Apple 10 

Uriuck Apricot 106 

Van Buren 14 

Warfield Strawberry 50 

Way ant 15 

Wealthy Apple 30, 41 

Weaver Plum 14, 15, 17 

Welcome Meeting 5 

Weston Strawberry 52 

White Doyenne 109 

Whitesmith Gooseberry 61 

Wild Goose Plum 16 

Williams Strawberry 50, 52 

Windbreak 33 

Winnitza Rambour Ill 

Winter Nelis 53 

Wolf 15, 16 

Woolverton Strawberry 50, 52 

Worden Grape 70 

Yellows 81 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ONTARIO FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 



To the Hon. John Dry den, Minister of Agriculture : 

Sir, — 1 have the honor of submitting for your approval the Twenty fourth Annual 
Report of the Fruit Growers 1 Association of Ontario. It contains information of great 
value to fruit growers, not only in the Province of Ontario, but also throughout the whole 
extent of our Dominion from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; who have so appreciated it as 
to unite with our Association in large numbers, making our membership the largest of 
any Association of its kind in the world. 

You will notice that the papers and discussions are chiefly given by practical fruit 
growers and, therefore, have great practical value ; and, further, that the catalogues of 
fruits, both those for the guidance of judges and those for the guidance of planters, have 
been carefully revised and extended. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

LINUS WOOLVERTON, 

Secretary. 
Grimsby, December, 1892. 



OFFICERS FOR 1893. 



President : 
A. H. Pettit , Grimsby. 

Vice President : 
T. H. Race Mitchell. 

Secretary-Treasurer and Editor : 
Linus Woolverton, M. A Grimsby. 

Directors : 

Division No. 1 W. S. Turner, Cornwall. 

Division .No. 2 John Craig, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 

Division No. 3 .... D. Nicol, Cataraqui. 

Division No. 4 Wellington Boulter, Picton. 

Division No. 5 = . . Thos. Beall, Lindsay. 

Division No. 6 W. E. Wellington, Toronto. 

Division No. 7 Murray Pettit, Winona. 

Division No. 8 A. M. Smith, St. Catharines. 

Division No. 9 J. R. Howell, Brantford. 

Division No. 10 A. McD. Allan, Goderich. 

Division No. 11 J. D. Stewart, Russeldale. 

Division No. 12 Alex. McNeill, Windsor. 

Division No. 13 G. C. Caston, Craighurst. 

Auditors : 

E. B. Edwards Peterborough. 

J. A, Morton Wingham. 

Committees for 1893. 

Fruit Exhibit. Messrs. E. Morris, JTonthill ; J. D. Stewart, Russeldale ; and W. 
S. Turner, Cornwall. 

New Fruits. Prof. John Craig, Experimental Farm, Ottawa; Messrs. W. W. Hil- 
born, Leamington, and G. C. Caston, Craighurst. 

Legislation. Messrs. E. D. Smith, Winona ; A. W. Peart, ^Burlington ; J. Cavers, 
Gait; J. K. McMichael, Waterford, and G. W. Cline, Winona. 

Experiment Stations. Messrs. A. M. Smith, St. Catharines \ A. H. Pettit, Grimsby \ 
M. Pettit, Winona, and W. W. Hilborn, Leamington. 

Fear Catalogue. Messrs. D. W. Beadle, 450 Markham St.,;Toronto; W. H. Dempsey / 
Trenton, and G. W. Cline, Winona. 

Fruit Inspection. Messrs. A. H. Pettit, Grimsby ; M. Pettit, Winona, and L. Wool- 
verton, Grimsby. 

Fruit Statistics. Messrs. E. D, Smith, Winona ; A. McD. Allan, Goderich, and 
T. P. Carpenter, Winona. 

Obituaries. Messrs. A. M. Smith, St. Catharines j D. W. Beadle, Toronto, and 
Prof. John Craig, Ottawa. 

On representation on Advisory Board of 0. A. C. The President and the Secretary. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



CONSTITUTION. 

Art. I. — This Association shall be called "The Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario." 

Art. II. — Its objects shall be the advancement of the science and art of fruit culture by holding 
meetings for the exhibition of fruit and for the discussion of all questions relative to fruit culture, by 
•collecting, arranging and disseminating useful information, and by such other means as may from time to 
time seems advisable. 

Art. III. — The annual meeting of the Association shall be held at such time and place as shall be 
designated by the Association. 

Art. IV. — The officers of the Association shall be composed of a President, Vice-President, a Secretary, 
or Secretary Treasurer, and thirteen Directors. 

Art. V. — Any person may become a member by an annual payment of one dollar, and a payment of 
ten dollars shall constitute a member for life. 

Art. VI. — This Constitution may be amended by a vote of a majority of the members piesent at any 
regular meeting, notice of the proposed amendments having been given at the prevh us meeting. 

Art. VII. —The said Officers and Directors shall prepare and present at the annual meeting of the 
Association, a report of their proceedings during the year, in which shall be stated the names of all the 
members of the Association, the places of meeting during the year, and such information as the Association 
shall have been able to obtain on the subject of fruit culture in the Province during the year. There shall 
also be presented at the said annual meeting a detailed statement of the receipts and disbursements of 
the Association during the year, which report and statement shall be entered in the journal and signed by 
the President as being a correct copy; and a true copy thereof, certified by the Secretary for the time being, 
shall be sent to the Minister of Agriculture within forty days after the holding of such annual 
meeting. 

Art. VIII. — The Association shall have pcwer to make, alter and amend By-laws for prescribing the 
mode of admission of new members, the election of officers, and otherwise regulating the administration of 
its affairs and property. 



BY-LAWS. 

1. The President, Vice-President and Secretary-Treasurer shall be ex-officio members of all committees 

2. The Director may offer premiums to any person originating or introducing any new fruit adapted 
to the climate of the Province which shall possess such distinctive excellence as shall, in their opinion, 
render the same of special value ; also for essays upon such subjects connected with fruit growing as they 
may designate, under such rules and regulations as they may prescribe. 

3. The Secretary shall prepare an annual report containing the minutes of the proceedings of meetings 
during the year ; a detailed statement of receipts and expenditure, the reports upon fruits received from 
-different localities ; and all essays to which prizes have been awarded, and such other information in regard 
to fruit culture as may have been received during the year, and submit the same to the Directors or any 
Committee of Directors appointed for this purpose, and, with their sanction, after presenting the same at 
the annual meeting, cause the same to be printed by and through the Publication Committee, and send a 
<;opy thereof to each member of the Association and to the Minister of Agriculture. 

4. Seven Directors shall constitute a quorum, and if at any meeting of Directors there shall not be a 
quorum, the members present may adjourn the meeting from time to time until a quorum shall be obtained. 

5. The annual subscription shad be due in advance at the annual meeting. 

6. The President (or in case of his disability, the Vice-President), may convene special meetings at 
such times and places as he may deem advisable, and he shall convene such special meetings as shall be 
requested in writing by five members. 

7. The President may deliver an address on some subject relating to the objects of the Association. 

8. The Treasurer shall receive all moneys belonging to the Association, keep a correct account thereof 
and submit the same to the Directors at any legal meeting of such Directors, five days' notice having been 
previously given for that purpose. 

9. The Directors shall audit and pass all accounts, which, when approved of by the President's 
signature, shall be submitted to and paid by the Treasurer. 

10. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to keep a correct record of the proceedings of the Association, 
conduct the correspondence, give not less than ten days' notice of all meetings to the members, and specify 
the business of special meetings. 

11. The Directors, touching the conduct of the Association, shall at all times have absolute power and 
•control of the funds and property of the Association, subject however to the meaning and construction of 
the Constitution. 

12. At special meetings no business shall be transacted except that stated in the Secretary's circular. 



13. The order of business shall be : (1) Reading of the minutes ; (2) Reading of the Directors' Report; 
(3) Reading of the Treasurer's report ; (4) Reading of the prize essays ; (5) President's Address; (G) Election 
of officers, and (7) Miscellaneous business. 

14. These By-laws may be amended at any general meeting by a vote of two thirds of the members 
present. 

15. Each member of the Fruit Committee shall be charged with the duty of accumulating information 
touching the state of the fruit crop, the introduction of new varieties, the market value of fruits in his 
particular section of the country, together with such other general and useful information touching fruit 
interests as may be desirable, and report in writing to the Secretary of the Association on or before the 
fifteenth day of September in each year. 

The President, Vice-President and Secretary shall be ex officio members of the Board of Directors and 
of all Committees. The reasonable and necessary expenses of Directors and officers in attending meetings 
of the Board of Directors and of Committees shall be provided from the funds of the Association. 

Local Fruit Growers' Association. 

16. It shall be the duty of the officers and directors of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario to 
encourage the formation of local fruit growers' horticultural societies in affiliation with the Ontario 
Association. 

17. Any one may become a member of such local society for one year upon payment into its treasury 
of a minimum sum of one dollar ; and a compliance with clause 18 of these by-laws shall constitute him 
also a member of the Ontario Association for the same term. 

18. On the receipt of the names of such members, with the required fees, the secretary of such local 
affiliated society may transmit their names and post office addresses, together with the sum of eighty cents 
for each, to the Secretary of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, who will enter their names as 
members of that society, entitled to all its privileges, providing the initial number of such names be not 
less than ten. 

19. Each local society so affiliating, with a membership of not less than twenty-five, shall be entitled to 
a visit from some member of the board of directors or other prominent horticulturist, once a year, at their 
own request : it being understood that the railway expenses of such speaker shall be paid by the Ontario 
Society, and the entertainment provided by the local society. 

20. The proceedings of such local fruit growers' horticultural societies shall, on or before the lot day 
of December of each year, be forwarded to the secretary of the Ontario Society, who may cull out such 
portions for the Annual Report to the Minister of Agriculture for the province, as may seem to him of 
general interest and value. 

21. These local societies, if formed in cities, towns or incorporated villages, may be formed under the 
Agriculture and Arts Act (see sections 37, 46 and 47) and receive their due share of the Electoral District 
grant for the support of such societies. 

23. Each local affiliated society is further expected to send at least one delegate to the annual meeting 
of the Fruit Growers' Association. 

The director of the Fiuit Growers' Association of Ontario of the Agricultural District in which such 
society is formed shall be, tx officio, a member of the executive committee of such local society and receive 
notices of all its meetings. 



AGRICULTURAL DIVISIONS. 

1. Stormont, Dundas, Glengarry, Prescott and Cornwall. 

2. Lanark North, Lanark South, Renfrew North, Renfrew South, Carleton, Russell and the City of 
Ottawa. 

3. Frontenac, City of Kingston, Leeds and Grenvilie North, Leeds South, Grenville South, and 
Brockville. 

4. Hast ; ngs East, Hastings North, Hastings West, Addington, Lennox and Prince Edward. 

5. Durham East, Durham West, Northumberland East, Northumberland West, Peterborough East, 
Peterborough West, Victoria North (including Haliburton), and Victoria South. 

6. York East, York North, York West, Ontario North, Ontario South, Peel, Cardwell and City of 
Toronto. 

7. Wellington Centre, Wellington South, Wellington West, Waterloo North, Waterloo South, Went- 
worth North, Wentworth South, Dufferin, Halton and City of Hamilton. 

8. Lincoln, Niagara, Welland, Haldimaiiri and Monck. 

9. Elgin East, Elgin West, l5rant North, Brant South, Oxford North, Oxford South, Norfolk North 
and Norfolk South. 

10. Huron East, Huron South, Huron West, Bruce Centre, Bruce North, Bruce South, Grey East, 
Grey North and Grey South. 

11. Perth North, Perth South, Middlesex East, Middlesex North, Middlesex West and City of 
London. 

12. Es?ex North, Essex South, Kent East, Kent West, Lambton East and Lambton West. 

13. Algoma East, Algoma West, Simcoe East, Simcoe South, Simcoe West, Muskoka and Parry 
Sound. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING, 1892. 



The annual meeting of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario was held in the 
city of Brant ford, beginning on Tuesday evening, December the 6th, 1892, with a public 
welcome in the Music Hall of the Institute for the Blind which was presided over by 
Principal Dymond, a gentleman who extended to the Association every possible courtesy. 

THE WELCOME MEETING. 

An organ solo, entitled, " Marche Pontificate" (Lemmens), was performed in opening. 

Principal Dymond said : It is certainly not by reason of any claim of a standing 
in the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, or of any connection with fruit culture 
that I have the honor to preside over your meeting to night ; but as the representative 
of this Institute, in welcoming you here, I express, I am sure, the hearty feeling of all my 
colleagues and those under my charge at seeing you with us. 

If there be any who can appreciate the work of the fruit grower, I presume it is the 
fruit consumer. I speak of those who, although they may never yet have raised an apple 
tree to perfection, or become adepts in the description of a grape or pear, are not the 
less able to appreciate the labors of those who do enter upon those vocations. I had 
the honor some years ago of meeting your president, when acting on the Agricultural 
Commission, and I then t' ied to find out how much, or little, some of these gentlemen 
knew about fruit culture. I rejoice to know that the result of that undertaking, and of 
the intelligent efforts of some of those who have been laboring in the cause of fruit cul- 
ture, has been the extension of the export of fruit to the mother country. Very little 
things sometimes produce an impression with regard to the character of a people, and, 
though packing a barrel of apples may seem a small thing, yet barrels of apples by the 
hundreds of thousands are sent to the mother land and the character of the people who 
send them is discernible from the character of the packing. But, as one who values above 
all the character of Canada in the mother land, I would desire perhaps more than most 
people that the feeling of affection between Great Britain and Canada should be nurtured, 
and I desire to see this friendship promoted by your Association. 

Principal Dymond then called upon the vocal class, composed of about fifty pupils of 
the Institute, to render " The Bridal Chorus" (Cowen). 

His Worship the Mayor (Dr. Secord) then addressed the meeting. He said : I am 
sure it gives me considerable pleasure, not only from ray personal capacity, but also from 
my representative capacity as Mayor of this city, to be present and welcome the Ontario 
Fruit Growers' Association to Brantiord. I am only sorry that the good opinion which 
possibly the gentlemen from a distance might have entertained of our constantly pleasant 
climate, should have been marred by unfavorable weather, but I can say that Brantford, 
in other respects, compares favorably with any other part of Ontario. 

The meeting of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association here for the first time, for the 
discussion of subjects of importance to the progress of their industry, certainly must 
tend to the comfort, happiness and general good of the community. The trend of the 
present age is toward recognizing the dependence of man upon man. Now, sir, your 
society is certainly an example of what persistent effort will do. I understand that you 
are well on to a third of a century in age and that from a small beginning, thirty-three 
years ago, you have grown to considerable proportions at this time. I can only say to 
you chat you must have the gift of patience in observations. You take a seed, which 



possibly you may have secured from some distant climate, entirely new to you and 
entirely new to your climate, and you will watch the development of that seed, and 
by the fruit which it bears you will endeavor to improve the grades which are already 
with us in Canada in such profusion. 

Now, sir, possibly it would be more fitting if I were to confine my remarks ta 
our own community and to the hearty welcome which we give to you. We welcome 
all men, and all ladies as well, and we hope that you will continue to prosper and go 
on adding to the happiness of our citizens by means of the health-giving properties of 
your fruit, so that in the future you will be one of the best recognized societies in 
the country, and that your influence will extend from year to year. 

We have many things in our city to which I would like to draw your attention > 
but my time is limited. I may say that our city is one of no mean size, our popula- 
tion now reaching about sixteen thousand, and, while we have some defects and while 
we have some difficulties, we are happy to say that we are advancing, we are enlarging 
in population and we are improving in every way. 

I thank you sincerely for calling upon me to give you an address of welcome. 

The President : I assure you that we fully appreciate the hearty welcome which 
you have extended to us on this occasion. When your delegates to our meeting in Ham- 
ilton invited us to hold our next annual meeting in your city, we accepted with a 
great deal of pleasure. Our Association moves its meetings from place to place in 
this country in order to meet with many people who, by rubbing their wits together, help 
us to solve the great problems which confront the fruit grower ; and it is from the prac- 
tical men that we get the most valuable information with regard to the methods of culti- 
vation. 

I must thank you again for your hearty welcome and ask you one and all to come to 
our meetings and assist us, not only by your presence, but with your voices, and thus help 
us to raise higher the banner of horticulture. 

A combined piece was here rendered on the organ, two pianos and a triangle. It was 
entitled " Marche Cortege " (Gounod). 

The Secretary : In the absence of Mr. Allan, who was to have addressed you on 
the "History and Work of our Association," I would like to say that we are just about 
thirty-three years old, and, not only are we an old Association, but, as our president has 
said in his remarks, we feel some pride in our growth. I can remember going to the 
first meeting of the Association, in 1860, when a boy. The Association was then com- 
posed of about a dozen members ; but, though few in numbers, they did good work in 
those days, quite as hard work in the interests of the country as the men of to-day. Par- 
ticularly would I mention Mr. A. M. Smith, the pioneer fruit grower of the Niagara dis- 
trict and I might perhaps say of our country, as being one of the constituent members. 

It is interesting to look back over those early years and consider the growth of our 
Association. The growth has been a healthy one and that is because we are working 
wholly in the interests of the public. That is the secret of our success. From that mem- 
bership of one dozen we have grown to over two thousand, distributed not only over our 
whole province, but in every other province of our Dominion. Nearly the whole of the 
British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association has united with us, as well as many mem- 
bers of the Associations of Quebec and Nova Scotia. They consider that in receiving the 
annual report of our Association, a book of no mean size and of great interest to fruit 
growers, together with our monthly journal, which contains contributions from the lead- 
ing fruit growers of Ontario, they are well rewarded for the little expense of being mem- 
bers with us as well as of their own Association. 

We have included in our list of presidents Judge Logie, Rev. R. Burnet, W. H. 
Mills, P. C. Dempsey, Wm. Saunders, A. McD. Allan, A. M. Smith, J. A. Morton, and 
A. H. Pettit. The latter is well-known to you as the Superintendent of the Ontario fruit 
exhibit at the World's Fair. 



Our work is educative. We have no personal interests to serve in our work, our 
object being to distribute information with regard to the best means of growing fruit and 
the best varieties to cultivate in the various parts of our province. One great aim, which 
we have had in view for some years, is the introduction of hardy fruits for Northern On- 
tario and we have imported large quantities of hardy varieties from Russia and placed 
them under test at the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. In due time these will be 
distributed to the members of our Association in the various parts of Ontario to be further 
tested with regard to their adaptability. 

I believe that a very important part of our work is done by means of the Canadian 
Horticulturist through which we are able to communicate with one another the results of 
our experience with various fruits. Each year we distribute to all our members two good 
sized volumes, the journal and the report, and I trust that every year, we may be able to 
make them of more value to the public. 

The vocal class rendered in chorus " 2 he Cruiskeen Lawn" (Stewart). 

The President, A. H. Pettit, then delivered his annual address. 



THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 
Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Members of the Fruit Growers' Association : 

It falls to my lot on this occasion to deliver an annual address, a custom that has 
prevailed in this Association since its first inception ; I will therefore ask you to bear 
with me a few minutes while in the discharge of that duty. The year 1892, upon which 
we entered with such promises of success, is fast drawing to a close and we find ourselves 
gathered together in the city of Brantford, one year older, and I trust wiser, in the pur- 
suit of horticultural knowledge. Each year brings us face to face with new anxieties, 
new hopes or realizations ; realizations cheer us onward, but disappointments sometimes 
strengthen us the most ; they make us study and dig down deeper into the laboratory of 
nature for the reason why. We cultivate the soil to obtain moisture and to obtain plant 
food, thereby to increase the fertility of our soil ; we cultivate the mind in order to 
expand its power of grasping and solving the great problems in horticulture that are 
daily and yearly presenting themselves to us. In the spring time just past, the outlook 
was most promising ; in many respects the whole country seemed to be one vast profu- 
sion of bloom, but a little later on our hopes were to some extent blighted. 

More particularly so was this the case in the southern fruit belt of Ontario ; some of 
us no doubt felt the show was too good to be realized. Looking on the dark side, some- 
times we find just what we are looking for ; indeed, how often do we find this to be the 
case, confirming us as it were in our gloomy predictions. 

We are here to-day as fruit growers from all parts of this province to discuss ques- 
tions of great importance to the interest we represent. The great fruit growing industry 
of this province demands at our hands the dissemination of sound, practical information, 
and wherewith are we to be supplied if not from the field of practical experience 1 If 
we fail in gathering the crop of information this section is so fully blest with, we fail in 
the realization of our visit in that respect. If we sow seed and it fails to germinate in 
this locality, we must attribute it to one of two causes : either that the seed was bad or 



the soil was not congenial to its growth. If we sow and do not reap, this Association 
would become exhausted and its usefulness gone. It is by practical experience we arrive 
at a correct solution of the obstacles that present themselves, not in horticulture alone, 
but in all the various departments of agriculture. 

A new enterprise has of late been trying to revolutionize the whole system of Nature, 
by the explosion of powerful substances, to cause the rain to fall upon the earth. Man 
often taxes his ingenuity to accomplish some great result, when perhaps the simple 
method lies at his very door. Gather up the crumbs — crumbs of practical experience — 
which can be obtained in quantities all over this land, along our highways, down our 
lanes, in our vineyards and orchards. Since this Association was organized, some thirty- 
three years ago, the most wonderful strides have been made in the science and practice 
of fruit culture. I, sir, once lived in the very garden of Canada ; I live there still, but 
as years roll on, its boundaries keep widening out, until to day they can only be circum- 
scribed by the producer's knowledge and skill in the science and practice of his pro- 
fession. 

Some imagine this Association should agree and pronounce on what varieties of fruit 
we would advise for the intending planter. We can in some respects, but in their suit- 
ability to the various sections of a great province, like Ontario, with its various forma- 
tions of soil and climatic influences affecting them, few men can determine with any 
degree of certainty. When our experiences and observations are noted down and com- 
pared, we often find good reading matter between the lines, as well as on the lines. 

The matter of marketing and handling our fruit is a subject which should claim our 
best attention. Some twenty odd years ago, when this Association was organized under 
most favorable auspices, but laboring under many disadvantages, little was known as 
to varieties, their hardiness or adaptability to the different parts of this province. 
Markets were limited, facilities of transportation still more so. It was with doubt that 
almost any man except an enthusiast, approached the subject ; bnt the little band stood 
bravely by the ship — she did not carry much canvas, but it was of good material — and 
to-day we rejoice in their success. They led the great army of producers on to victory 
in production, until to-day we stand amazed at the magnitude of its proportions, requir- 
ing more canvas, more seamen to man the sails and guide the ship laden with those pro- 
ductions, into the ever increasing markets of the world. The fruit growers of Ontario 
are to-day looking to this Association, their Association, to advance by every possible 
means the best interest of that branch of industry. How shall we best accomplish that 
object, in order that the producer may reap the full reward of his labor 1 Should we 
not first consider in relation to this matter the product, that, no doubt, cannot be excelled 
in size, form, color or quality by any country on the face of the globe. 

Next, in importance, is the handling of that product from the tree to the market. 
We may grow the finest fruits the eye of man may desire, but if they are not properly 
picked, packed and placed upon the market in proper form, our best hopes of financial 
success can never be fully realised. Have we not fully arrived at that point where the 
magnitude of the interest demands our most serious consideration 1 Take up any cata- 
logue of sales you like and the proportion of slack, wet and wasly is far greater than it 



should be, sufficient to make the margin of profit or loss one of great importance to the 
fruit growers of Ontario and our country at large. I believe, sir, this Association has 
done much by the dissemination of practical information on the subject of fruit culture 
and I believe to-day our best energies should be taxed in promoting and facilitating the 
marketing of that product. Our Constitution embraces in its objects every point that goes 
to make up the welfare and success of the horticultural interest of our country, 
an interest we have cherished with such an abiding faith in its future, one that today 
is adding millions to its resources, not alone in its intrinsic value, but in its health 
inspiring influence as a ration for young and old alike. We have to-day committees on 
the various fruits calculated to give, by their long and wide experience, valuable infor- 
mation to intending planners. 

We have committees on experimental work, committees on legislation, could we 
not have a committee on marketing, whose report might be published through the Horti- 
culturist at the proper season, and thus our Association might become, even more than it 
is to-day, the channel of wider information on the subject. Then I have reason to hope 
you will see thousands of the fruit growers of Ontario joining our ranks, adding strength 
by their counsel and influence to advance the good work. 

The matter of an experiment station for the southern fruit belt of Ontario, where 
new fruits could be tested and their merits reported upon to the public, has been discus- 
sed by this Association, and for the want of some definite plan, whereby it would best 
serve the interests of the people, no action has yet been taken. A paper on this subject 
will be brought before the Association at this meeting. 

In reference to my work in connection with the Ontario exhibit for the World's 
Columbian Exposition, I might say that reasonable results have thus far been obtained. 
The season has been most unfavorable in many respects, and the wide range of varieties 
in their perfect form was very hard to obtain. The fruit crop of the southern fruit belt 
of Ontario was deficient in size, form and color, and this rendered the work one of con- 
tinual anxiety as to where it would be possible to obtain certain varieties. Had I speci- 
fied to the growers that certain lines of fruit were required from them, I would have kept 
them in continual suspense, and in many cases no doubt an amount of correspondence 
would have been the only result. As it is I feel we have a fairly good representative 
collection of the fruits of this province. I must express my most hearty thanks to the 
fruit growers of Ontario for their liberal contributions for that purpose, and also for 
their cheering words of encouragement, in the work in which I was engaged. When I 
was asked to assume the responsibility I must say I shrank from the task. I felt I 
had been honored by this Association placing me in the chair, and this was the first 
duty that devolved upon me, as such, in carrying the horticultural banner. I paused, 1 
looked at the great army of fruit growers of Ontario and I said, they will strengthen my 
hands. I have not been disappointed in my faith. 

From one end of this province to the other I have found men who, if they had 
nothing to send, felt they had a duty to perform, and in the discharge of that duty sent 
their regrets. What more could I ask % In many cases the utmost liberality and 
patriotism was displayed. We ttill have another season before us in which every fruit 



10 



grower in our land is asked to uphold the horticultural banner of this province, not for 
self, but for the honor of his country. A good name is worth millions to a nation, and 
gives dignity to a people. Where is the man who does not feel proud to see his country 
stand at the head in all lines of her products , for they, above all others, speak of the 
glorious climate of Canada, which is too' often associated in the minds of the people of 
the old land with ice palaces and bears ; they even go so far as to imagine that we live 
in danger from the Red-skins, a race, all honour to them, which has always proved true 
and loyal to their good mother, the Queen. 

I ask you to-day as fruit growers of Ontario, seeking, as I trust, by every means in 
your power to advance the fruit interests of Ontario, that you will display during the 
coming season that energy, that liberality and that patriotism that has characterized the 
people of Canada at all times and on all occasions, and leave no stone unturned to place 
the fruit exhibit of Ontario in its proper place. 

Some definite plan of operation as regards shipments will be arranged, whereby our 
tables will be continuously supplied during the season with fresh fruits. These will be 
exhibited in the producer's name, while at the same time they will form the Ontario 
exhibit. 

Since last we met one of our most valued members has been called to his reward, 
our late President and co-worker, P. C. Dempsey of Trenton, one always at his post 
when duty called, one whose wide knowledge of and skill in the field of horticulture 
gave courage to many a doubting one, and whose cheerful presence lent a charm to our 
meetings. He leaves behind him more than one monument to his memory. 

The " Dempsey " pear, the " Trenton " apple and many other choice fruits for the 
nation to enjoy were produced by his skill and attention. Let me here quote his- 
own words when referring to the success of others and at the same time inspiring other 
young men to follow their example. He said : " And what richer legacy can a man 
leave to the generations that are to follow him than a fine, delicious fruit which he has- 
originated with his own hand. This will be a living monument to his memory when 
posterity shall recline beneath the shade of its branches and pluck the precious fruit from 
the trees which he has left them." Truly I believe not one member in our ranks could 
these words be more applicable to than our departed comrade, P. C. Dempsey, and spoken 
by his own lips in honor of other men, may we not pause at the threshold and ask our- 
selves, is it possible for us to leave some token that others may cherish in remem 
brance of us ? 

I will not detain you longer now, but invite you one and all to come to our meet- 
ings, which will be in session here during the next two days, and by your presence, by 
your counsel and experience, help us to carry the horticultural banner on to greater 
successes. We see our cheese producers with their product standing ]mr excellence in 
the market of the world ; we see our butter producers climbing the pedestal to fame, and 
inscribed upon their banner " Pure as Gold." I ask the fruit growers of Ontario to-day 
to join our ranks, not as reserves, but as active volunteers in the work, until our system 
of production, of picking, packing and handling and transporting the fruit products of 
this favored land, o'er every sea to every land, receives universal approval, and then we 
may truly inscribe upon our banner something better than gold. 



11 



Several gentlemen asking to hear from Alderman Raymond, he responded as follows 

Alderman Raymond : I must thank you for your kind .and flattering introduction 
of myself, which adds to my embarrassment in the few words I may have to say of: wel- 
come to the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario. I believe in the remarks of our 
worthy Mayor with regard to the city in which we live and we welcome to it the Fruit 
Growers' Association with joy. We are glad that they will hold their annual meeting 
in our city. The Association which meets here is certainly an important one, and, judging 
from the address of the President, is one which is doing very good work, not only 
adding to the health, happiness and comfort of our people, but adding to the wealth 
of our country. The export of fruit from our country is constantly larger. Perhaps 
the cultivation of fruit may in some degree make up to the farmers for the losses 
which they now experience from the falling in the prices of wheat and oats. 

One part of the business of the Fruit Growers' Association is to prevent the 
spread of fungi and insect pests in the orchard, and in this I may say I wish them 
every success. It is said that he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass grow 
where one grew before, but he who can make two strawberries grow in the place of one 
is a still greater benefactor. T would wish the Association every success in their delibera- 
tions in Brantford. The President has said that he came from the garden of Ontario. While 
perhaps the Grimsby district is noted for the growth of fruits, we think that no part of 
Ontario is more charming than that which surrounds Brantford and I hope, as one result 
of your deliberations, that more fruit may be grown in this vicinity. 

The "Silent Land" (Gaul) was impressively rendered by the vocal class. 

T. H. Race (Vice-President). — The duty that devolves upon me first is to join with 
the President in thanking you for the very cordial greeting which we have received 
to-night and for the very excellent treat we have had in the music rendered by the pupils. 
I know you have a beautiful town. There are three or four things which weigh with me 
very largely in making up the character of any town or locality. When I find the peo- 
ple of any community patronize and support well the churches, when they produce the 
very best newspapers and when they have large and prosperous vineyards and orchards 
of fruit I take it for granted that this people are to be commended. I was very much 
pleased in looking about this town to see that you have given so much attention to beau- 
tifying the homes, and that besides being fruit growers you give a great deal of attention 
to floriculture, for I believe that the cultivation of flowers has a great moral influence. 

The vocal class rendered " Ye Banks and Braes." 

The Rev. Dr. Cochrane, after some happy allusions to previous speakers, 
tendered a hearty welcome to the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario. It was 
one of the characteristics of Brantford that its many comfortable homes were adorned 
with flowers, and its parks and streets gave evidence of the love of the beautiful in 
Nature possessed by its people. The humblest dwellings had their little gardens 
and flower-beds, and even the children in our schools rivalled each other in flower- 
gardening. He believed that there was a close connection bitween the love of 
the beautiful in Nature and the love of the beautiful in Morals, and the man who 
saw God in Nature and admired Him in His works would also be found of the highest 
style of character. Dr. Cochrane referred to the fact that Canadian horticulturists 
might profitably engage in fruit growing, as the English market was open to receive all 
the larger fruits they could send, at prices more remunerative than now received for 
staple cereals. He trusted that the present meeting would be a profitable one, and that 
they would continue to receive both from private individuals, and the Ontario Government 
that support which the importance of the Association demanded. 

The vocal class rendered in excellent style a magnificent selection entitled " The 
Last Judgment," accompanied by the pianos and organ. 

John Craig : I wish to say on behalf of the Directors and members of this Associa- 
tion that this evening's entertainment has been a remarkable opening for our meetings 
and I move a vote of thanks to the worthy principal of this Institution and his class, 
who have so ably entertained us. 

Murray Pettit : I second the motion. I think this musical entertainment reflects 
very great credit upon the management of this Institution. The motion was carried. 



12 



SECOND DAY— MORNING SESSION. 

The Convention was called to order at ten o'clock a.m. 

President Pettit expressed his pleasure at seeing so many present. Brantford being 
in one of the best fruit-growing sections in Canada, a large meeting was expected. The 
programme this year has been so arranged that the audience would occasionally be asked 
what subjects they would like to have brought forward, in order that every subject that 
it is wished to be discussed may be dealt with, and if time does not permit discussing 
every subject, the subjects least interesting will thus be left out. All persons present are 
incited to take part in the discussions. 



NATIVE PLUMS. 

Prof. John Craig, of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, in introducing his 
paper, said his remarks might not be of great interest to fruit growers in this immediate 
vicinity, because at present the quality of the native plum may not commend itself to 
places such as Brantford, where plums can be finely grown ; but there is a great future 
for the native plum in our colder and northern districts. The following remarks are 
based on our experience at Ottawa for the past five or six years. 





Hawkey e. 

Up to the present very little attention has been given in Canada to the cultivation 
and improvement of our native plums. Few lines in horticulture offer greater induce- 
ments. Comparatively little has been accomplished in the United States by systematic 
effort, yet since the introduction of the wild goose plum, about forty years ago, more than 
]50 varieties have been named and disseminated. This remarkable growth and increase 
in number of varieties is only surpassed by the marvellous progress made in the develop- 
ment of the American grape. The value of the American plum has not yet been recog- 



13 



nized to any extent except in sections where the severity of the climate precludes the 
easy or profitable culture of varieties belonging to the Prunus domestical class ; without 
doubt, however, there are improved varieties of our native plums which may be grown 
profitably in all portions of the Dominion, including the most favored localities as well. 
There is a wide variation in regard to the hardiness of these varieties, due principally to 
climatic conditions prevailing in the place of origin. Thus DeSoto, belonging to the 
Americana group, and originating in Wisconsin may be taken as the type of hardiness, 





De Soto. 



while Pottawattamie of the Chickasaw family, and introduced from Tennessee, is nob 
hardy at Ottawa, Up to the present year the botanical status of American plums hu> 
been very unsatisfactory. An excellent monograph by Prof. L. H. Bailey, Horticulturist 
at the Experiment Station of Cornell University, has been a great advance in placing 
these fruits on a sound scientific basis. Formerly our cultivated native varieties were 
grouped under three wild types (1) Prunus americana (Marshall), the plums of the north 
and west; (2) Prunus augiistifolia or P. chickasa (Mich.) native of the middle and 
southern States, and (3) Prunus maritima (Wangheim), known as the Beach plum of the 
south. Much confusion existed, however, as many of the cultivated forms could not be 
satisfactorily assigned to any of these original types. As a result of Mr. Bailey's labours, 
assisted by Prof. Sargeant, we shall recognize hereafter another class under the name of 
Prunus hortulana. This is made up of what was formerly known as the Wild Goose 
group, which in the past was generally referred, to the Chickasaw tribe. This group now 
occupies an intermediate position between Prunus americana and Prunus chickasa. To 
these three groups belong practically all the native varieties cultivated in Canada, and 
from them we may expect important additions to our lists in the future. As already 



14 



stated Prumts americana, by reason of its natural distribution, extending all over the 
northern parts of the continent to Manitoba and part of the North- west Territories, contains 
in its variations the hardiest forms of the native plum known to cultivators. These are 
suitable for culture in the coldest parts of the province ; and where nothing in the way 
of fruits except the chokecherry (P. serotina) and pin cherry (P. dimissa) obtain, it is 
safe to plant improved forms of this species. On account of this wide distribution, 
touching as it does Manitoba on the north and Texas on the south, there is much varia- 
tion in the hardiness of the individuals making up the species, and this, as already pointed 
out, is an important point for the consideration of intending planters. 

The following cultivated varieties belong to Primus americana, and have been on 
trial at the Central Experimental Farm for the past three years : 

Cheney. — Fruit large, roundish, oblong ; skin thick, a dull yellow mottled with red ; 
flesh fairly firm and sweet ; quality good ; stone medium size, adhering to the flesh. Tree 

a very vigorous grower, needing annual shortening. Re- 
I -3^%. markably prolific. Ripe at Ottawa the first week of Sep- 

V H** tember. The variety originated as a wilding near La Crosse, 

Wis. 

■■" 



DeSoto. — Fruit medium to large ; round, oblong, some- 
times pointed ; dark red with a beautiful purplish bloom ; 
skin thick ; flesh juicy, entirely free from astringency ; stone 
medium size. This undoubtedly is one of the best red plums. 
It ripens about September 15th. Found wild at DeSoto, 
Wis. Although it was introduced by Elisha Hale of Lan- 
sing, Iowa, nearly thirty years ago, it has not received the 
• Cheney. attention which a plum of its excellent qualities merits. 

Foeest Garden. — Fruit medium size, round or slightly egg-shaped ; skin thick, 
yellow, overlaid with darker mottlings, and a light lilac bloom ; flesh yellow, with some 
astrinoency, fairly good ; stone separates readily from the flesh. This tree is a difficult 
one to manage in orchards, being a rampant grower, throwing out long horizontal branches 
which are apt to break when heavily laden v/ith fruit, or during wind storms. 

Hawkeye. — Fruit large, almost round ; dark red with lilac-colored bloom ; suture 
indistinctly marked; flesh deep yellow, firm and juicy; stone large, flat, parts readily 
from the flesh. Equal to DeSoto. Ripe Sept. 20th. A valuable late variety which 
originated under cultivation, and was introduced by Mr. H. A. Terry, Crescent 
City, Iowa. 

I DA . Medium size, oval, with slight suture ; skin thick, dark red in color ; flesh 

yellow and unusually firm for a red plum, with little juice ; stone medium size, almost 
free ; fair quality ; hangs well to the tree and becomes quite sweet and sugary ripe ; 
ripens soon after the middle of September. Tree hardy and vigorous. Originated in 
Illinois. 

Rollingstone. — Fruit large, reported very large in some sections ; round, flattened 
at both ends ; skin deep yellow almost covered with red and purple mottlings ; flesh 
yellow, firm, good quality ; stone medium to small, cling ; ripens about the middle of 
September. Found by O", M. Lord on the bank of Rollingstone Creek, Minnesota, and 
by him introduced into cultivation. Valuable on account of its earliness. 

Van Buren. — Designated by Prof. Bailey as variety mollis of P. americana. The 
tree is true to the type, but the fruit seems quite distinct, and is unique among red 
plums, in that it is a perfect free stone. Fruit medium, roundish, oval ; skin thick, 
yellow with a pink blush ; flesh yellow, sugary sweet and melting ; picked this year Sep- 
tember 25th. Shows a tendency to crack. Not as hardy as many of the preceding. 
Originated in the State of Iowa. 

Weaver. Three trees of this variety planted in 1888 have borne good crops the 

past three seasons, the last two very heavily indeed. Fruit large, oblong, flattened ; 
color dark red, overlaid with a purplish bloom ; suture well marked ; stone long, narrow 



15 



and flat, cling ; ripens at Ottawa about the end of September. Originated in northern 
Iowa and was introduced in 1875. This I believe will be valuable wherever it will ripen. 

Wolf. — Fruit round, medium to large j dark red covered with dense purplish bloom ; 
flesh yellow, tinged with red, firm, good quality ; stone separates readily from flesh. A 
more attractive variety than DeSoto but hardly equal in quality. Tree distinct, having 
young shoots heavily covered with a downy pubescence. Originated under cultivation in 
Iowa about forty years ago, 

Wayant.— Tree has partially failed at Ottawa. Fruit of Van Buren type ; firm, 
meaty, entirely free. Probably more valuable for the south. 





Weaver 



Purple Yosemite. — A good tree, bearing fruit of fair size and quality, but ripening 
with Rollingstone, which it does not equal. Yellow Yosemite is quite similar and a little 
later in ripening. 

The above list includes the best of the americana which have been fruited at the 
Central Farm. Among those which can be recommended to planters where the finer 
varieties (P. domestica) fail are Cheney, DeSoto, Rollingstone, Wolf, Weaver and Hawk- 
-eye, and if a free stone is desired Ida, Wayant or Van Buren may be added. 

Chickasaw Plums (P. Chickasa). — Accepting Prof. Bailey's classification, none of 
the Chickasaws have proved hardy at Ottawa. 

Newman, originating in Kentucky some years ago, is one of the best known of this 
class. It is hardy in Central New York and would probably succeed in western Ontario. 
Fruit large, of good quality, ripening very late, sometimes not before the middle 
of October. 



Pottawattamie. — This very much lauded variety seems to be deserving in many 

Fruit is medium to large, round and 
B. Pice, of Council Bluffs, 



sections of the high measure of praise accorded it 

light, red in color, of good quality. It was introduced by J 

Iowa, to whom it came from Tennessee among a lot of Miners. 



1C 



Wild Goose Tribe : P. hortulana (Bailey).— None of this class are hardy outside 
of peach-growing districts, Garfield, More Man and Wayland are the most valuable. 

Miner has been included as a variety of this class, but it differs so much in general 
appearance and constitutional hardiness as to lead me to believe it to be more nearly 

This is the oldest native plum known under cultivation. 



related to Prunus americana. 





Wolf. 

It was raised from seed in Tennessee nearly 80 years ago, and has become wide'y distri- 
buted throughout the western States. Trees planted eighteen years ago at Abbotsford are 
hardy but only give medium crops every other year ; ripens there early in October. 
These trees have given fuller crops the last few years since being surrounded by Wiscon- 
sin wild-plum seedlings. 

Forest Eose belongs to the Miner group, but has nothing special to commend it. 

Diseases. — They are all more or less liable to attacks of Septoria (shot-hole fungus), 
but are generally freer than numbers of the domestica class. The Chickasaw varieties 
have exceptionally bright healthy peach-like, foliage. As there are no such things as 
curculio or knot-proof plums, except in a relative degree, we may expect to have to light 
these enemies with the above as with the old varieties. A new disease which has come 
under my notice within the last two years and the past season has caused the almost 
entire loss of the native plum crop. Should it continue its depredations it bids fair to 
effectually check further planting of these varieties. The presence of the fungus is 
marked by round spots which appear on the skin of the plum when almost mature; shortly 
after it suddenly shrivels and drops. This spotting is caused by a parasitic fungus called 
Cladosporium carpophilum, a disease which also is found on peaches, and has been 
recently noticed on cherries. We have no data of actual experiments in treating this 



17 



fungus, but would recommend spraying with ammoniacal copper carbonate, and would 
also suggest the use of a solution of copper sulphate, 1 oz. to 25 gallons. 

Propagation. — Varieties of the americana and Miners should as far as possible be 
grown on stocks of their own type. It is sometimes difficult, however, to distinguish 
scion from stock when ■ these are used. The Chickasaw and Wild Goose tribe succeed 
admirably on peach or Marianna stocks and these are preferable to own rooted trees on 
account of sprouting habits of the latter. 

Points in Favor of Native Plums. — The following are the leading points in favor 
of native plums : 

1. Hardiness and productiveness. 

2. Their wide range of adaptability to climate conditions and to light as well as 
heavy soils. 

3. Their value for culinary purposes. 

4. Their comparative exemption from disease and the ease with which they can be 
propagated. 

A. M. Smith : Is there in these native varieties sufficient value to take the place of 
the plum we cultivate so freely in this section of the country 1 

Prof. Craig : I don't think they would, especially in this section ; but there are sec- 
tions of Ontario where we are trying to cultivate plums, and get a crop once in four or 
five years, where I think it would richly pay a grower to plant these varieties. With 
these, you can get a crop every year, and they are very marketable varieties. 

Dr. Beadle : Have you taken notice of the point to which Mr. Weir first called our 
attention — that it is necesary first, in order to get a crop of fruit from, say, one of these 
plums, to have one of a similar type growing near them ; because they do not fertilize 
from their own pollen ? 

Prof. Craig : The Miner is deficient in fertilizing qualities ; it is not perfect in its 
own pollen ; the pollen is frequently impotent, and will not fertilize its own flowers, we 
had attention drawn to that in the Province of Quebec. Miners were planted first, and 
blossomed invariably for a number of years ; but very seldom bore any quantity of fruit. 
Later on, Wisconsin wild plums were planted in the vicinity of the Miners, and they 
grew up very rapidly, and blossomed and bore fruit of themselves, but at the same time 
the crop of Miners very much increased — showing that the cross-fertilization took place 
between the wild plums and the Miners ; but I do not know any variety that I have 
mentioned that seems to want cross- fertilization. 

A Delegate : What about the Weaver 1 

Prof. Craig : The Weaver has been planted quite isolated from others in the orchard 
and they grew quite heavily. 

Mr. F. G. H. Pattison (Grimsby) : I have had eight or nine trees that I alway 
understood to be Weaver, but they do not answer your description at all. The tree is a 
very vigorous grower, and has a leaf almost exactly like the peach. The plum is evidently 
one of those hardy varieties ; it is a very early ripener — ripens in July ; is of a light red 
color, and of excellent quality ; but so far — the trees are about five years old — a v. 
shy bearer, with a very thin stem. I have had a great many people look at this plum, 
and the consensus of opinion seems to be that it is a Weaver. Mr. Woolverton thinks it 
is a Weaver ; and if it is not a Weaver I would like to know what it is. Mr. Woolver- 
ton has a tree identically the same, and I understood it was a Weaver. 

The Secretary : I bought the tree for a Weaver ; and I bought quite a number 
of trees with a special purpose of becoming acquainted with varieties j and in quite a 
number of cases I have been disappointed in their identity. 

Mr. Gott (Arkona): In our section the European varieties have entirely given out — 
the black knot is so intensely severe that we can't get them to bear for any length of 
time. We have resorted to these native plums. The American class, for instance, is 

2 (F.G.) 



18 



able in some respects to take the place of the European, and we are now experimenting 
with them. They grow splendidly, and appear to be nourishing in every respect, and as 
yet we have not seen the slightest approach of black knot upon them. We are not so sure 
that they are curculio-proof ; but in infancy the fruit is so hard that it is almost impos- 
sible for the curculio to penetrate them. Then there is the apricot— a fruit in which we are 
intensely interested all through this country. They nourish most abundantly with us, as 
they do in the entire western part of the country. The blossoms come out with a perfect 
sheet. I never saw anything like the display we had last spring for ornamentation ; but 
they are terribly disappointing as to fruit. 

Prof. Craig : I fruited a Botan at Ottawa this year, and it was the earliest plum 
in the whole collection. It was ripe about the 15th July. It is a small round red plum, 
with the smallest pit I ever saw in a plum — about the size of a New Jerusalem cherry. 
The Prunus Simoni grows at Ottawa, and the tree is quite an ornamental thing, but it is 
going to be no bearer. 

Prof. Craig : The Weaver plum was introduced in 1865, by C. J. Paton, of Charles 
City, Iowa. 

Mr. Morris : There is another plum that fails to fertilize itself — the Wild Goose. 

Mr. T. H. Race (Mitchell) : I think there is no doubt that the plum Mr. Pattison 
has described is the Weaver plum, which I have seen growing in nearly all the parts of 
this Province, and it does vary some in regard to location. It is a very heavy grower, but 
it has so far turned out as a very shy bearer. Where the Weaver can be grown at all I 
have noticed in many sections that the wood is subject to as light frost as some cultivated 
varieties. 

Mr. G. C. Caston (Craighurst) : At Parry Sound I saw and was allowed to taste 
a can of native plums, and pronounced them as good as almost any cultivated varieties 
— entirely free from that astringency found in wild plums. It is said the seeds of those 
plums were brought originally to Simcoe county from France by the Jesuits, and they 
have been propagating themselves in that wilderness for two hundred years. The natural 
propensity of fruit is to deteriorate ; but the sample I tested was an exception — [ don't 
think we could get anything better than that. It took first prize at the district show as 
canned fruit. It has no name. There are different varieties, but this is one of particular 
excellence. It was about the size of a Lombard. I think in the northern country there 
would be a field for some enterprising nurseryman to get that plum and disseminate it. I 
consider our wild plums good to graft the more tender varieties on ; the wild stock im- 
parts its vitality and vigor to the more tender variety, and we get a more vigorous growth 
of wood, and a greater quantity and better quality of fruit. I think it is the most suc- 
cessful way of growing plums in the northern districts. 

Mr. Race : Is there anything to be gained by growing these native plums, so-called? 
As far as I have seen in the Province they are not a success at all, and there is only this 
to be claimed for them, that they are curculio-proof. My idea is that the curculio has too 
much contempt for them — and that is about my feeling. We can grow the better varieties, 
and the native plums that have been taken from their native condition are not satisfac- 
tory. You find plums growing in bushes that are worth something, but grown in a 
nursery they are not satisfactory. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan (Goderich): People speak of trees being "curculio-proof." Now, 
there is no such thing, either in the generally-cultivated plum or in the wild plum. 1 
know of no such thing as a curculio-proof plum. There are some varieties less subject to 
curculio than others ; but I would like all parties here present, and any one interested 
especially in this Association, to distinctly understand that as an Association we do not 
allow anything of that sort to pass. Speaking for myself, coming from a plum district 
as I do, I would say we have nothing there — and we have cultivated natives too —that 
is curculio-proof ; but the best we can say of them is that some varieties are less subject 
to curculio, being extremely hard at the particular time at which the curculio is in for 
active work. Along the Lake Huron shore we have not gone very largely int ) the 
cultivation of new varieties spoken of. To some extent they have been tried, and some 



19 



of our own natives have been grown ; but they are discarded, as a rule, for the general 
line of cultivated plums ; and as far as the black knot is concerned, we do not fear it 
now as we did. The experience is that if the black knot law is enforced in a plum 
section by individual growers, there is little danger in after years. The plum orchard 
can be so protected and the black knot so taken care of in the younger years of the tree 
that in after years you will have little or no black knot to attend to. We have found it 
so. We still stick to the better imported varieties as more suitable generally for the 
market. As to these newer varieties spoken of in Mr. Craig's excellent paper, I would 
like to see some of them cultivated for culinary purposes. They are not dessert plums ; 
but we find when we go to the markets that the general consumer wants a plum that is 
both culinary and dessert. We cannot find that amongst these newer varieties, and 
hence we still stick to the old varieties, selecting from them. 



PLUM ROT, AND SPOT OR SCAB. 

The following questions were then offered for discussion : 

Experience in treating rot (Monilia). 

Has anyone noticed the presence of " plum spot or scab " on red plums 1 

Prof Craig : The plum spot or scab that I referred to has been already described in 
the paper. It is indicated by a small round red spot. Later on the plum shrivels up 
and drops suddenly. I would like to know something as to the spread of this disease. 

Mr. Turner (Cornwall) : We have diseases of that description in Cornwall. It is 
not spreading, apparently. 

Mr. Caston : I have noticed it to a small extent on the common wild varieties — not 
nearly to such an extent as on the cultivated varieties. There is no doubt it will be- 
come quite prevalent. 

Mr. Allan : In the newer varieties I have noticed less plum rot than in the other 
varieties ; as a rule that species of plum is a heavy bearer. 

Mr. G. W. Cline : I have had quite a lot of plum rot for several years, and a year 
ago last season I treated it with an ammoniacal solution ; and in the early spring, before 
the trees leafed out, and afterwards, with the carbonate of copper in connection with 
Paris green in spraying for curculio. That season I had scarcely any rot. I also threw 
sulphur in the trees about the time of ripening. This last year I did not spray before 
the trees leafed out, but I sprayed with the carbonate of sulphur and solution of Paris 
green, and I had plenty of rot, — a year ago I had scarcely any ; but whether to attribute 
it to the spraying I don't know. I sprayed twice or three times with the carbonate 
in the Paris green, but I didn't use the ammoniacal solution at all. When I sprayed 
for the curculio and added the Paris green it was just along when the fruit was formed. 
I would not like to say there had been a specific remedy. 

Dr. Beadle : Do you not notice that the fungus — what we call the rot — makes its 
appearance just about when the fruit is beginning to ripen 1 

Mr. Cline : My plum trees were never heavier loaded than they were this year, but 
it seemed that the wet weather coming on at that time of year, caused them to rot. I 
did not have more than one-third of a crop, just through that. 

Mr. A. M. Smith : I noticed the same thing in my trees. Some that were heavily 
loaded dropped off early. 

Mr. Race : I have seventeen varieties that I am growing. I have only two subject 
to rot — the Glass' seedling and the Quackenbos. 

Mr. Allan : That is only one. 

Mr. Cline : They are two distinct plums, without a doubt. 



20 



Mr. Allan : I have tried for years to find out, but I cannot find any further differ- 
ence between them than I can find between two plums taken off one tree. You will find 
differences in different soils in the same plums. 

Mr. M. Pettit : My experience is only of one year, and I do not know that it would 
be of any benefit. I thought this year spraying had been a great benefit, but possibly it 
might have been from some other cause. Where I used it was on Lombard plums that 
had rotted very badly the previous season. This year they commenced again when they 
were quite small — the size of a bean ; great blotches commenced to appear the same as 
they did before ; and I sprayed with sulphate of copper. I used two ounces of sulphate 
of copper in a forty gallon barrel, and left about six days between the sprayings, and 
this — or some other cause — entirely stopped it, \ and the plums were quite clean in com- 
parison with the previous year. 

The Secretary : I have been experimenting with these fungicides with a good deal of 
success. My plum orchard is too small to give me much experience with plums, but I 
think I can see an advantage in treating plum rot with copper. Mr. Blanchard, who 
has been conducting the experiments for me, is here and may have something to say. 

Mr. Blanchard (foreman for Mr. Woolverton, the Secretary, Grimsby) : I have been 
treating a plum tree that was especially bad with the rot — a McLaughlin. For two years I 
have been trying the carbonate of copper. This tree is standing right alongside a spruce 
and it is growing partly into it ; and I think that is one thing that makes it rot more 
than others — because the spruce keeps it damp and wet, especially in cool weather. I 
sprayed it three times for two years now, and I find it completely prevents the rot and 
the tree bears every year a big heavy crop. Though this year has been especially bad for 
plum rot, I found the carbonate stop it suddenly. I use three ounces to 25 gallons ; this 
was the powder in connection with Paris green. 

Mr. Allan : When do you apply it first 1 

Mr. Blanchard : Just at the time when you spray for curculio. I find when they 
are grown to that size they rot the worst. 

Mr. Allan : Did you ever try using the solution before the leaves appear at all ? 

Mr. Blanchard : No. 

Mr. Cline : I have tried that. 

Mr. Allan : Did you decide that there was benefit in doing so 1 

Mr. Cline : I only tried it one season. I sprayed it twice before the trees leafed 
out and also used the carbonate in suspension with Paris green, and also sulphur ; I had 
no rot that year, I also picked all the rotten plums off the trees ; aud I would advise 
every person to clean the ground of every rotten plum they can find, and burn them. 

Mr. Allan : There is no doubt benefit to be gained by using the solution at least 
once before the leaves appear at all. 

Mr. Cline : I think so. 

The Secretary : I think Mr. Allan has struck a very important point, that our 
efforts to stop the plum rot must be by prevention, and that we want to begin in advance. 
We usually wait till we see the rot and the mildew appearing before we take any meas- 
ures to treat them ; and then it may be too late. In using the Bordeaux mixture in the 
vinery I have had almost complete success in preventing mildew. 

Mr. Pattison : Does not Mr. Cline find a great difference in the plum rot according 
to the soil the plum is grown on 1 I have a plum orchard on a heavy clay soil, but I have 
had no rot whatever, I think Mr. Cline told me that those of his trees that are on heavy 
clay do not suffer from rot. 

Mr. Cline : Yes, that is true ; I find that the lighter and moister the soil, the plums 
seem to take the rot the more readily than they do on the heavier clays. Plums do not 
grow so large on those heavier clay soils. I have a small orchard that has been planted 
some twenty-five years, and there is very little if any rot in it ; although within less than 



21 



a quarter of a mile from it, on lighter soil, they rot quite badly. Another thing about 
plums : if you plant them where they are open to the air it is a great preventive of 
rot. If they don't get the wind to keep the dampness away they are very apt to rot. 

Mr. Hilborn : Isn't that true of peaches 

Mr. Cline : I think it is, even in grapes it is an advantage to cut away some of the 
foliage, if very heavy, and let the air in underneath. 

Prof. Craig : I am very glad indeed to have evidence coming in from so many sides 
on this question. It is especially gratifying to me that the growers are taking it up and 
getting practical results. Using the carbonate of copper in suspension without the am- 
monia is a valuable and cheap preventive for fungus. 

Dr. Beadle : We should emphasize the necessity of spraying early. When this 
fungus appears so that we see it, it has gone to seed, The spores, as we call them — or 
seeds, as they might be called — fall upon the fruit, and in favorable circumstances they 
spread immediately — take root, as you may say — into the tissues of the plum. After 
that has taken place, all the carbonate of copper in the world won't be of any possible 
benefit — the fungus has got into the tissues of the plum, and is out of reach. The great 
point is to kill the first crop. 

Mr. Caston : We are told by the scientists that the germs of all this fungus are ever 
present with us, but one year is more favorable than another. I find they do the greatest 
damage in wet, close, damp weather. If we have a breeze blowing so as to keep the 
grain moving, we have no rust on the wheat. Do these fungicides kill the germs, or 
does any aroma given off repel the germs 1 Does any one know whether the fungus may 
not take the leaf or the young wood and go up by the way of the stem into the plum, so 
that the rot may be from the inside instead of the outside 1 How does this spraying mix- 
ture act in repelling these diseases t Is it of much practical value in a season that is 
favorable for the propagation of these diseases % Will the game be worth the candle, 
considering the cost of it 1 

Mr. Allan : It is like mildew in grape. The same principle applies. We used to 
use the sulphur on the grape about the time the mildew appears. Now we scatter the sulphur 
upon the soil ; and the result is, so long as we have a good current of air surrounding the 
vines, we find very little difficulty in subduing the mildew. That is the reason I intro- 
duced that point into the discussion — as to using the solution before the leaf appears on 
the plum tree at all — and the important point, in the fall of the year, of seeing that your 
plum trees are perfectly clean — not only the trees themselves, but the soil under the tree. 
All dropped plums should be gathered up and destroyed, because those are all contribut- 
ing towards the disease we are fighting. 

Mr. Hunter : Has any gentleman had success in spraying this spring for the fungus 1 
It rained so incessantly that any solution you might put on would be washed off. 

Mr. Allan : I have had success, although the continual rain was a perfect nuisance, 
and you had to keep up a continual spraying. I did so on a few trees ; but I found the 
first spraying was the all important one. 

The Secretary : I think several of the instances given have reference to this year. 
With regard to Mr. Gaston's question : How does the poison act on the fungi ? As I 
understand it, it acts by direct contact. The fungus is a little plant growing upon the 
leaf or lruit, and it appears that it is easily injured in those cases — more easily acted upon 
than the foliage of the tree — fortunately for us, because if we do not make our poison too 
strong, we can destroy the fungus without injuring the foliage. The spores can be affected 
by the poison as well as the little plant itself. That is the explanation of the utility of 
applying poison before the foliage appears ; because these little germs must live some- 
where through the winter, and it is thought they do live through upon the old leaf, upon 
the rotten fruit ; and some have thought that the apple scab is bred upon the little buds 
and is waiting for the time that it can damage the foliage. 

Mr. Caston : Will the early application of the fungicides affect the foliage so as to 
render it proof against attacks 1 



22 



The Secretary : Even before the foliage appears it is recommended to use the sul- 
phate of copper strong — even as strong as one powid to twenty gallons of water — so that 
there would not be any left to attack the tree. 

Dr. Beadle : The question is : Suppose the leaves are open, then we spray ; does 
that render those leaves proof against the growing of these fungus spores upon that leaf % 

Mr. Caston : Yes, that is what I was trying to get at. 

Dr. Beadle : The answer is this : if one application has spread itself over the leaf, 
and has not been washed off by a subsequent rain, it will ; but if rain comes and washes 
off one application, we have to renew the application so as to have the spores killed. I 
think our scientists tell us that these spores germinate ; they make these spots on the 
leaf ; they go to seed ; these spores — or seeds, as I call them — drop upon the soil, are 
washed into the soil by the showers ; get upon the tubers of potatoes, for instances, and 
there they find the conditions for growing. 

Prof Craig : My understanding is that the disease grows down through the stalk of 
the potato, and passes up through the tuber to the stalk. 

Dr. Beadle : Do they take root in the stalk and keep growing downwards until they 
reach the tuber, or is it that they take root in the stalk and keep multiplying, and so 
going down 1 

Prof. Craig : Keep multiplying, and so going: down. 

Mr. D. Allan (Gait) : I apply a little alum in the water — I have been doing it for 
25 years— for fixing the poison on the leaf. I mix it with a little warm water. I put 
about the same amount of alum as hellebore — an ounce to a pail of water. The hellebore 
thus applied will stay on my currant bushes all the season. 

Mr. Head : Does alum affect the leaf 1 

Mr. D. Allan : It may give it a little light color, 

Mr. Head : You don't think it interferes with its functional capacity in any way ? 

Mr. D. Allan : It never troubled it, to my mind. 

Mr. Beall (Lindsay) : I use a little flour paste instead of alum, which I feared 
might rot the leaves. 

The President : We would like to hear any remarks from Mr. James, Deputy Min- 
ister of Agriculture. 

Mr. James : I have nothing to add to what has been said. I would emphasize 
what has been mentioned with reference to where these fungi come from , Mr . Caston 
said that they are present everywhere. That is so, with a modification ; but the place 
in particular where they are is on the tree itself and in its immediate neighborhood — 
upon the old wood from last year's growth ; and hence an early application of the solu- 
tion upon the tree itself will remove the principal source from which next year's crop 
of fungus material is going to be derived from . 

Mr . Turner : I think our worthy Secretary made the best point yet, when he 
advocated early spraying. When the opening bud first appears it is in its most recep- 
tive condition . It is very tender ; and I think the fungicides used at that time in 
a mild form, and repeated after that, will answer every purpose. I would advocate 
a strong solution to be used before the opening bud. 

Mr. Gott (Arkona) : We should be careful where and how we plant those trees. 
I don't think the plum is adapted to all soils. We should reserve our heavy soils 
for plums. We should plant them in long thin rows. In a close, tight block the 
fungus will grow in spite of all efforts. The inside of a block will always be more affect- 
ed than the outside — just exactly the same principle as the peach. The plum diseases 
can be remedied very largely by other agencies outside of the plum. To make the plum 
orchard a piggery — to make it a fowl yard, to be used for poultry— these will have a 
beneficial effect on the growth of the plums. 

Mr. James : What was the principal cause of the plum failure this year ? 



23 



The Secretary : I think the rot was the worst. 

Mr. Pattison : The free application of wood ashes and lime is very beneficial to the 
plum. I have fed them very freely with these substances, and have had absolutely no 
rot whatever, although I have grown plums for over nine years, many of my trees being 
full grown when I went there, I never lost a basket from rot. Mr. Cline informs me 
that where he has fertilized with special fertilizer that is compounded at Smith's Falls 
and I believe is largely composed of potash, that he has noticed quite a difference in the 
liability of plums to rot on that account, and in the general immunity of the plums from 
disease. 

Mr. Fisher (Burlington) : We didn't have any plum rot this year where I live. We 
had no plums (laughter.) Last year I noticed that the trees I have growing on an 
alluvial deposit were very much worse with rot than on other soil. 

Mr. James : I think careful experiments ought to be made on the question. Why 
do the diseases strike certain trees 1 Are we starving, or partially starving, our trees, and 
as a consequence getting the trees into such an unhealthy or weak condition that the 
disease strikes them readily ? Can we build up the constitution of the trees so that they 
will resist the disease ? 

Mr. Caston : It is a well-known fact that some of the best and thriftiest apple trees 
are affected by apple-scab. You would think the tree with the greatest vigor would 
have the greatest ability to resist the attacks of these diseases ; but it seems to be the 
contrary. Although what would bear out the opposite would be this fact, that trees 
that are not susceptible to the apple scab at all, are particularly hardy, and it is the pecu- 
liar hardiness that prevents the attacks of the scab. 

Mr. Allan : There is a simple reason for all that. We are seeing more and more 
every year that throughout our fruit orchards there is a lack in the soil. No doubt you 
can go into the country and find a young tree badly spotted ; but the reason there is 
exactly the same as in the other instances, the soil lacks some particular substance that is 
required for the production of perfect fruit. Now, in order to get at this subject and 
understand it, we must analyse our soil ; we must know what those qualities are that 
must be in the soil for the perfect production of strong, perfect, healthy wood, and the 
production of healthy, good fruit. When we reach that point, we will have come to a 
point very much in favor of the fruit-growers of this Province ; and come to that point 
we must, or go down largely in the markets. We have gone down to a considerable 
extent in the markets of Britain with the apple ; and I trace it all back to one point — 
that our orchards are lacking ; the soil is not cultivated and fitted for the crop as it 
should be. We should look on the orchard as we do any other part of the farm. W r e 
should study the orchard's wants; and feed its soil as we do for a crop of wheat or any 
other roots. (Applause.) 

Mr. James : Very frequently we draw erroneous conclusions from simple observation 
of one circumstance. Here is a man who examines his orchard ; and he says : " Those 
trees are growing on a heavy soil ;" and he draws conclusions from that one point — the 
soil — leaving out entirely the slope of the land, the prevailing wind, whether it is shaded 
or not ; so that in coming to conclusions on those points we have a variety of circum- 
stances to take into consideration. The mere fact that a tree is not thrifty on heavy 
soil, should not disprove the fact that perhaps those trees would grow on such soils. You 
may take a variety of soils, they are all clay and they are all heavy, but they may be 
very different in composition. We should take all the circumstances into consideration 
before we arrive at any conclusion. Hence a number of experiments carried on at 
different places all grouped together, will give us better results than the results on 
one man's farm. We are not very likely to put too much fertilizers on our orchards. 
It requires something to prove that heavy clay is the material that is needed. I remem- 
ber years ago hearing Mr. Allan speaking on this subject, in referring to the use of salt 
in his apple-orchard making the fruit and the trees strong and healthy. Not that there 
was any benefit in the salt, but it set free other ingredients in the soil. 

The Secretary : Some people believe that the yellows can be cured by an appli- 



24 



cation of potash ; but I believe that is not substantiated. Still in my own orchard I 
use wood ashes very freely, and I do not think there is any orchard in the section that 
has had less yellows. True, we have had to pull out trees eyery year to keep our orchard 
free from that disease, still I think there has been less yellows in my peach orchard from 
the fact that we apply wood ashes liberally to these trees. That substantiates to a cer- 
tain extent the point that has been made, that if we knew just what the trees required 
we might in the case of many trees protect those trees by feeding them properly. In 
regard to the remark of one of the members that the plum tree is subject to fungus when 
highly manured, I would say that it was growing so fast that the young growth of wood 
was tender, and hence more subject to the spores. 

Mr. Morris : While it is necessary to feed the trees and protect the healthy 
growth, to prevent those diseases that food needs to be balanced. Vegetable manure — 
barnyard manure may cause such a growth, an unhealthy growth ; particularly if the 
trees are kept cultivated, and that growth made late in the season. In such case, if 
pears you will always see blight. There is nothing more conducive to blight than to 
manure your pear trees with barnyard manure and bring them on late. To my mind 
the best manure for trees in almost any soil — of course you can vary according to the 
soil — would be a proportion of barnyard manure, wood ashes, and bone dust. I think 
you would get in those three all that is required. To grow trees with ashes alone, you 
do not get the strong growth you do with the manure ; but it is a healthy growth of 
wood, is more solid, and a tree grown with lime and wood ashes is much healthier 
than one grown with wood ashes alone. 

The Secretary : You use those elements largely yourself in your nursery 1 

Mr. Morris : Yes. Unless you have healthy wood your trees will be subject to 
those diseases that are being discussed. 

Mr. Blanchard : Would you use those elements all together 1 

Mr. Morris : Yes. 

Prof. Craig : This matter of getting healthy trees and feeding the soil is a very 
complicated one. It is necessary to get the trees in the best condition, and to get the 
trees least liable to these diseases. After that we must come down to spraying. It is 
proved it is a practicable remedy. It can be applied with paying results to every- man 
who will apply it intelligently and at the right time. It has been pointed out the 
spray must be put on in a fine film — that is, the protection is given by giving this 
coating. The way to get that is to put on a fine spray. In spraying we must use 
a nozzle which will put the spray on in a finely-divided condition, and cover the leaf 
and the fruit and the whole thing completely. Two nozzles which I have found give 
me very good results are the Ver morel Improved and the Nixon. 

Mr. Hunter : If we were to accomplish that — cover up the leaf so completely 
that nothing would reach it — that would kill the whole business. The leaf is the 
lung of the plant, and must take in air. 

Prof. Craig : The thickness of the covering on the side would be so thin that it 
would not interfere with the breathing. 

Mr. James : The breathing is chiefly on the under side of the leaf. 



ACTS RELATING TO THE SPREAD OF DISEASES. 

The Secretary : I have wanted to move a committee to revise the Act with regard 
to the spread of diseases of trees. In my opinion the present Act is very imperfect 
indeed, and some proposals were made last year in the Niagara District for a change in the 
Act, but those were not fully approved of, and the Minister of Agriculture did not think 
they were just in the right shape to have them brought before the House, and he sug- 
gested that we should consider the matter here. It is the duty of every man who has 
black knot in his place to cut down the trees. That is very well if he will do it. Then 



25 



the council is to appoint an inspector to see that this is done ; but he has not to do it 
unless on the petition of fifty ratepayers. That is all right if any one has time to go 
round and get fifty names ; but if the plum knot is ravaging a district and destroying 
the orchards I think if five men put their names to a paper asking the council to have 
an inspector appointed, surely it is enough. (Hear, hear.) I don't see why there should 
not be an inspector anyway. I suppose he gets no pay unless he does some work, and if 
he does work he ought to oe paid. 

Delegate : I think two names would be quite enough. 

The Secretary : There are other cumbersome details in this Act. Another is that 
the inspector has some trouble in carrying it out. I believe he has got to have a written 
complaint from somebody that the disease exists before acting. Now I think this is too 
long to wait. I don't see why the inspector should not have eyes of his own, and if he 
sees yellows in anybody's orchard I do not see why he should not act without waiting for 
somebody to complain. At the Farmers' Institute meeting held at Grimsby a committee 
was appointed to co-operate with the Canadian Institnte in Toronto. The Canadian 
Institute, who are interested in the health of the city, found that peaches with yellows 
were being offered for sale and they wanted to stamp out the disease, but the matter was 
not put just in shape to be acted upon. A committee waited on the Government too late 
in the session. As a matter of fact the Minister of Agriculture wanted to know what 
the Fruit Growers' Association had done, and he thought the fruit growers of Ontario were 
the parties to take the matter up. It has been proposed that there be one general 
inspector the same as there is for foul brood in bees, and that he might work with local 
inspectors. [The Secretary here read letters from Mr. W. E. Wellington and the Min- 
ister of Agriculture.] Of course the work would be mostly done in committee. We 
cannot discuss it till the matter is properly before us, and I think the committee should 
bring in some recommendation for some change in this Act, and we might discuss their 
suggestions and see whether they would meet the case or not. I move that the Chairman 
or President be asked to name a committee of three to consider this matter. 

Mr. A. M. Smith seconded the motion. 

The motion was put and carried, Dr. Beadle suggesting that the President submit 
the names of committee after noon adjournment. 

The Convention then adjourned at twelve o'clock, to resume at two p.m. 



SECOND DAY— AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Convention resumed at two p.m. 

The President : I am glad to see a large addition to our numbers of this morning. 
I have also pleasure in announcing that we have with us Mr. O. F. Brand, a member of 
the State Horticultural Society of Minnesota. We welcome him to our council, and shall 
be very glad to have him take a seat and join us in our discussions, and in every respect 
we tender him the courtesies of our Association. I will name the following committees : 

On Fruit Exhibit. — Messrs. Morris, Fonthill ; J. D. Stewart, Russeldale ; and W. 
S. Turner, Cornwall. 

On New Fruit. — Prof. Craig, Ottawa ; Mr. Hilborn, Leamington ; Mr. G. C. Cas- 
ton, Craighurst. 

On Revision of Laws as to Black Knot. — E. D. Smith, Winona ; A. W Peart » 
Burlington ; J. Cavers, Gait ; J. K. McMichael, Waterford ; G. W. Cline", Winona. 

Mr. Brand, in accepting the hospitalities of the Convention, said he had come not 
so much to afford information as to gather it. Fruit growing began in Minnesota thirty- 
eight years ago, and he was pleased to say that the oldest apple tree in that State was 
grown from a seed from an orchard near St. Catharines, and the fruit has been named the 
Catharine apple. The tree bids fair to reach a hundred years in age. He had been 



26 



asked by the President of the Minnesota State Association to find out what the Cana- 
dians were doing in originating new fruit ; also what success had been met with here in 
growing Eussian apples. He would be glad to listen to the discussions and to afford any 
information he possessed. (Applause.) 



APPLE GROWING. 

Mr. Thos. Brooks, of Brantford, read the following paper : 

The apple is one of the oldest of fruits. There is an old book with which J have no 
doubt most of you are familiar in which we find these words : " As the apple tree among 
the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons," — something beautiful and lovely 
— beautiful in its growth, form and appearance, lovely in its fruit and usefulness ; such 
ought the apple tree to be, for apple trees like ourselves are known by their fruit. Plant 
in the spring, thirty feet apart each way, and do not forget that you are planting a living 
thing with a life to be fed, protected and cared for if you would have it a thing of beauty 
and profit. If you do not mean to feed, protect and care for it, do not plant it. Of all 
the kinds of fruit grown in this country the apple is capable of adapting itself to the 
greatest variety of soil, climate and surroundings, but under no circumstance must we 
neglect to feed, care and protect it. "Big about it and dung it " is still good advice, 
though it has come down through the centuries. In regard to the apple tree, just remem- 
ber this, though it is a living thing it cannot roam about for food ; it is tied to the spot. 
Take your cow into the field and give her only twenty feet of rope. She will soon have 
eaten up all the feed within her reach and have nothing but the ground to stand on, 
and if you do not supply her wants the pail will soon show the reason. Now I believe 
this to be the condition of too many of our apple trees : they have little more than the 
ground to hold them up, and if there was any such thing as their getting out they would 
follow one another over the fence like so many breachy sheep. General practice has been 
something like this : For the first ten years the orchard has been made to grow all the 
grain and roots that could be got from it, thus doing double duty. All right if double 
fertility has been applied to the trees, but this is too often neglected. Unless the orchard 
has had very liberal treatment in the way of manure and cultivation the ground will be 
poorer than when the trees were planted. To me there appears a great similarity between 
animal and tree vegetable life. For our domestic animals to become strong, healthy and 
vigorous, they must be fed and cared for in a proper manner. The cow, to give good 
results at the pail, must have the proper feed in right proportion and quantity, with good 
care ; so the orchard, to give good results in the barrel or cellar, must have its wants 
supplied to that end from year to year. The animal and its needs, and how and with 
what to supply them for any desired end, is now pretty well understood. In the case of 
the orchard these points are rather more obscure and perhaps not so well understood by 
the average farmer. The suitable treatment of the tree itself, in the way of cleaning and 
pruning, may in the main be agreed upon as to what is best. And, not to go below the 
surface of the ground, may there not very easily be some special fertilizer, particularly 
adapted for the production of fruit, that we do not yet know of 1 And when we have 
done our best so far, may there not easily exist some subsoil conditions which will 
counteract all our best efforts. The only remedy that I know of to cure any unfavorable 
subsoil conditions, either in the field or orchard, is tile draining. This will greatly bene- 
fit a hard clay subsoil, or a cold damp bottom, and in the orchard I believe a good depth, 
even to four or five feet, to be necessary. If tile drain is too near the surface in the 
orchard there is danger of the tiles filling with small roots from the trees. I do not wish 
to be tedious, and of what I have written this is about the sum : First, if the orchard is 
on hard clay, or cold subsoil, deep and thorough tile draining with perfect outlet ; if in 
grass, which I always think is the nicest condition after the trees are well to bearing, not, 
however, to be sod-bound, but kept mellow with top dressing, ashes and coarse manure. 
Next is clean bark and proper pruning — and let me say right here, better prune too little 
than too much. I have seen most ruinous results from over much pruning. Get the tree 



27 



into nice shapely form as to the desired height of the lower limbs from the ground and 
the direction of leading branches, during the first five years ; after that, under no circum- 
stances ever prune closer than to cut a branch off a limb. Never cut a leading branch 
off the trunk. Now, sir, I know there is nothing new in this paper. I leave much that 
might have been said to more able men. Still, I think that success in apple-growing as 
in many other things, lies in the faithful carrying out of some of the old well-established 
facts which I have tried to point out. First and last, feed the appli tree." 

The Secretary : We have had a good paper. Two paints, gentlemen who have 
had experience will heartily approve of. Fertilizing the orchard well is too much 
neglected in our country. The point about pruning is well put. I think our apple 
orchards are over-pruned in a great many cases. Trees are made sickly and short-lived 
because of barbarous butchering. With regard to the distances apart, I think on some 
rich soils 30 or 32 feet is perhaps a little too close. I have old trees 40 feet apart on 
good soils where the branches are interlacing. 

Mr. Jones (Burford) : A great many contend that orchards should be plowed and 
worked. By so doing you trim, in a measure, the roots, which are thus said to be 
trimmed at the top ; but my experience is that isolated trees, where the ground has never 
been plowed, are the best trees in the orchard. I believe top-dressing an excellent thing 
if properly done — to cover the whole ground with coarse manure, and frequently to keep 
the grass down. As to under-draining, where there is gravel and a good deal of 
sub soil, orchards do not do well. I have observed the best results in orchards where 
there is a very deep soil, or, if clay, sub-soil. 

Mr. McMichael (Waterford) : In the last few years my observation has led me to 
believe that the fungus or spot in the fruit is worse in orchards that have been laid down 
to grass. I have also known orchards that have been very highly cultivated by fertilizing 
with barn yard manure, that year after year have raised large crops, with very little 
fungus on them. It seems the vitality of the tree has, to a certain extent, the power to 
withstand this trouble if highly fertilized ; and where they are left to grass the trees are 
not, perhaps, one-filth as productive as where they are more cultivated. 

Mr. Caston (Craighurst) ; I agree with the last speaker about fertilizing. Of 
course it stands to reason that a tree must be fed. There is a growth of tree, of leaves, 
and of fruit. It is claimed that it exhausts a tree just as much to perfect the fruit in a 
small seed as a large one ; and it might be well to thin out the fruit while small. Where 
you can work close up to the tree with a plow, never leave it in grass at all. While 
the orchard is young we grow a crop of roots, provided the fertility of the soil is kept 
up. In this climate, where we have six or seven weeks of very drouthy weather, culti- 
vate the ground all the time you possibly can ; and keep up fertility if you want healthy 
trees and good fruit. 

Mr. Race : a How do] you mean to cultivate ? Would you take a crop off the 
soil ? 

Mr. Caston : I would not unless sufficient fertilizing material was put in, so that 
what is taken away by the crops would not rob the tree. If you cannot find sufficient 
fertilizing material, do not crop at all, but simply summer-fallow and feed the tree ; and 
I think it will be found that the trees at forty feet occupy the ground pretty well when 
they come to maturity, and you will thus make as good use of the ground as you can. 

Prof. Craig here showed two specimens of fruit picked at the same time — one which 
had not been thinned, and the other thmned early in the season. The latter was twice 
as large as the former. The apples were both of the same variety — a Russian called the 
Eomna. The large one was of poorer color than the small one, but ..the speaker said he 
could have secured color as well as size by allowing the large one to remain longer on the 
tree. 

A Delegate • Which give the best financial results — the thinned or the untliinned % 

Prof. Craig : The thinned gave me a larger number of bushels, and I leave it to the 
fruit growers to say which would bring the most money. 



28 



Mr. Allan : The big apple. 

The Secretary : How early would you do this thinning ? 

Prof. Craig : I should say just after the first apples are fallen from the effects of the 
codling moth. 

The Secretary : Just about the time we do our spraying ? 

Prof. Craig : A little after. 

A Delegate : How old was the tree from which these specimens came 1 

Prof. Craig : It was six years planted. 

The President suggested calling for the paper, " Fruit Growing on Clay soils," by 
Mr. F. G. H. Pattison, of Grimsby, and discussing it in connection with the paper just 
read. 



FRUIT GROWING ON CLAY: SOILS. 

For a long time it was supposed, at all events in the section of country in which I 
am situated, that fruit would not succeed except on a light soil, preferably a sandy one. 
Consequently, those who had the temerity to plant fruit on the clay were laughed at by 
their neighbors, as being likely to have nothing but their labor for their pains. Even 
now the same impression prevails largely, especially amongst those who own farms of 
sandy texture. 

To aid, then, in dispelling this idea is one of the objects of this paper From a 
personal experience in the heart of one of the best known fruit sections in Ontario ex- 
tending over eight years, and from observation of the operations of others over a longer 
period, I have come to a conclusion slightly different from the foregoing, and I ask yon 
to lend me your ears for a short time that I may present the other side of the case to 
your notice. Now, in my experience clay soil, and especially high red clay, is peculiarly 
well adapted to growing profitably the following kinds of fruit, namely ; grapes, pears, 
plums, apples, quinces, red and black currants. Peaches and cherries will also do fairly 
well ; the former must, however, be given exceptionally good attention and cultivation, 
when they will bear fruit some seasons when there is little or none on the sand, and the 
quality will be very fine. Still for profit clay does not compare with sand in the case of 
the peach, which naturally loves a light warm soil. Small fruits, also, with the exception 
of red and black currants, mentioned above, cannot be profitably grown upon clay to any 
great extent, although an excellent supply for home use can be easily obtained. But let 
us examine into those fruits that I have already said can be profitably grown there. To 
begin with grapes. For them I claim the following advantages on clay soil : Firstly, 
earliness. On the high red clay most varieties will ripen from 10 days to 3 weeks earlier 
than on sand in the same locality. This advantage is of great importance from a pecuni- 
ary point of view, especially in an early section, frequently from this cause alone doubling 
the profits to be obtained from the vineyard. Secondly, healthiness. Grapes on 
clay are not nearly so subject to diseases, especially rot and mildew. Thirdly, 
the quality of the fruit is vastly superior. So much is this the case, that 
the same fruit grown on clay is like a totally different and superior variety compared to 
that grown upon sand, although the name be the same. To give you an example from 
my own experience, which is the more valuable as it was purely voluntary and quite un- 
biassed. A year or more ago a young friend of mine who had been staying with me for 
a considerable time and had been accustomed to eat my grapes grown upon a clay soil, 
expressed a wish to go through some of the large vineyards in my neighborhood upon 
the sand. It was a fine day in the early part of October, and as we walked through the 
vineyards the grapes hung in tempting clusters, perfectly ripe. Naturally enough, he 
sampled them as he went along, but after doing so his face did not express the satisfac- 
faction one might have looked for under the circumstances. Instead of which he said, 
" whatever is the matter with these grapes? they have no flavor." I suggested that it 



29 



might be the variety, so he tried other varieties ; but with the same invariable result — 
no flavor. It was quite true, for I have no hesitation in saying that grapes grown upon 
sand are insipid, watery, flavorless productions, and are as much inferior to those grown 
upon clay as those grown out of doors are inferior to the hot house varieties in a cool 
climate. 

I am informed by a neighbor who is in the habit of attending the Hamilton market, 
that the dealers and buyers there eagerly seek for grapes grown upon a clay soil, the 
effect of which is that it is hard to find them grown upon any other soil — at all events 
when they have reached market. I am also informed that wine makers, both at Hamil- 
ton and at St. Catharines, vastly prefer grapes from the clay, indeed, will not purchase 
any others if they can he]p it. 

Now we come to pears, and here again the quality and flavor are much superior, 
some varieties almost flavorless in sand, being excellent on clay, i.e., Flemish Beauty. 
Clapp's Favorite, too, which rots at the core if allowed to hang upon the tree on sandy 
soil will hang for weeks upon the clay without suffering deterioration. The trees are 
healthier, bear as well and are much less subject to blight, that fell enemy of the pear 
grower. 

Plums revel in a clay soil ; they bear early, last long, and produce abundant crops 
of excellent quality, often bearing heavily in seasons when there are none upon the sand. 
They are also less subject to disease and to the curculio. 

Apples do excellently upon a high clay ; they come into bearing early and do not 
feel climatic changes so much as on the sand. The fruit is of finer quality and keeps 
better. The trees as a rule bear more fruit and less wood and do not require so much 
feeding. 

Quinces will do wel) on clay if given good cultivation and a moderate supply of 
manure ; also red and black currants. 

1 et other two points in favor of the high clay and I have done. 

Firstly, it does not require underdraining to produce fruit profitably, of excellent 
quality. This is frequently a very important item in the expense of putting out fruit. 
One of our prominent members declared at a meeting of the Farmers' Institute, held at 
Grimsby last winter, that it was quite useless to underdrain the high red clay. While 
not going so far as this, I am of opinion that it will make so little difference as not to be 
worth doing. 

Secondly, the fertility of the clay for fruit is not easily exhausted, and can be kept 
up for an indefinite period with a very moderate supply of manure. Now, on sand it is 
feed, feed, feed all the time if you wish to obtain the two requisites, viz., quantity and 
quality. I am convinced that the reason a great many orchards do not bear upon the 
sand is from no other cause but soil-exhaustion. Now, the clay (like the Scotchman, of 
whom it was said on some one asking if he kept the Sabbath, Yes, he keeps the Sabbath, 
and everything else he can lay his hands on) will retain all the fertility you can supply 
to it,, and will unlock it gradually. 

Summing up, I think we may safely say that the fruits I have mentioned viz., 
grapes, pears, plums, apples, quinces and red and black currants, can not only be profit- 
ably grown upon clay, but will excel those grown upon almost any other soil. 

Mr. Allan (Goderich) : I can't agree with a great deal that Mr. Pattison 
has said. I believe in clay ; I believe in clay loam ; I do not believe that fruit culture 
can be successfully prosecuted upon a heavy clay, and I take it when he speaks of clay it 
is pure clay or a heavy clay, and not a clay loam, without a thorough system of under- 
draining upon such soil. Under-drainage is important on almost any soil — even in gravelly 
sub-soils, which are often springy, where the top soil is mellow and easily penetrated, so 
that the feeding roots reach substances that are not altogether beneficial to the formation 
of perfect wood and fruit. As to quality, there is unquestionably a difference in some 



30 



fruits in proportion to the soils they are grown upon ; but that difference means the 
difference in the substances in that soil that are required to produce first-class fruit. If 
there is sufficient lime and iron, and substances of that sort, you will get a high color 
and a high flavor — in other words, the flavor is brought out better. I believe in a 
mixture of manures, because in the mixture we find the substances that are required 
for the purposes we a,re after. You will find the highest possible color and flavor in a 
particular variety, for instance, where you place some salt, some sulphate of iron, and a 
certain quantity of potash ; whereas that same variety grown a few feet distant, under 
slightly different circumstances, will not grade as high, because the flavor is not brought 
out as well. My experience is that apples grown in a southern section will not, after 
shipment, compare in any way in a foreign market with apples grown in the far north 
and east ; and if I were in the southern district I would devote myself to those fruits 
that can reach the highest perfection for those markets that they were to be shipped to. 

Mr. Orr (Winona) : I have taken nearly all the apple trees out — both clay and 
sand — and made firewood of them. As to underdrainage of clay, the water never finds 
its way down to the drains. I have had experience growing pears on clay ; but they load 
so heavily that we do not get size. 

The Secretary : How about Clapp's Favorite getting rotten in the heart 1 
Mr. Orr : We have had no difficulty with the Clapp's Favorite on that score. 
Mr. Hunter : I have had Clapp's Favoiite rotten on the outside and sound in the 
heart. 

Mr. Race : Mr. Allan comes from Goderich, which is on a sand belt about twenty two 
feet in width. The apple exhibit around Goderich this last fall was the largest and finest I 
saw in the province. The next finest was at the town of Clinton, only a few miles east 
of that. These wore very much larger and finer than the exhibit at London, and quite 
equal, if not superior, to the one at Toronto. On enquiring in these and other places I 
found that the very finest specimens were grown upon a sandy loam, or else a clay-loam 
underdrained ; and in many cases where we found samples which came in competition 
with those, I found that they were grown on clay which was not underdrained. So I 
concluded that last year the sandy loam had been the very best, and the second quality 
was produced on a clay loam underdrained. There are two apples that have come into 
notice during the last three or four years — the Wealthy and the Ontario. The finest 
specimens I saw of these anywhere this season were at Stratford, cultivated by Mr. 
Dempsey. 

Mr. Allen : It was later in the season when you saw the specimens there 1 
Mr. Race : It was about two weeks later than I saw at Goderich. 

Mr. Dempsey (Stratford) : Those that Mr. Race speaks of were grown on blue-clay 
subsoil. It was highly cultivated, well manured, and a good deal of ashes on it. 

Mr. Hilborn : I think that elevation has something to do with it ; but I find that 
sandy soil produces fruit of a better quality, though very often not quite so large. Small 
fruit crops like strawberries are of better quality on sandy soil — they get more sunshine 
and heat. 



jMr. Morris : I think the question of clay or sandy soil depends altogether on what 
the clay soil is and what the sandy soil is. There is much clay soil that can be thoroughly 
tile-drained ; and I think that kind of soil is as good as any we can get for fruit. There 
is a good deal of sandy soil that is of a damp, sour nature, that is not fit for fruit. That 
which is sandy loam and dry grows good fruit. I think Mr. Dempsey has given us the 
secret of those fine Stratford apples by saying that he used much ashes. Ashes are 
made from wood, and when fed to land turns to wood — it seems to be a natural manure, 
and makes a healthy growth of wood. Perhaps many, like myself, have orchards that 
we do not like to dig up, and we would like to know what varieties we can grow with 
advantage. 

Mr. Pattison : I did not for a moment purpose to say that all clay soil does not 



31 



require underdraining. I said the high red clay did nob require underdraining ; and 
that is so. It may rain for weeks and weeks, and if you dig down three and a-half feet 
into the red clay you will never find a drop of water there. It is true that underdraining 
does render the land slightly more porous where the underdrains are not laid too deep \ 
but it is a question whether it pays to do it. High red clay requires no underdrainage 
for apples or any other fruit. As to quality, my experience is that it will bear shipping, 
and will keep long, and has a very fine color. There is no comparison in the results 
between clay and sand in the same locality. As to earliness of crops in our section, the 
red clay is from ten days to two weeks earlier than the light soil in almost any variety. 

Mr. Pettit (Winona) : Coming from Mr. Pattison's neighborhood, I cannot agree 
with that statement. No doubt you can get them earlier, but there is a great falling off 
in quantity. 

Mr. Oaston : The term " sand " is quite indefinite. A sandy loam is the best for the 
most fruits. Next to that we like a clay loam. The best soil for the apple is the light 
loam. I think Mr Pattison's description may be accounted for from the fact that the 
locality in which he is has been settled for a long time, and had been wrought for a long 
time with grain before they turned their attention to fruit ; and I think the clay there is 
very probably an alluvial deposit. I have no doubt that Lake Ontario was up to the top 
of the mountain at one time. 

The President : There is another question that would come in here very well for dis- 
cussion — one of the topics on the programme : " What is the proper way of caring for an 
orchard after it begins to bear fruit % " 

Mr. Thos. A. Good (Brantford) : The fruit growers of this section have reason to 
feel gratified for the information that is being imparted to them. I think the fruit grow- 
ers in the Dominion understand fruit culture better than any in the world. We have 
various soils in this county, but none that water will not penetrate. I should not like 
to grow fruit where water would lie on the surface. In our part of the country we have 
the best success with Fameuse apples, and I think with cherries on clay land. The next 
best land is clay loam ; and the worst for apples, and pears especially, is what we call 
sharp sand. It is almost like building sand. If you go down two or three feet you 
would get sand fit for makiug mortar ; whereas a few rods off you get a soil entirely dif- 
ferent. In some sections that sharp sand is no good for fruit at all, except small fruits, 
such as currants and strawberries — and they can be grown to perfection. An orchard on 
this sharp sand, within half-a mile of my house, has not produced in sixteen or seven- 
teen years more than sixteen or seventeen barrels in three years. It has been our plan 
to let an orchard run to grass after the trees got to bearing size. A neighbor of mine 
who has made his orchard successful attributes it to the thorough cultivation he gives it. 
Another orchard near me on a sandy loam, well sheltered by a row of trees along the 
west side, which thoroughly protects it from the west winds, has been a success the last 
two years, but orchards near it have not been successful. I would like to know why 
you consider wind-breaks in such a season as this a protection to the apple. In my own 
and other orchards there was hardly a perfect apple, while in the shaded orchards they 
were nearly all first-class, and brought $1.60 a barrel, having been sold as Extra No. 1 
apples. The windbreak was the only thing I could see to account for the difference. I 
cannot agree with the statement that poverty of the soil causes scab. We have raised the 
snow-apples to perfection for years. Last year they were very good, and this year they 
were perfectly worthless. If it was poverty of the soil, how could you account for that % 
There must be some other cause. The Baldwin and Northern Spy and Greening were 
also cracked and scabby, whereas in those former years they were almost perfect. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan : The impression that poverty of the soil causes fungus is no 
correct. Poverty of the soil has a great deal to do with any disease, because the "consti- 
tution " of a tree — so to speak — grown in an impoverished soil cannot be strong enough 
to bear the burden of a crop of fruit, which will weaken a tree. There must be suffi- 
cient food to provide for the lite of the tree, and also for the bearing of the fruit and for 
the production of healthy and strong wood. You are thus growing two crops on 



32 



that soil ; and many people will attempt to grow a third crop — of grain — and thus rob 
the soil of its vitality. Whether you cultivate or not, after trees come into bearing you 
must feed, and you must subsoil sufficient to allow the manures to penetrate the soil. If 
you allow the top sod to become consolidated you must adopt some measures to allow the 
manure to penetrate it. Never cultivate your orchard after midsummer ; and the man- 
uring must be done before. Follow nature as closely as possible — and nature provides a 
top-dressing under the soil of the trees in the fall of the year ; and then when the rains 
have percolated and worked that manure into the soil I carry on cultivation there very 
lightly. I planted in the first place in a nice friable soil, underdrained so that the roots 
would strike deeper than they otherwise might, so that I have the roots pretty well out 
of the control of the plow in cultivating — though I use a cultivator in cultivating. I 
would stop a little before mid-summer so as to allow the growth of the season to thor- 
oughly ripen before winter comes in. 



APPLE SCAB. 



The topic was then introduced for discussion : " What causes the apple scab ? Can 
it be prevented 1 " 

The Secretary : This is a case illustrating the great value of science in horticulture 
or any other branch of agriculture. Not long ago a great many of us engaged in apple- 
growing in Ontario were inclined to give up growing apples on account of the apple scab ; 
but now we know that it is a little fungus, and that it lives not only on the fruit but 
also on the leaves ; that it is propagated by little spores that correspond to seeds, and 
that they lie upon the apple or upon the leaf, and very soon begin to germinate and pro- 
duce these little spots. You will have observed these spots on the leaves, not knowing 
that they were on the apple. You will also have observed that the foliage on the trees 
ripens and drops much earlier than it should. It is all caused by the apple scab, which 
causes it to weaken and mature and grow out of shape and fall, and so takes away from 
the vitality of the tree, causes the apples to grow mis-shaped and small and worthless for 
market. We find that the apple scab can be treated. I would suggest that every fruit 
grower in the room make up his mind to apply fungicide for the apple scab. Let him 
apply it before the foliage appears at all. Try first : sulphate of copper — a pound to 
twenty five gallons of water ; apply it so that every part is covered, any time before the 
foliage is expanded ; you might almost say in the winter, but anyway in the early spring. 
Then try ammoniacal carbonate of copper as soon as the bloom appears : — carbonate of 
copper, five ounces ; ammonia, three pints ; water, forty-five gallons. I think if we 
would faithfully try this experiment next spring we would have something to talk about 
a year from now. 

Prof. Craig : A year ago the Department at Ottawa issued a bulletin giving instruc- 
tions for the manufacture of this carbonate. It is somewhat expensive when bought 
from the druggists, and this prevents its general use This bulletin will be sent to any 
one who writes to the Horticultural Department, Ottawa. 

Mr. W. S. Turner (Cornwall) : — I received a bulletin from Mr. Craig, and acted on 
it, and found considerable benefit from spraying. I had finer fruit than ever before, 
with the exception of one tree, which shows the necessity of planting thirty or forty feet 
apart, one Wallbridge tree interlaced with a Ben Davis. The spot was worse in that 
part than in any part of my orchard, showing that interlacing tends to make the disease 
worse. 

The President : I would like to vouch for Mr. Turner's fruit. I have several jars 
of it put up for the World's Fair — very superior in every respect. 

Mr. Fisher : Has the presence of a windbreak anything to do with freedom from 
scab 1 

The Secretary : I cannot see any connection between windbreak and scab. 
Mr. Fisher : A windbreak would be injurious rather than beneficial. 



33 



Mr. Allan (Goderich) : The windbreak as generally grown is a closely planted 
hedge. Now, you want something that will allow the wind to thoroughly run through 
the trees, but merely break the force of it. People make a great mistake in planting too 
close. I would plant windbreak trees thirty or forty feec apart, so that there is no possi- 
bility of them ever interlacing ; plant in a double row, which would make them practically 
twenty feet apart. 

Mr. Good : You can carry a lighted match almost any time of the year on the lee side 
of the windbreak I spoke of, and there was less scab in that orchard than in any one I 
know. 

Mr. John J. Fraser : Mr. Good and 1 are, comparatively speaking, neighbors. We 
have a windbreak on the west and north, of evergreens planted about twelve feet apart r 
grown to the height of thirty feet or upwards, and I have noticed that for many years- 
past the apples in that orchard have been very much subject to scab — much more so than 
in the other orchards we have. I have always attributed it to the closeness of the wind- 
break, which prevented the free circulation of air. There was not a bushel of apples in 
that orchard last year that was free from the scab. 

Mr. Morris : The roots of those trees thirty feet high will extend through the 
ground the same distance, and come in contact with the roots of the fruit trees in that 
distance, and will rob the ground of food which those trees should have had ; and that 
will'tend to bring about the scab. I would not have evergreens for windbreak, but 
rather something like European larch, which the wind will pass through. 

Mr. Caston : In our part of the country windbreaks are beneficial. I would have 
them on north and west sides if possible. I have a board fence fourteen feet high. I 
built it when I planted out the trees, and at the same time I planted a row of evergreen?, 
to be coming on while the orchard was growing, so that when the fence got old I would 
have the evergreens. The winter of 1884-5 was very severe — averaging colder than it 
had for thirty years — and I lost between sixty and one hundred trees. The more exposed 
portion of the orchard suffered most severely, and right in the neighborhood of that fence 
they were scathless. A neighbor of mine had no windbreak — because it was an axiom 
with us that we ought to have a northern exposure — and his orchard was entirely ruined, 
I would certainly have a windbreak fourteen or twenty feet high, whether of trees or 
fence. I think in close, foggy weather the fungus gets in its work. 

Mr. Gott : Windbreaks are good. The finest plot I ever saw was five acres entirely 
surrounded by white pine, about thirty feet high — the branches interlacing — planted 
about ten feet apart. I believe the tender fruits such as plums, fine peaches, and apricots,, 
can be grown within a windbreak of that kind. I had a friend who had perfect apples,, 
and who had a forest along the whole northern part of his orchard. 

Mr. Brand was asked by Prof. Craig to speak about windbreaks. He said : We- 
have very high windstorms, and frequently tornadoes, in July and August, and we have 
found it necessary to protect with windbreaks our main orchards — which are chiefly 
composed of Duchess of Oldenburg, which blows off very easily — to ensure a good crop y 
but as to the health of trees I never could see that they were beneficial, but rather objec- 
tionable generally. The largest, best and most productive trees that I have stand a long 
distance from any windbreak ; so also do the best in the State — and I have seen as many 
trees in our State as any other man in it. I have been planting a windbreak of European 
larch. I have windbreaks of evergreens, which I find of a great benefit in catching snow 
from five to seven feet deep, and thus protecting tender trees through severe winters like 
that ol 1884, when all our Wealthies were destroyed, except such as stood in deep snow. 
With regard to the scab, Prof. Goff, Professor of Horticulture in Wisconsin, succeeded,, 
by spraying a Fameuse tree three or four times during the season, in producing seventy- 
five per cent, of perfect apples, as against twenty-two per cent, on trees that were not 
sprayed. 

Prof. Craig :^On what sides are the windbreaks planted 1 

Mr. Brand : West and south, our most damaging winds coming thence. 

3(F.G) 



34 



Mr. John Little (Granton) : Forty yeais ago I planted a windbreak of twenty rods 
on the west and the i orth, and it became of great benefit to me since I became a straw- 
berry man. On the north side the snow remained there probably two weeks longer than 
any other place. 

Mr. Stewart (Russeldale) : Many years ago I planted out a young orchard, and I 
planted a row of Norway spruces along the north, east and west, leaving the south free, 
and I have never had reason to regret it. I had the best fruit, and the freest from scab, 
and the largest crop of pears in that enclosure, of any in my place. 

Mr. Howell (Brantford) : My neighbor on the west has a windbreak of natural 
pine on the north and east, which makes a windbreak on the west of mine, and I have 
also a windbreak on the south. My neighbor had the best crop of apples, and mine 
was a poor sample except on the road right next to the evergreens on the south. I 
think in the last two years his orchard was better than mine. Mine has been used as 
a hen and hog pasture, and his has been • seeded down with peas and oats. 

Mr. Pattison : In the more northern sections, where they suffer from low temper- 
atures, a windbreak is valuable ; but in the southern section I should be inclined to 
doubt its efficacy at all, except such a windbreak as would lessen the force of the fall 
winds, as larch or Lombardy poplar. 

Mr. Hunter : To prevent the robbing of the orchard by windbreak trees I plow 
furrows as deep as possible not far from the shade trees, and then dig down with a spade 
and cut eff all the roots leading towards the orchard, as deep as I can find them. This 
repeated at intervals five or six years apart will prevent injury by robbing. 

Mr. Fisher : There are two opinions about the usefulness of windbreaks. The 
Robertson pear orchard at Oakville, which generally bears 300 or 400 barrels of first- 
class fruit every year, was predisposed to scab this year, aud the crop was only 30 or 40 
barrels of good fruit. It is surrounded by a very close hedge, and there are, I think, two 
windbreaks running through the orchard. I believe the presence of those windbreaks 
had a great deal to do with the large amount of scab. 1 had an unusually heavy crop of 
pears, though somewhat scabby ; but my orchards are entirely unprotected. 

Mr. Thos. Ivey introduced the topic : " What is the proper method of caring for an 
orchard from the time the trees are planted until they begin to bear Y* It is 
said we learn as much by our failurts as by our successes. Five years tgo I planted 100 
plum, 100 pear, 50 cherry and 75 apples. The ground was clay loam with gravel sub- 
soil. I dug deeply. I made large holes and put good soil around the roots in planting, 
and the poorer soil dug out of the hole was thrown in on top, I got good growth of trees 
all around My cultivation was well kept up during the five years. I manured heavily 

put on from 50 to 75 one-horse loads of manure each year — and kept the ground well 

cultivated, and grew garden truck between the trees. The trees have been admired by 
my neighbors, and they have been looked upon as a success ; but this spring I found that 
50 of those trees were totally dead. I have imagined there must have been something 
wrong in the nursery care of those trees before they were planted. I have lost a number 
of plums which grew to a large size. 



BEE-KEEPING AND FRUIT GROWING AS A UNITED INDUSTRY. 

Mr. R. Holtebmakn (Biantford) : The impression has gone abroad that bee-keeping 
requites very little attention, experience, etc. The reasons for this are various. In the 
old system we had the box hive, which rt quired very little attention. Men who attend 
conventions are not lured into business that does not require care and knowledge. 
The business you want is a business that requires experience and knowledge and care — 
which bee keeping does. Of course we can go into business in a small way, and 
read up, and as our experience increases we can inciease our colonies. Fruit growing 
and bee-keeping are businesses which for various reasons can be well combined. You 



35 



know there are men making failure of fruit growing every day, and you know also there 
are men who are making mon^y at it ; in fact I believe that the dairymen and the fruit- 
growers — that is the specialists — are the men who are making more money to-day in 
Canada than is made in any other branch of farming. With bee-keeping it is the same. 
We find men on every side who are failing in bee-keeping — who are giving it up, and who 
have lost money ; and on the other hand we find men who are making a fair living and, 
perhaps a little more, at it. I have 95 colonies of bees in "my cellar. Any fruit grower 
who has a good cellar can winter his bees successfully in it. For the last two years T 
have kept careful account of my bees. Every item has been charged — the labor in the 
yard being counted at the rate of $1.25 a day — and every sale has been credited ; and 
the result is that the net profits amount to the value of the present stock of the yard — 
which is probably $700 or $800. Now, that is a fair investment. Of course business 
has been pushed in every possible way. We have attendf d shows in Toronto and Mon- 
treal ; and we have counted the prize-money by crediting the apiary with that honey at 
the highest market price ; and any prize-money went towards expenses at the exhibition, 
which we considered would just about be covered by the prize-money. There are certain 
seasons when the bee-keeper is very busy, while during the winter season he has very 
little to do. After a man has all the hives he requires, his combs, his extracting appar- 
tus, there is very little to do. The bees require constant observation during the winter, 
and now and then a few minutes' work. Prof. Panton will tell you the necessity for the 
bees in fertilizing. The primary object of the bee is not to gather honey, but for the 
purpose of fertilizing flowers. In damp seasons the time for fertilizing is limited ; and by 
kav'ng these fertilizing agents we are able to secure fertilization in greater abundance 
that otherwise. Further : we know that by securing pollen from one flower to fertilize 
another we are liable to secure a better fruit. For instance we know that in the apple 
we require five distinct fertilizations to give us a perfect apple ; and if we have bees to 
fertilize the flower we are likely to have a larger percentage of perfect apples. Of course 
the locality has a great deal to do with it. A good locality requires flowers in the 
spring of the year for the purpose of giving the bees pollen and honey ; and they use that 
for feeding the larv?e and producing bees which will eventually give a surplus. Willow 
— and, later on, fruit-blossom — is very important for this purpose ; but we very rarely 
secure any surplus before clover. Therefore the danger of bees carrying to the hive 
poison from the spraying is very little, for we secure no surplus at that season of the 
year; and should poisoned honey be carried to the hive there is nodangerof the consumer 
getting it upon the table. I have found by observation that if we can get from three to 
four miles from the lake, our seasons are prolonged ; the blossoms will open earlier and 
close later ; therefore that is a good locality. Of coarse a great many of us are content 
to be where blossoms all open at the same time within tlte radius that bees fly. Alsike 
clover is a very good honey plant — in fact I know of no better. If we can get high and 
light land it gives us the advantage of having blossoms early and late. If we can add to 
that Golden-Rod and Boneset, so much the better ; but they produce an inferior honey yield 
only once in a long while, and hence I do not consider them of any special importance. 
The only time I can see when bee-keeping would interfere with fruit growing would be 
berry-picking time. We are very busy with the bees during the latter part of June, and 
sometimes the whole of that month. The balance of the work required with the bees 
could be left off till some other time ; and I think the fruit growing work could be put 
off at other times — that is the preparing for market, and work of that kind — winter work. 
When it comes to marketing the two can be combined very well. You have to take fruit 
to market ; and you can ship your honey to the same commission man that you ship your 
fruit to. For these reasons I think bee-keeping and fruit growing can be combined very 
well. Those who already have too much to do should not go into bee-keeping. I find a 
great many in the country fail because they attempt too much. Every fruit grower should 
keep a few colonies ; but the beginner should not start with many. If there are other 
men around you who keep bees, there is no object in your keeping them for fertilizing 
your flowers. Unless you are prepared to take an interest in the bees, dou't go into the 
business. (Applause.) 

Mr. Gott (Arkona) : A friend of mine undertook to combine these industries. He 



36 



. 



attended to his bees very freely; seemed to get along with them very nicely for a time, but 
then fruit was suffering. He had to leave his bees and attend to the fruit. While he was 
attending to the fruit the bees would fly away. After awhile the moth would begin to 
enter into some of the hives and play havoc with them. The bees after a short time went 
into winter quarters very weak. They came out weak and silent. Th< y wouldn't com- 
bine. These two things will not combine except on a small scale; but to make a profit 
so as to be recommended to us as fruit-growers is a very doubtful questicn. 

Mr. Holtermann : I am not anxious to convert any of you into bee-keepers. I was 
asked to present the question and have done so. We know there are a great many men 
in the country who are combining fruit-growing with other things. They have a small 
farm, or they have cows, pigs and so on ; and why not bees under those circumstances ? 
Of course if a man keeps nothing but fruit, and devotes his entire attention to it, he is 
all right — there is nothing like that kind of a man ; he will advance the fruit-growing 
industry and will be a successful man himself. The farming community is suffering from 
combining too many things. If you are so situated that you can keep bees with advan- 
tage, keep them ; if not, keep out of the business. As far as the moth is concerned, our 
good friend must have been behind the times — he must have had black bees — because if 
he had Italian bees I guarantee they will not trouble him. 

Mr. Caston : How about the market for honey 1 Is it likely to continue 1 — a suffi- 
cient demand at a fair price 1 

Mr. Holtermann : We find no difficulty in marketing our honey and that of a good 
many others. The price has depreciated in the last two years, but it is like everythirfg 
else — like the fanning-mill which sold for $30 two years ago, and is selling for $15 to-day. 
Bee-keepers must understand how to produce for less money. I think in the neighbor- 
hood of Brantford honey is selling at 12 J cents a pound, and 9 pounds for $1, and in 
exceptional instances I believe 10 pounds for $1. Whether the depreciation in the price 
of honey will remain I do not know. 

Mr. Caston : You don't call that a bad price 1 

Mr. Holtermann : That is not a bad price. Of course if a man wholesales he lias 
to sell for less. Bee-keepers feel that they are not getting what they should ; and a good 
many bee keepers feel that others should not go into the business. 

The Secretary : Our busy season begins when the busy season begins with the bee- 
keeper — about the berry season. How long does your busy season last ? 

Mr. Holtermann : To the middle or end of July. As to swarming. I have not 
a great deal of sympathy with people who have to hive a great many swarms. For the 
last six or seven years I have not had more than an average of twenty per cent, of swarms. 
If you manage your bees rightly, that is, shade them, ventilate them, and soon, the swarm- 
ing will be reduced to a minrmum, and you will also get more honey There : s no money 
in selling bees at the present time. In the spring of the year, if you are posted in the 
business, you can buy for $5 a colony, and thus save the risk of wintering. A friend of 
mine, Mr. C. A. Post, of Murray, has 346 colonies of bees and never has a man to watch 
the swarm at all. 

Mr. Morris : I believe the bee-keepers have got a little the start of the fruit-growers 
by having a law passed that the fruit-growers will not be allowed to spray trees while 
flowers are in blossom. Now it is well known that the bees not only carry pollen and 
produce fertilisation, but also carry the disease known as ''yellows" in peaches, and 
spread them. Now shouldn't we take a leaf out of the bee-keepers' book, and have a law 
passed that bees shall not carry the yellows 1— (laughter) — or if they do make their owners 
responsible, because they do it. 

Mr. Holtermann : I think the fruit-growers have for many years had the start of 
the bee- keepers, and I believe they have the start of them yet. Of course I am not pre- 
pared to say whether bees transmit poison or not, and I have an idea that it is altogether 
likely ; no one else is prepared to sa> whether that is the case or not. I would not care 



37 



to enter into that discussion about the law being passed. My own opinion is that it is 
in the interest of the combined industry. 

Mr. Castox : I know a man in our neighborhood who began by hunting up trees ; 
he got the bees in the woods, and now he makes an income of about $500 every year 
clear from his summer's work with the bees, and in the winter- time he is free to go at 
something else. He does not work as hard as the farmers do, or as hard as I do : and he 
has frequently advised me to keep a few colonies of bees in connection with my work. I 
am very glad when I see my neighbor's bees among the blossoms, and I would be sorry 
to see anything that would reduce the number of bees in the country, because I recognize 
their usefulness. I am waiting till the bee-keepers produce a bee that has no sting. 
(Laughter). 

Mr. Little asked whether bees would fertilize strawberries 1 

Mr. L. J. Mullet (Waterdown) : Bees work very little on strawberries. Rasp- 
berries they derive a great deal of honey from. I think they are a great benefit as 
regards strawberries ; but the gentleman would have to have perfect flowering plants to 
fertilize his strawberries with. Some fruit-growers claim that bees injure peaches and 
grapes. That is, I believe, caused by hornets, whose jaws or mandibles are so placed for 
sawing. The bee has not that power to puncture the skin of the grape or peach. 

Mr. Holtermanx : There has been a great deal of experimenting done in that 
direction, and I think it has been conclusively shown that the honey bee's mandibles are 
not sufficiently strong to puncture the skin of the grape or peach ; but if a grape or a 
peach should break open or be bruised, then the bee will take the juice. 

Mr. Allan (Goderich) : I do not see anything injurious to fruit-growers in the Act 
forbidding them to spray with poisonous substances while the bloom is on ; for a fruit- 
grower who understands his business will not spray then — there is no object in doing so, 
but quite the contrary ; and it should be the object of every fruit-grower to take good 
care not to spray at a time when he would injure the bees, because the bees are among 
the best friends we have. I have noticed bees feeding upon the pieces of the grapes and 
pears ; but I believe they never do so except when the skin of the fruit has been broken. 

Mr. Pattison : My neighbor on the west is the largest bee-keeper in our section of 
the country, and is distinctly making a success of it ; and he also grows a very consider- 
able amount of fruit, as well as attending to a farm of 125 acres of arable land His 
fruit-growing and bee-keeping are decidedly a success — especially the bee-keeping. I see 
no reason why the two could not be combined ; the only thing would be not to grow 
small fruits. My neighbor confines himself to grapes, pears, plums and apples. 

Mr. Holtermann : My father-in-law, S. T. Pettit, of Belmont, commenced with 69 
colonies, and secured 8,000 pounds this year ; and his increase he counts as nothing. I 
have known years in which he made as much as $1,200 on honey alone. 



REPRESENTATION ON AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE BOARD. 

Mr. Cavers (Gait) gave notice of motion as to representation of this Association 
on the Advisory Committee of the Agricultural College at Guelph. [See discussion 
further on.] 



DISEASES IN FRUIT TREES. 

Mr. E. D. Smith, Chairman of the Committee, appointed to consider amendments to 
the Act relating to black-knot in trees, reported as follows : 



38 



Chapter 202, Revised Statutes of Ontario. 

Whereas the " Act to prevent the Spread of Noxious Weeds and Diseases affecting Fruit Trees,' has 
been found inoperative and practically a dead letter, your Committee begs leave to report the following 
amendments they would suggest : — 

To amend sec 2, clause 3, to read as follows :— " Such council may, at its fust meeting each year and 
shall on being petitioned by five ratepaj r ers appoint at least one inspector to enforce the provisions of the 
Act, his appointment to be made at the first meeting of the council after such petition has been presented, 
and his salary or remuneration be determined and paid by the council; and in case a vacancy shall occur 
in the office of inspector, it shall be the duty of the council to fill the same forthwith. 

To amend sec. S to read, " It shall be the duty of the inspector to give or cause to be given notice in 
writing to the owner or occupant of any land containing fruit trees affected with yellows or black- 
knot, requiring him within five days from the receipt of the notice to deal with such trees in the manner 
provided by sections 2 and 3 of this Act. 

Your Committee begs leave to suggest that your Association respectfully recommends to the Hon. the 
Minister of Agriculture, the appointment of a Provincial Inspector, whose duties shall be to superintend 
the carrying out of the provisions of this Act by the local inspector in so far as it relates to the black-knot 
and yellows, said Provincial Inspector to be paid by the Local Government. 

Mr. Smith : We could not as a Fruit Growers' Association very well recommend 
the appointment of this inspector whose duty it should be to look after noxious weeds, 
and that is why we suggested the co-operation of the Farmers' Institute, so that one 
Inspector might look after both interests. 

Mr. James : One difficulty arises at the very outset : How are you going to compel 
councils to do it that have no interest at the start % Suppose the city of Brantford says : 
1 That is all nonsense ; we won't have anything to do with that ;" what are you going 
to do then ? I doubt very much the advisability of connecting this with the weed exter- 
mination. You can handle the one, but you cannot the other, simply because they are 
linked together in one statute it does not necessarily follow that the amendment should 
cover the whole statute. I think the end will be better accomplished by attempting less. 
One officer for each municipality means over 700 officers in the Province. Members of 
parliament are going to vote upon that as they think it would be voted upon in their 
own municipality. Do you think you can get a majority of the members ot' the House 
to vote on that, compelling the councils to appoint that officer 1 They would say : 
" Black-knot is prevalent principally in certain sections of the Provide They are the 
ones who want this enactment." 

Mr. Smith : Have the Provincial authorities not power to compel the councils to 
do this 1 

A Delegate : It is permissive — not compulsory. 

Mr. James : Could one man cover the Province as regards black-knot and weeds ? 
We find it cannot be done with regard to bees. I should think the inspector of fruit 
trees alone would be sufficient. 

Mr. Orr : We have a law on our statute books with respect to noxious weeds, and 
they cannot be controlled. I have 10 or 12 acres that it is utterly impossible to kill all 
the weeds out of. The inspector should have power to do the work at once — to go into 
an orchard and cut the trees down, not ask the owner of the property to do it. 

Mr. Smith : We discussed that, and suggested that the decision of the inspector 
should be subject to appeal by the owner, in case the inspector might make a mistake. 

Mr. Orr : The noxious weed law is a dead letter now. Every pathmaster is 
required to do it now, and it can't be done. 

A Delegate : Is there a municipality in the Province that the proposed suggestion 
would not benefit 1 ? Is there a country municipality that produces no weeds ; or is there 
a city or town where fruit trees are not grown ? If there is, our suggestion would not 
apply ; but there is no municipality in the country in which we cannot find either weeds 
or fruit trees. » 

Mr. James : Suppose an inspector were appointed in a certain township ; could he 
go through the entire township and have all the weeds cut down, and the black-knot 
trees cut down, and send his bill to the council ? 



39 



Mr. Smith : No ; the expenses are to come off the party whose trees are cut 
down. We recommended that the owner b3 compelled to cut the tree3 down. 

A Delegate : In the Cencral Farmers' Institute that question of weeds has come 
up time and again ; and I doubt if they would do any more in that direction ; but in 
regard to black knot they would co-operate. 

Mr. M. Pettit : The original act to prevent the spread of the yellows was a good 
act, and very easily put in force ; and I think if we asked that this be added to that 
act it would work. I see no necessity for asking for a Provincial inspector with that. 

Mr. Smith : Under the present provisions of the Act there is a penalty of $20 for 
every inspector who does not do his duty ; but in fact our inspectors do not do their duty, 
because there is no one to look after them. 

Mr. Peart : The inspectors are well known in their own localities, and they are 
loth to make complaint. 

The Secretary : T think there should be some one to whom people can appeal. If 
there is, fruit growers will take advantage of it ; they will appeal to this Provincial 
inspector, and the work will be done. I think the tirst clause should have the insertion 
of that provision that the council shall on petition of five ratepiyers appoint the inspec 
tor. If nobody wants an inspector, the council certainly would feel that they were doing 
a curious thing in appointing on^. I would move that those words be inserted, and 
that with that change we accept the recommendation of the committee and refer it 
to the Legislative Committee, 

Mr. Smith : There might be townships where there were not five men with suni 
cient interest to petition ; and yet that township might be a breeding-ground to let 
disease go sweeping through the whole Province. 

Mr. James : If you could not get five men to petition for that, you could not 
enforce it. 

Mr. Smith: If there were somebody to go around they could get those five men. 

The Secretary : I think when you have the Provincial inspector, there is somebody 
to appeal to ; and I should think that he could, perhaps, act independent of a local 
inspector if he were called upon by local individuals. 

Mr. J. W. Smith (Winona) : I don't think it is right to have more than one inspec- 
tor — if I have to pay the bill. After a man goes to the expense of setting out the orchard, 
and waiting a few years to get something, for a man to come in and say, " So many 
trees have to be cut down," would be hard ; and I think we ought to go cirefully. I 
think the township council should pay the inspector, as they do the road mister. The 
appointment of the road master is statutory. An inspector should inspect an orchard 
three or four times a year at least ; and they should be carefully examined. 

Mr. Orr : I think it is a clear case that as it is for the benefit of the whole township, 
the township should pay. 

Mr. Allan ^Goderich) : I am afraid the Secretary's amendment would defeat the 
object, because neighbors in a township would not like to petition, as it would be said to 
be an unneighborly act. 

Mr. M. Pettit: The government would not make compulsory legislation where it 
can be made permissive. 

Mr. Orr • Could not those five ratepayers appeal to the Provincial inspector "? 

Mr. Hunter: I would bear the black-knot all around me b3fore I would go around 
to get a petition from five men. 

Mr. McMichael: We would soon have the black-knot stamped out if ft was made 
the duty of the councils the same as keeping the roads up; but if it is left to a petition 
of five the matter will b^ neglected. 



40 



Mr. Race : I think a Provincial inspector would be sufficient to put all the machin- 
ery in motion. Complaints could be made direct to him, and he in turn would deal 
"with the municipalities in detail. 

Mr. John Little : In the municipality I am in, every pathmaster is an overseer, 
but for fifteen years not a fence viewer or overseer has taken anything to do with the 
■Canada thistle. 

On motion of Mr. T. Lloyd Jones, the matter was referred back to the committee to 
report to-morrow morning ; and the Convention adjourned at six o'clock. 



SECOND DAY— EVENING SESSION. 

The evening meeting was held in the Temperance Hal). The weather was very 
unfavorable, yet a large number assembled. 

The President opened the meeting by calling upon Mr. A. McD. Allan to lead 
the discussion on the topic : 

" What are the six best varieties of summer, fall and winter apples for profit. What 
proportion of each is advised for an orchard of 200 trees ? " 

Mr. Allan : I did not expect this topic to come up till to morrow, and I wanted to 
draw up proportions after figuring on the matter. If you will name varieties to me, I 
will reject or accept tbem, and give my reasons therefor. I will begin at once by nam- 
ing the Duchess of Oldenburg. I take commercial value to be the ruling element, dol- 
lars and cents ; and I look on that as the variety that will succeed over the largest pos- 
sible section of the country. I consider it is impossible for any one to name absolutely 
varieties that are going to succeed over this whole Province in the other seasons, as I am 
supposed to do. I can, however, name, as the one for the earliest, the Duchess of Olden- 
burg, because that is the first apple that comes in for horn 3 use. Although it is not the 
earliest to ripen, yet it is an apple that you can, with benefit to the tree, cull soms off 
when the apple is half-grown ; and you will find that for stewing purposes you can use 
nothing better than a half-grown Duchess of Oldenburg, and by culling them off the tree 
you will benefit the rest. (Tetofsky suggested.) That has not commercial value, it 
will not ship as well to a distant market as the Dachess of Oldenburg. I can't make as 
much money out of it as out of the Duchess. Then I go on to the next — Gravenstein ; 
of course in some sections it cannot be grown profitably, such a section would have to 
take something else. My preference would be for Gravenstein ; and when making a pre- 
ference I am taking as a basis the general market for our Ontario apples, the market 
that rules prices generally, the prices at which buyers go out to buy ; I mean the British 
market. The Graven3tein is one of those that commands the highest possible price, for 
its particular season, in the British market. The Dachess of Oldenburg is an apple that 
will ship well to Britain, notwithstanding what a great many seem to think. It is to be 
picked when it gets its bluish color, and before it gets its yellow tinge ; the yellow tinge 
it will get on its voyage over, and come out a perfect apple. Of course we must attend 
to the shipping and the storing in ship, etc. After the Gravenstein I may mention the 
St. Lawrence. There are sections where they could grow the St. Lawrence to perfection, 
and perhaps they could depend upon a crop year after year. It is a good apple when you 
can get it clean. From the county of Simcoe, in Mr. Caston's section, I have found 
about as fine St. Lawrence as I have seen in Western Ontario. It is a profitable 
apple to grow, because it will bring a high price in the British markets. Then we come 
to one of the highest-priced apples in the British market, the Ribston Pippin. It is, 
however, a shy bearer in many sections. There are circumstances under which it is a 
very regular, though not a heavy, bearer. With me it is a regular bearer. If I get 
from a Ribston Pippin about one-half the crop that I would get on sorm other varieties, 
I can make more money out of it than I can out of those other varieties, because I can 



41 



get a much higher price for it. Even this yeir the top of what they call the ''fancy 
market " in Britain can be got for prime Ribstons. It will go over the twenty shillings 
on every barrel easily ; but they have to be prime. (Wealthy suggested). Wealthy is 
good. I would take Wealthy in preference to Snow at any time. There is more money 
in Wealthy, many times over in shipping ; and as far as it has been grown some time, 
Wealthy is a cleaner apple than the Snow, generally speaking, although you will find 
some sections where Snow has been grown profitably. (What about Maiden's Blush 1) 
Maiden's Blush is not in the number, it is a fancy apple. Under some circumstances it 
will bring money in the Old Country, where they want a fancy apple for decorative pur- 
poses. Some years ago Maiden's Blush would stand very well to the top of the list for 
high prices ; but John Bull is getting a little sense now. He had very little a few years 
ago ; but he has begun to look at the quality of the apple more than he did ; and the 
quality of the Maiden's Blush is not well liked there. Be it that, or other reasons they 
may have, they are not paying the same price for Maiden's Blush. Colvert is a very 
profitable apple if you can grow it thoroughly clean. If you are thoroughly satisfied 
you are going to get rid of the fungus spotting, then I would say Colvert. If I were 
speaking in the Georgian Bay section I would say, "Grow Colvert." They can grow it 
clean, and get a finer color and a closer, finer grain ; and as a result their Colvert will 
keep longer and ship better than ours, and the quality is fin^r. Along with the Rib3ton 
I would mention the Blenheim, because they go together in price. That is another apple 
that is a comparatively sectional apple, and it is not a very heavy bearer, and that is not 
a fault. I think the Blenheim is quite a good enough bearer in the sections where Blen- 
heims succeed ; and with a fair crop on the tree you are more apt to get a medium 
crop the following year ; and Blenheim is an apple that will stand at the top of the 
fancy market with the Ribston side by side, any year. I don't care if there is a glut 
in the British market, as there has been this year, Blenheim and Ribston Pippin, pro- 
perly and honestly put up, will bring their own price, year in and year out ; and you 
will find very little if any variation in that price. Then the King of Tompkins 
County is another, and in naming these I am looking largely, not altogether, to the 
apples that are bringing perhaps now, or have brought for the past few years, the most 
in dollars and cents ; but I am looking to the future as well, and taking the whole 
thing in. That is why I am trying as far as possible to name those varieties that 
have quality, that have flavor that is sure to commend them, and to remain with the 
British market. I have not named Baldwin yet, though Baldwin has m\de more 
money up to the present date than any of those over the whole country, but simply 
for the reason that Baldwin has not the flavor, it has not the intrinsic quality that 
would lead me to believe that Baldwin is going to remain at the top of the list for 
dollars and cents in the British market. It is going to go down, I believe. At the 
present time there is more money in Baldwin than anything else. There is a great 
deal of money in Ben Davis. (Ontario ?) Ontario I would have instead of Spy, that 
is, for the profit. Of course Ontario is comparatively a new variety, and has not been 
sufficiently tested to speak absolutely in regard to it. Like the Spy and smooth-skinned 
apples, it may be just as subject to this fungus spotting. So far it has not. I have 
found Ontario clean. I have found it a very even sample, one that you can pick, and 
find the samples even, all pretty large, fit for No. 1, off the tree. In the British mxrket 
they will take it in place of Spy. The quality is not altogether special, as the flesh is 
not under some circumstances It varies more than Spy. I have seen Ontario very much 
softer, not as firm in flesh as Spy ; but generally it is much more tart than Spy, and par- 
takes more of the Wagener. (What about Grimes' Golden?) There is no mmey in 
Grimes' Golden. It is too small for the British market, and the color is quite against it ; 
and it is too small for the markets generally. (The quality is there ; you said John Bull 
was getting sensible 1) Well, he wants to get all he can for his penny. I don't think 
he will come to the size. It is difficult to name six varieties to cover these seasons ; and 
all I have attempted to do is to give you the names of those varieties, about in propor- 
tion as they come in price in the British market, that is, the way the demand is ; and I 
have left out those varieties that I think have not sufficient quality to warrant me in 



42 



saying that they are g^ing to remain in a high priced place in that market. Th^y are 
getting out of appearance and looking more to quality ; and hence the Rhode Island 
Greening is coming up to the Baldwin, and will pass it. (Cranberry Pippin?) Better 
quality than Baldwin, very good apple. Of course in our markets there is a run for 
Spy. I don't wonder at that, I do not include Spy, because of its lateness of bearing, 
and there are so few on a tree that are clean enough and fit to take the top place in the 
British market. Spy is spoiling all the time where it is afflicted with the fungus spot. 
Taking the average over the province, the Spy has not been bringing enough to warrant 
me in putting it on the paying list. (Ribston and Blenheim Orange are very much the 
same type cf apple). They are very much alike. A great many growers in the Anna- 
polis Valley, Nova Scotia, are making a specialty of Gravenstein, Ribston, Blenheim, and 
King, they won't grow anything else, because for these they can get fancy prices. (Cox 
Orange Pippin 1) Too small. ( Falla water 1) Along keeper. We have made money 
with it, but it is not a sufficient bearer, that is, you cannot get apples up to the picking 
period sufficiently well, unless we had those windbreaks around the orchard that we 
heard of to-day. It is a heavy apple, and a large apple. The quality is not large. 
The only thing in that that would bring a price would be its long-keeping quality. The 
actual value there is in any of these varieties is in shipping that variety at the particu- 
lar season when the British public want to get that right into consumption. Don't ship 
anything over to be stored there and wait for the consumption, it must go right into 
consumption. If storing has to be done, let it be done here. 

Mr. Race : You have named no apple that is suitable for the late season. 

Mr. Allan : Ontario is fit for the late season. I did not take the Russet in. Of 
course there is more money in the American Golden Russet than in any other russets 
so far, although the Roxbury Russet is a finer-looking russet, but a little too tart. It 
will take the market without any trouble from its appearance. (Any sweet apples?) 
No; the sweet apples are not asked for over there. (Nonpareil of Nova Scotia?) I 
have always considered that as Roxbury Russet. I have examine! them side by side in 
the Old Country, and I have pronounced it Roxbury Russet. (Swaar?) Swaar has 
good quality and high color ; but the size is against it for the British market. 

The President : I will adjourn this discussion till to-morrow. 
Piano duet — The Misses Swayze. 

Vocal solo — Miss Buck — '» The Fairies ?" which received an encore, to which she 
responded. 

The President : I thought we had everything ab3ut the apple fixed up, but it is 
like the work of the fruit-grower, just when we think we have got everything done there 
is something else. We have selected the varieties of apples to grow, and got the land 
ready, and the windbreaks ; but then the little insect needs attention ; and Prof. Panton 
will now show us the insect on the sheet here, so that we can see him in all his beauty. 
(Laughter.) 

The room was then darkened, and Prof. Panton gave a stereopticon exhibition of the 
various insects, those which are enemies, then those which are friends of the fruit-grower. 



THE ENEMIES IN HORTICULTURE AND HOW TO OVERCOME THEM. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : The duty devolves upon me to-night to 
introduce to your notice some of the enemies that war against th? horticulturist. 

With a view to make the subject interesting and instructive I sh til tike a {vantage 
of this stereopticon and throw up on the canvas pictures of some of the m )st common 
pests that check the success of the fruit grower. 



43 



The figure now before you represents an unfortunate tree attacked on the one si le 
by parasitic plants and upon the other by insects : the former can be much controlled by 
spraying with copper compounds, the latter with arsenical mixture and kerosene emul- 
sions. These common enemies put a premium upon skill, patience and industry, and 
thus to some extent fulfil a good mission. 

All plants may be spoken of as flowerless or flowering. Among the flowerless we 
find the fungi, all developed from spores, while the flowering develop from seeds. The 
slide now represented on the canvas illustrates the difference between a spore and a 
seed. Spores are minute, have no embryo, have no definite direction in germination, 
and give rise to a mass of threadlike structures upon which spores are borne in due time. 
Seeds, on the other hand, are quite visible, possess an embryo, germinate at a particular 
point and develop roots, stem, leaves and flowers and seeds. 

Slide 3 indicates that the fungi grow upon organic substance, either dead, as in 
case of mushrooms, or upon living, as rust of wheat, etc. These last forms are called 

parasites, among which we find the mildews, blights, etc., that trouble the fruit grower. 
Flowering plants feed upon inorganic substances, such as nitrates, sulphates, etc., in 
the soil. 

Slide 4 introduces to your notice the nine family names which require to be known by 
the student of parasitic plants. Two of these contain most of the enemies in horticul- 
ture, and two trouble the farmer with rust and smut. Two embrace the microbes you 
now see upon the canvas. Among these are invisible foes which lash even man by 
inflicting upon him many forms of disease. I shall now bring before you the forms of 
several of the mildews, followed by a series of of slides illustrating a number of parasitic 
plants largely connected with grape rot, cherry rot, etc. In both these groups you will 
observe that a general structure is common, but they vary considerably when you 
study them with reference to speci6c characters. 

Prof. Panton pointed out the striking feature of each fungus as it appeared upon the 
canvas, and then gave the remedy. These were followed by illustrations representing 21 
common insect enemies for which remedies were also given, all of which are grouped 
together for convenience under the head of Fungicides and Insecticides as follows : 

i. Fungicides. 

Fungicides may be defined as chemical compounds or mixtures used for the purpose 
of destroying such injurious forms of plant life as live upon other plants by absorbing 
their juices to such nn extent as to affect their vitality. Examples are seen in the rusts, 
smuts, mildews and blights. 

It is but a comparatively short time since the life history of these obscure forms of 
plant life has been made out; but during late years wonderful strides have been made in this 
department of biology, and we are now in possession of knowledge that enables us to hold 
in check their destructive effects by the application of so-called fungicides ; among which 
some of the most important are : 

(1) Bordeaux Mixture. This consists of copper sulphate, lime and water in the fol- 
lowing proportions : 6 lb. copper sulphate, 4 lb. lime, 22 gals, water. This may be pre- 
pared by dissolving the copper compound in 16 gals, water; slake the lime in 6 gals. 
water, and when the latter is cooled pour it slowly into the copper solution and mix thor- 
oughly. Some use less water for dissolving the first. 

Owing to a tendency of this to clog the nozzle of a sprayer some use a modified form 
(2) 6 lb copper sulphate, 4 lb. lime, 50 gals, water, or (3) 4 lb. copper sulphate, 4 lb. 
lime and 50 gals, water, and have had good results. 

(1) Eau Celeste. This consists of copper sulphate, ammonia (commercial) and water, 
1 lb. copper sulphate, 1J pints ammonia and 25 gals, water. Dissolve the copper sul- 
phate in about 2 gals, hot water, as soon as cool adi the 1£ pints ammonia and dilute 
to 25 gals. 



44 



2. A modified form' has given better results, viz. : 2 lb. copper sulphate dissolved in 
tw» gals, water, 2J lb. sodium carbonate (washing soda) dissolved in another vessel. 
Mix these, and when chemical action has ceased add 1 J pints of ammonia and dilute to 
22 gals. Some dilute even to 30 with good results. 

Eau Grison (Grison Liquid). This consists of sulphur, lime and water. Boil 3 lb. 
sulphur and 3 lb. lime in 6 gals, water until reduced to 2 gals. When settled pour off 
the clear liquid ; this may be bottled and when used dilute with 100 parts water, This 
is used to destroy downy mildew and powdery mildew of the grape and the mildew of 
the gooseberry. 

Copper Sulphate. 1 lb. in 25 gals, water is used to spray on vines and trees in 
early spring to destroy the winter spores of Fungi. , 

^Ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate. — Copper carbonate, ammonia and water. 
Dissolve 4oz. copper carbonate in 2 quarts ammonia, and when about to use dilute to 30 
gals. 

Potassium Sulphide. 1 oz. potassium sulphide to 2 gals, water. 

*Gallo way's mixture No. 5 is equal parts ammoniated copper sulphate and ammoni- 
um carbonate. 10 oz. of the mixture to 25 gals, water. Combined Insecticide and 
Fungicide, 4 oz Paris green to 5) gals, of Bordeaux Mixture, No. 3. 

Remedies. 

" Spot " of Apple. 1. Spray in spring before the blossoms open with Bordeaux mix- 
ture No. 3, then as soon as fruit is well formed, again with the same, aud repeat about 
twice at an interval of two weeks. If 4 oz. of Paris green be added to the barrel when 
spraying 2nd, 3rd and 4th times, it will be effective against insects. 2. Galloway mixture 
No. 5. 3. Ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate. 4. Modified Eau Celeste. 2, 3 
and 4 may be applied once before blossoming, next when fruit is about the size of peas, 
and the last time about two weeks later. Nos. 3 and 4 have been very successful. 

" Brown Mot " of stone fruits found on the cherry, plum and peach. 

The same as remedy No. 1 for " Spot " on apple. 

"Pear Leaf Blight." 1. Spray with ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate as 
soon as the leaves begin to unfold, repeat 3 times at intervals of two weeks. 

2. Dilute Bordeaux mixture as for apple " spot." 

Strawberry Leaf Blight. Spray with ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate, 
Bordeaux mixture or eau celeste every two weeks during July and August. 

Gooseberry Mildew. Spray with a solution of potassium sulphide 1 or to 2 gals, 
water. Begin as soon as the leaves commence to open, repeat every three weeks. 

Black Rot of Grape. Spray with ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate 6 times 
commencing early in May and repeating every 15 days. 

Downy Mildew of Grape. Spray eau celeste upon the vines 10 days before they 
blossom ; a second time when berries are well set, and a third three weeks later. 

Anthracncse of the Raspberry or Cane Rust. Spray Bordeaux mixture No. 3. Apply 
once before the leaves come out, twice after, but not after the blossoms open. Spray 
especially on the young growth. 

ii. Insecticides. 

Compounds or mixtures used to destroy insects injurious to vegetation : 

Paris Green (arsenite of copper containing 50 to 60 per cent, of arsenic). Applied 
dry or in solution. In the dry form best mixed with 50 to 100 parts plaster, wood-ashes, 
flour or air-slaked lime and dusted upon the affected plants. The wet form is usually 
used in the proportion of 1 lb. Paris green to 200 gals, of water, but if the foliage is ten- 



45 



der 250 to 300 gals, water (applies to application upon the plum). As this green pow- 
der does not dissolve it requires to be kept thoroughly mixed. It is an excellent # insecti- 
cide against potato bug, plum curculio, canker worm, tent-caterpillar, grape-vine beetle 
and codling moth. It can be used successfully in nearly all cases of leaf-eating insects. 

London Purple. An arsenite of lime obtained as a by-product in manufacturing'dyes ; 
is largely used instead of Paris green ; but being more soluble in water it is likely to 
injure the foliage, and besides its composition varies considerably so that when used it is 
not likely to give as uniform results as Paris green. 

In spraying for codling moth it is usual to spray after the blossoms fall, when the 
apples are about the size of peas and before they have turned downwards on the stem, 
and a second time about ten days after. For plum curculio, as soon as the fruit is 
formed, followed by two or three applications with an interval of ten days between. In 
this case the solution is weaker than that used upon the apple, lib. in 250 to 300 gals. 
of water. 

Kerosene Emulsion. A mixture of coal oil and water. There are three mixtures of 
this kind that are used to a considerable extent : 

(a) Riley-Hubbard Emulsion. J lb. hard soap in 1 gal. rain water, boil till dis- 
solved, then add 2 gals, coal oil and mix thoroughly for about five minutes. When pro- 
perly mixed it will adhere to glass without oiliness. In using dilute with 9 parts water 
(soft). 

(b) Cook's Emulsion (soft soap). 1 quart soft soap, 2 quarts boiling water. While 
hot add 1 pint of coal oil. Mix thoroughly. In using dilute with equal amount of 
water. 

(c) Cook's Emulsion (hard soap). \ lb. hard soap, 2 quarts water and 1 pint coa 
oil, and thoroughly mix while hot. In using dilute with twice the amount of water. 

These emulsions are very excellent against plant lice, scale insects, chinch bug, cab- 
bage-worm, and even rose-beetle. 

Hellebore. Obtained from the powdered roots of a plant (Veratrum album). May 
be applied dry or as a liquid. 1 oz. to 3 gals, water. Excellent against currant^worm 
and cherry slug. 

Pyrethrum. Made from the powdered flowers of the genus pyrethrum, a plant of 
the sunflower family. It should be fresh, and hence should be kept in closed vessels. 
Used in dry form, 1 part pyrethrum, 5 to 8 parts flour ; or liquid 1 oz. in 3 gals, water. 
A good remedy for cabbage worm. 

"Carbolic Acid Emulsion. 1 part carbolic acid to 7 parts of a solution consisting of 
1 quart soft soap or \ lb. hard in 2 quarts water. This applied to affected trees destroys 
bark lice and the borers. It should be well rubbed upon the parts attacked. 

Tobacco. The refuse from cigar manufactories answers the purpose. A strong 
solution, about 1 pound of tobacco to 2 gals, water, destroys plant lice and flea beetles. 

Alkaline Wash. A strong solution of washing soda mixed with soft soap until 
about as thick as paint. Applied to the trunk of trees destroys the borers and gives a 
healthy, vigorous tone to the tree. 

The foregoing compounds and mixtures are usually applied by means of spraying 
machines, many of which are now advertised, and information concerning them can be 
readily obtained from seedsmen or others concerned in their sale. 

The following list of prices will give the readers an idea of the approximate cost 
incurred by the use of certain compounds in making up mixtures. Price per lb. : — 
Ammonia, 25c; copper carbonate, 60c; Paris green, 30c; London purple, 15c; 
pyrethrum, 40c; copper sulphate, 12c; hellebore, 25c; sodium carbonate, 5c 

* In the case of bark lice kerosene emulsion should be sprayed upon the trees as soon as the young lice 
bf gin to crawl about the twigs ; this is usually about June. 



46 



Precautions in Spraying, etc. 

1 . Keep poisonous substances labelled and out of the way of children. 

2. Do not continue to spray so far into the season as to affect the fruit. 

3. In making emulsions remember the inflammable nature of coal oil. 

4. Never spray trees in bloom. 

5. Try mixtures on a small scale if you have any doubts regarding their effect upon 
the foliage. 

6. Be careful and thorough in your work. 

Much has been said of late regarding the danger incurred by eating fruit from trees 
and vines which had been sprayed with Paris green ; but careful chemical analysis show 
there is no ground for such an alarm. The same is true regarding the copper compounds 
which are sprayed in such weak mixture that there is no danger of any one eating suffi- 
cient fruit to injure them from the poison upon it by using the above spraying mixtures. 

The President : We have been in the dark for some time, but we have got a great 
light (Laughter) and if there are any questions, Prof. Panton will be pleased to answer 
them. 

A Delegate : How would you destroy canker worm 1 

Prof. Panton : Paris gieen one pound to 200 gallons. 

Mr. Gott : Why should the remedies be different for fungi from those used for very 
small insects? 

Prof. Panton : They are not very different now-a-days. The Bordeaux mixture is a 
remedy for a great many of them ; but there are many things that are alike to a certain 
extent, and yet the same thing would not have the same effect. This whole question of 
fungicides is just in its infancy. Who heard of spraying until about 1885 or 1886 1 The 
only thing that was heard of was throwing a little Paris green with a watering can upon 
a bush. We have made a great deal of progress, and can stay a great many of them ; 
but we may have one compound that will do more. 

Mr. Orr : Can the spores that you speak of forming in the fall be successfully treated 
in the fall by the Bordeaux mixture ? 

Prof. Panton : I hardly think so. I think you will have to wait till the spring. 
They are in a sort of dormant condition— lying over. 

A Delegate : Where affected by mildew should we burn the leaves 1 

Prof. Panton : By all means. Wherever there is fruit or anything like that that 
has been affected by a fungoid, it should be burned up and destroyed. 

Q. — How would it do to plow it under 1 A. — It would be just as easy to destroy it. 
Plowing would do if you plow it deep enough. 

Q. — Where there is black knot on the tree would it be safe to leave the tree without 
cutting it out 1 A. — That is a very difficult thing to do. You can hardly find a case 
where there is a single knot. 

Q. — I mean the limbs ? A. — The difficulty is to cut out all what we call these 
mycelium threads. If you could get to the end of that, and were sure you had cut it out, 
you would be sure you had got rid of the trouble ; but the difficulty is to do such a thing. 
I live in hopes that we may strike a compound that will be successful. As I take the plum 
knot in June and look at it, I find spores by the thousand. The Bordeaux mixture has 
been tried, and met with some success. The success reported by a single person you 
cannot lay great stress on — there must be a number of examples before you can rely on the 
results I believe there will be a compound for this fungus, but it has not appeared yet. 

A Delegate reported that last fall he had cured the black knot on his cherry trees 
by cutting out the knot as clean as possible and painting with pure turpentine over the 



47 



blaze. This fall there was not the least sign on them, and they had healed all over just 
as if the parts had been cut out of a healthy tree. This proved to be a good way of 
treating trees where the limbs were too large to cut off without injuring the tree. 

Mr. Race : I did the same thing, only nipping them with nippers ; and I had the 
same experience as yoa have. 

Q. — Are we always safe in using Bordeaux mixture 1 A. — Yes, it may be used at 
any time. It is especially good for spraying in the early part of the spring. All the dif- 
ferent remedies are mentioned in Bulletin No. 79. 

Mr. Peart : Do you think anything is going to come from the experiments on the 
apple spot 1 

Prof. Panton : Prof. Goff, of the Wisconsin station, has been making one of a series 
of experiments. His report shows that there was a less development of spots. I think 
the same bulletin on Insecticides is issued from Ottawa. 

Prof. Craig expressed pleasure at the way in which the enemies of the fruit grower 
had been shown up by the lecturer. The formula of the Bordeaux mixture, if used in 
proportion of 6 to 4, will clog the nozzle very much ; and considerable care has to be 
taken in straining the lime which is used. If this is not done a considerable difficulty 
will be found in getting it into a fine spray. Using it half strength, which had been found 
quite effective, and taking some little care to strain the lime after mixing it with water, 
there will be no difficulty in using it effectively. 

Mr. Haddlesey gave a piano solo. 

The meeting closed by the audience singing the National Anthem. 



THIRD DAY— MORNING SESSION. 

Brantford, Thursday, Dec. 8, 1892. 

The Convention was called te order at 10 a.m. 

The Secretary i pad a telegram from Hon. A. S. Hardy, and letters from Mr. W. 
Patterson, M.P., Mr. S. D. Willard, Vice-President Horticultural Society, New York 
State, Mr. Shutt, Chemist cf the Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Mr. W. E. Wellington, 
Toronto, and Mr. E. B. Edwards, Secretary Peterborough Fruit Growers' Association, 
and Mr. J. S. Woodward, Secretary Farmers' Institutes, New York State, regretting their 
inability to be'present. 

The President : I wish to announce that arrangements have been made with the 
local association here that on payment of $1.05 persons may become members of both 
Associations. 






EXPERIMENT STATIONS FOR FRUIT. 

The following paper was read by Mr. A. M. Smith : 

Mr. President and Gentlemen : From the title of my subject as announced on the 
programme you might think I was going to give my own expeiience in growing new fruits 
but such is not my intention. " Experimenting with new fruits and its cost to the coun- 
try " is more properly the subject which I wish to present for your consideration, and in 
doing so, I may make some statements which you may think extravagant, to say the 
least ; but I want you to carefully examine the facts and see if they will not bear out 
my assertions. Last winter while I was attending a meeting of the Michigan Horticul- 
tural Society it was stated by one of their prominent members, I think their venerable 
president, T. T. Lyon (who is also a director of one of their fruit experiment stations), 
that there was annually enough money spent in the purchase of worthless fruits to 



4S 



maintain the poor of the state." I have been thinking upon this subject and making 
a little estimate of the amount spent here in Ontario and I have come to the conclusion 
that the amount spent here in worthless fruits and fruits not adapted to the climate 
and wants of the country and in their cultivation would far exceed that sum, and I 
will venture the assertion that within the last 25 years there has been more money 
wasted in them in Ontario than would take to pay her share of the national debt 
(which you all know is not a very small sum.) I know it is far easier to make an 
assertion than to prove it, and that what might be accepted as proof by those famil- 
iar with a subject might not be understood by those who were not. But I think 
all of you who have had experience in growing fruit and in marketing it will fully 
understand the difference between the value of a tree that produces ten dollars worth 
of fruit and and one that produces 50 cents worth, or less, annually ; particularly if 
the latter cost rive timts as much when planted and has perhaps had twice the time 
and money expended upon its cultivation. And t doubt not but your experience in 
rinding this out has cost some of you more than your share of the national debt. But 
there are others perhaps who are not familiar with this business whom it would be hard to 
convince that there was such a loss. But suppose we take an ordinary farmer's orchard, 
like a majority of them in our neighbourhood, and on an average what proportion of good 
paying varieties do we find that will yield a good fair crop, of a quality that will bring a 
first-class price in the market ? Take the country through and you will not find over 25 
per cent. I have packed apples in nearly all of the best apple sections in the country and 
I did not find that on an average, and what are the rest ? They are apples ranging from 
fair to worthless. Let us see what this means : Take 100 apple trees which should, at a 
low estimate, average 2 barrels to the tree for 20 years — worth one dollar per barrel — 
and because three-fourths of them are not adapted to the country or the market and they 
only average one barrel, you have a yearly loss of $100 to each one hundred trees, or 
$2,000 in 20 years. How much would that amount to on the total orcharding of Onta- 
rio 1 And this is not all, the same holds good on all other varieties of fruit ; pears, 
plums, peaches, cherries, grapes and small fruits. One-half of the money expended upon 
them has been a total loss, except to the nurseryman and perhaps the experience bought 
may be of use to some, though I am sorry to say one-half of our farmers do not seem to 
profit by it, for the very next agent that comes along with a picture of something new 
and wonderful and a recommend that it will bear from July to January in any soil or 
climate, from Manitoba to Texas, will get their order. This loss is not confined to farmers 
aud fruit growers alone. Our mechanics and townspeople are annually spending thous- 
ands of dollars for trees and plants to stock their gardens, more than one-half of which is 
inferior or worthless or not adapted to the climate. Now the question is, how has this 
state of things come about ? Who is to blame for it ? And what is the remedy 1 In the 
early history of our country there was some excuse for this. Peopln were anxious to grow 
fruit and they had no means ot knowing whether a variety was good or would succeed 
here or not till they tried it ; and later on, agents from the other side thronged the coun- 
try recommending this and that variety, and many with the hope of getting something 
good, planted a little of everything which accounts for the large collection of varieties in 
some of our old orchards. But as years rolled around and there began to be a demand 
for shipping fruits and planters began to understand what varieties were profitable they 
commenced to order these varieties largely and plant new orchards — and here comes in the 
iniquity of the tree agent, and I am sorry to say some of the nurserymen. There was 
not enough of this class of trees to supply the demand and these was inserted in their 
blank orders — which they always carry to be filled out, this clause (which is generally 
unobserved by the purchaser who signs it.) " W you have not the varieties called for you 
may substitute others which you think equally desirable." r l he consequence was that 
many a man who gave his order for Baldwins, Greenings, Northern Spy or some other 
choice variety he wanted, found out when they came to bear that he had Talman Sweet, 
Colvert, or some variety he did not want ; something the nurseryman wanted to get rid 
of or the tree agent could buy the cheapest and which they thought would be " equally 
desirable " for them to get the money for. I could point you to hundreds of such cases, but 
many of you know of them to your sorrow. Besides this there is a laudable desire on the 



49 



part of planters to get something new, something there is more money in than the old, 
and they are on the alert for new things, some of them anxious to get the start of their 
neighbors Nurserymen, knowing this, are continually introducing new things and by 
getting high recommends from one another — a kind of a " scratch my back and I'll scratch 
yours" process. They succeed in selling often at ten times the price of varieties 100 per cent, 
better It is true that an occasional one may be of value in some sections, but not one in 
a hundred proves to be superior to the old established varieties I could mention. That 
thousands of dollars have been paid for through the country and thousands more spent in 
their cultivation, and which never paid for the time spent in planting much less in nursing 
and cultivating them. Prof. Lyon, of the Michigan Fruit Experiment Station stated in his 
report last winter that " not more than one in a hundred of the new sorts or novelties, ex- 
ceeded or even equalled the old standard varieties, though some of them might appear valu- 
able for a year or two," and his advice to fruit growers was " for general planting let novel- 
ties alone." Yet glib-tongued agents will oiten induce men to invest largely in new 
untried fruits I knew of one in my section who persuaded a farmer to plant sev- 
eral acres of a new grape called the Early Dawn, for which he obtained an enormous 
price, representing that they were so early that he would have the market all to him- 
self before his neighbors grapes were ripe and thus secure a fortune. But, when they 
came to bear, the fact dawned upon him that he had been swindled — they were no 
earlier than some of the old sorts, and far below them in size, quality and product- 
iveness. Similar instances might be multiplied — but it is not necessary. We see and 
know that these are facts and can understand how they have come about, and I 
think, can see that we are in a great measure to blame for it ourselves. As long 
as we continue to invest our money on these new things simply upon the recommen- 
dation of a tree agent, or a few men interested in their sale, we shall be doomed to 
loss and disappointment. I do not wish to insinuate that nurserymen, or tree agents 
are all rogues ; far from it. I believe nurserymen are as honorable men as a class 
as are engaged in any calling and some tree agents are also ; but there are those who 
like the manufacturers and dealers in whisky are u not in it " for the good they can do 
the country but for the money they can get out of it. 

And now about the remedy for this state of affairs. We do not want to dis- 
courage experimenting in new fruits nor introducing them, if they are worthy — on the 
contrary we want to encourage this work. But we do want to devise some means 
of having it tested by competent parties not interested in its sale so that we may 
know whether it is worth planting or not, before we pay out our hard earned dollars 
for it. This is a matter that affects the whole country at large, not only fruit growers 
but consumers. We are all interested in getting the very best fruits that our country 
will produce and at the best possible rates. Anything that hinders their production in 
perfection diminishes the supply on our markets and adds to their cost. And I know of no 
better or fairer way to remedy the evil than by asking our government to assibt us in this 
matter by establishing experimental stations in fruit growing districts where fruit can be 
tested by disinterested parties under its supervision as is done in nearly all of the neigh- 
boring states and by enacting laws regulating the sale of trees and plants, making it a 
criminal offence to wilfully substitute an inferior fruit for one ordered, or in perpetrating 
frauds of a similar nature. We have advocated this measure before in our Society, and 
the matter has been brought before the Minister of Agriculture, who I think sees the 
necessity of it and is willing to do what he can to assist us. No definite action has yet 
been taker, farther than the appointing of a committee to consult as to the best means of 
carrying out the work, but who as yet have accomplished but little. Still I hope some 
more definite action will be taken during the coming winter and the matter brought 
before our legislators, who I think will see the need of this work and grant us what we ask 
and we want every fruit grower and lover of fruit interested in this work to agitate the sub- 
ject — talk it to your neighbors, bring the matter before your member of Parliament and if 
he has not got sense enough to see the necessity of it ask him to step down and out and put 
some one in his place who has. 

4 (F.G.) 



50 



Mr. Lee asked whether the statement by fruit-tree men : c ' We will not be respon- 
sible for any verbal statements made by our agents," is binding on the purchaser. 

The Secretary : I don't see how the nurserymen could protect themselves from some 
agents who might say a good many unauthorized things unless that was allowed. I think 
that what is written is all right to be understood a3 the agreement between the two parties. 

Mr. M. Pettit : I think that was a very excellent paper, and covers the ground 
pretty thoroughly ; and as the time is short possibly it would be better to refer it to a 
committee without discussion. 

The Secretary moved that the subject of Experiment Station be referred to a com- 
mittee of three, with Mr. A. M. Smith as chairman, and that A. H. Pettit and M. Pettit 
be the other two members of the committee. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan, seconded the motion; 

Prof. Craig : Would it not be advisable to add a member from some other part of 
the Province — perhaps the western part 1 

The President : Will you suggest a name ? 

Prof. Craig : Mr. Hilborn, of Leamington. 

The motion was then carried. 



STRAWBERRIES. 



The following topic was then taken up : " Three best strawberries for market and 
three best for home garden." 

Mr. John Little, of Granton, Ont., was called on. He said it was a difficult question 
to answer, so as to get strawberries that will suit all parts of the Province. Amongst the 
later varieties for commercial purposes the best are Haverland, Bubach, Warfield, Gandy. 
There are larger varieties than those, and superior, but they are not in cultivation yet — 
they are two seedlings that I have tried for some time. One is Regina of Alabama, and 
the next is Weston from Wisconsin ; and that matures about six days later than any 
variety I have ever grown. 

Mr. Race : Would you say anything about the Bubach for foreign markets? 

Mr. Little : For shipping purposes I would mention the Woolverton. In all the 
strawberries T have ever raised I have never grown any that beats that variety. I would 
name the Princess of Minnesota. Barton's Eclipse is a pistillate variety, but it is early. 
Bederwood is the proper one to fertilize with, and comes in about the same time. 

Mr. A. M. Smith : Have you any experience with Williams 1 

Mr. Little : Yes. I cannot find any fault with the Williams with regard to the 
plant — it is a very good plant; but the white tip is just like that of its parent — the 
Sharpless. That is detrimental to it in more ways than one. Although some say it suits 
the market well, in our market they do not care for either the Sharpless or the Williams, 
yet both are excellent bearers. 

The Secretary : The Williams is a good deal better shipper than the Sharpless, isn't 
it? 

Mr. Little : Yes. 

Mr. Race : Tell us what three varieties would be the most suitable for the St. Mary's 
district. 

Mr. Little : The Princess, both for shipping and home use. It is large and beauti- 
ful and good. It has got several prizes at the Minnesota fairs, Gillespie would be another 
very good one, both for shipping and home use — it is large and good. It is a seedling of 
the Haverland, and resembles it very much in shape, it is solid. The Haverland, although 
a good bearer, is not a good shipper, it is soft. Enhance would be another good 
bearer, and a good shipper too. There is nothing I like so well for its size as the 
Greenville, introduced this year from Ohio. Among the older varieties for the commercial 
grower the best are Haverland, Bubach, Warfield and Gandy. The following are equally 
as good, and some of them better, owing to their size, color and productiveness, and even 
for keeping longer in fruit : Woolverton, Princess, Moore's Early. 



51 



RESULT OF TWENTY YEARS' STRAWBERRY CULTURE. 

Mr. John Little of Granton, read the following paper, being the experience gained 
in growing strawberries during the last twenty years. 

Experience implies failure as well as success, and these are not always pleasant to 
contemplate or rehearse. The thought of a failure, even in review, has a depressing effect. 
Still failures are lessons, and if followed by improvement, are profitable. " Variety is the 
spice of life " is true with regard to the strawberry industry. Why, there would be no 
need of horticultural societies if there were no failures to recount, and think how much 
we should miss ! 

To give a detailed account since I first began growing the strawberry, would fi'l o> 
many pages and take up too much time, and I take it, that to give methods of procedure 
since I commenced growing this, the choicest of God's choicest gifts to man, would be 
simply reiterating what has been said, and so well said, over and over again at the yearly 
meetirgs of this society, and embodied in their reports. When I first commenced grow 
ing the strawberry I had no idea of growing the berries for market, or plants for sale 
but to raise berries for our home use. I enlarged our planting, and had no difficulty in 
selling the surplus, and during all these years I have sold to the same retail house in St. 
Marys never having to ship to other points. Up till this date I have tested all other 
varieties that have been brought to the notice of the strawberry-loving public. There is 
no mystery about strawberry growing. The plant thrives upon any good soil, and its cul- 
ture is simple, the only secrets of a bountiful yield of fruit are, first, the selection of suit- 
able varieties and, second, thorough preparation of the ground and systematic cultivation : 
and, when thus generously treated, there is no product of the soil that gives larger returns 
for the time and labor expended nor is there any more certain fruit crop grown in our 
country. From the great number of strawberries now in cultivation, it is impossible to 
say of any two or three, or of any half dozen or dozen, " these are the best and should 
have the preference of all others." The value of many varieties depends on the locality 
where they are raised — soil, climate and the particular market where they are disposed of 
determining in some measure their worth. Many of the varieties of the highest qualities 
and which are most estimable for the garden when they are to pass directly to the table 
have peculiarities which unfit them for profitable cultivation for shipping to distant mar- 
kets, and on the other hand some of the most profitable varieties for large growers who 
send tbem to distant markets are so inferior in quality that they would be refused at the 
table of a connoisseur such as every amateur grower of this most delicious fruit should be. 
To some extent every strawberry grower must test varieties for himself, but the varieties 
now in cultivation are all so good, and the information in regard to them so full, that 
there is little danger in obtaining any that is really worthless. 

ARE NEW VARIETIES VALUABLE IN COMPARISON WITH THE OLD. 

Some selected hints in this connection are worth careful consideration. Just what 
variety will give best satisfaction on your grounds. A knowledge of varieties is of the 
most importance and no one cares to limit his acquaintance to two or three. The state- 
ment is made at horticultural meetings and elsewhere, that, with all the talk and all the 
efforts for forty years, no one has yet produced a better market berry than " Wilson's 
Albany seedling " and the conclusion was reached that all should stick to the " old reli- 
able " and let others prove the new, This may be good advice but it is hardly necessary 
inasmuch as the majority of cultivators are inclined to that course and will pursue it with- 
out any prompting, 

Fortunately for horticultural progress there are a few "cranks " in this as in other 
callings — enough to keep the world moving — and the improvements in small fruits which 
they have brought about are really marvellous when we remember that but little more 
than fifty years ago the only varieties known, were the wild berries of the field and wood. 
There is not one of the many fine varieties now known that will not in time be superseded 
by others still better. The " Wilson " was a great berry in its day (forty years ago), when 



52 



horticulture as a science was in its infancy ; it was then deemed a prodigy, and it was in 
everything bnt quantity a decided advance from previously existing varieties. No one 
would suppose it was ever new to note the observations of some conservative growers and 
writers who venerate it for what it has been rather than for what it is, and who despise 
and would belittle varieties because they are new without having tried them. The Wilson 
possessed wonderful vitality, and held its own for a long time, though, as some one 
has said, it was never fit to eat. But age and much transplanting have weakened it as 
they will weaken any variety. Except in a very few northern localities the famous Wil- 
son is now uncertain in yield. That it is nowhere as profitable as formerly is the test- 
imony of all well posted cultivators who grow for profit. Some nurserymen still grow 
the plants to satisfy the wants of a few old growers who love an old berry for its name's 
sake ; a good deal as they would love an old coat or an old political party. 

The time was when Wilson, Crescent, Sharpless, and others were our best varieties, 
bnt these have been almost displaced by other, and better kinds. 

Success with strawberries does not end with growing ; but one who is really success* 
ful follows up every detail, the selection of plants, planting, cultivating, picking, packing, 
and putting them on the market fresh, whether it be for shipping or for the home market. 
The home market is usually the most satisfactory, and if a grower is careful in all the 
details being sure that there are just as good berries at the bottom and all through the 
basket as at the top, he will soon acquire a reputation and trade for all he can grow, at 
prices that will pay him for his trouble, 

Among the older varieties for the commercial grower the best are Haverland, Bnbach, 
Warfield and Gandy. The following are equally as good as those, and some of them are 
better owing to their size, color and productiveness, and keep longer in fruiting, and are 
good to ship. I head the list with Woolverton, Princess, Lovett's Early (not early — it is 
medium and good), Gov. Hoard, Greenville, Middifield, Barton's Eclipse, Gillespie, En- 
hance, Williams. The very late berries here are in the order named : Gandy, Regina, and 
Weston from Wisconsin. In planting for a fancy market and to name a few varieties to 
cover the entire season I would advise : For early — Barton's Eclipse, Woolverton, Gov. 
Hoard ; early to medium — Beder Wood, Haverland, Bubacb No. 5 ; medium to late — 
Lovett, Gandy, Regina, Weston. For near market — Beder Wood, Bubach No. 5, and 
Haverland. 

Mr. Race (in the chair) : We would like to hear from Mr. Greig as to his experience 
in the Williams'? 

Mr. Greig of Cainsville : My experience is very favorable. The Williams is far 
more profitable — that is if any strawberry in this locality is profitable. It 
is superior to the Wilson and the Crescent. The Wilson does not do 

well in our soil. We tested the Crescent alomj; with the Williams. The first two pick- 
ings we will have more from the Crescent, but it dwindles down. The Williams has a 
long season ; I think last season we gathered them a little over four weeks. We had 
no trouble with the white tips last year. By leaving them a day longer on the plant they 
ripened up to the very tip. We had trouble with some pickers, who would take them 
with the white tips ; but we were hard put to get pickers last year, and we picked them 
ourselves. We always received a cent or a cent and a half over the common berry. 

Mr. Race : What three varieties would you recommend for the home market 1 

Mr. Greig : The Williams, the Bubach and the Warfield. 

Mr. Race : You would not care to recommend any three for shipping ? 

Mr. Grf ig : No. 

Mr. W. H. Lee (Niagara): I have had, possibly, more experience in the Williams 
than any one in the Association, having introduced the berry to the Association while 
they were in session at Niagara, and grown it now for about eight years. My experience 
has been such that if I had to grow the Wilson and the Crescent, and allow somebody 
else to grow the Williams, I would quit right off, for I would feel that I could not make a 
living. In shipping to Toronto I can get for the Williams from two to three cents a bas- 



53 



ket more than for the Crescent and Wilson. You will make a mistake if you do not give 
the Williams strawberry prominence, I say it with no personal interests whatever ; but 
I have tested it in this locality — once having lived here — and it is doing very well where 
I am now. Of course it will do better upon heavier soil. It may not stand drouth with 
the Bubach, but it is a very much better paying berry. I can safely say I get two bas- 
kets to one, and a better price. The Bubach is too soft to ship to any distant market, 
although I shipped them as far as Montreal with no bad results. There is one point I 
would like to make about windbreaks. Pretty thick windbreaks are very essential in this 
locality — and the farther you go north the more essential they are ; but in the Niagara 
peninsula where I am you don't want too many of them, because we are situated between 
the two waters, and when this muggy weather comes on we want a circulation of air. 
Here, where the thermometer sometimes goes 20 ° below zero, a windbreak is a very good 
thing ; but if the thermometer doesn't go below zero you don't need them. 

Mr. E. D. Smith : Sufficient importance is hardly given to firmness in strawberries. 
The three chief elements of success in strawberries are : vigor of plant, productiveness, 
and firmness of strawberries. We have a large market in the Maritime Provinces, 
because our market opens up two or three weeks earlier than theirs. We must grow a 
firmer berry. 

Mr. Little : And larger. 

Mr. Smith : The Williams fills that bill — it is large and it is firm. It is almost as 
prolific a plant as the Orescent. 

Mr. Blanchard : I would name the three for home : Saunders, Eureka and War- 
field ; for Market : Bubach, Haverland and Saunders. 

Mr. Race : Eor the last few years I have run from twenty to thirty varieties of 
strawberries in my garden. I ran these down to the Williams, the Bubach and Haver- 
land ; and I would limit farther to Bubach and Williams. 

Mr. Hilborn : I think the Haverland is far superior to the Bubach, take it all 
round. The Wilson is still a favorite in our section, only it is badly affected with the 
rust on leaves. If we could cure it of that, and be careful about the selection of plants, 
— I think there is a good deal about the point that was made as to getting the new plants 
from plants that have never borne — there is no better berry for canning or for shipping, 
if grown on a loam, for our locality. 

Mr. Little : Take the first runner that comes, and no more ; and if it offers to put 
out a runner, nip it off and let it get fully established, with roots you could hold in your 
hand. 



EXPERIENCE WITH PEAR CULTURE. 

Mr. S. Hunter, of Scotland, read the following paper : 

When I received the invitation from your worthy Secretary to give a paper upon 
pear culture, I felt that had he given me pear failure instead I might probably have been 
in a position to do a measure of justice to that side of the question. 

I very much resemble the man in the parable who planted a vineyard, let it to 
husbandmen and took his journey to a far country. He came seeking fruit but found 
none, but in some respects he was better off than I. His vines were there, while I found 
quite a number of stumps and the skeleton of my once beautiful and thrifty pear orchard, 
and that too after an absence of only about seven years. I should therefore have two or 
three years time allowed for treatment before being called to account. Just here I 
would say, that of all the fruits we grow in this climate the pear is the most capricious 
and intricate, ever determined to grow its own way. Some one has written i( as the 
twig is bent the tree is inclined," but that man had not much experience growing pear 
trees, unless it might have been Winter Nelis and a few of that class. They would suit 
the farmer who planted his potatoes in the moon and wanted to get up there to hoe them. 



54 



I would add a note of caution to the person who just takes to pear growing for what 
money there is in it ; unless he has a love for the pursuit for its own sake and expects to 
trim up the body so he can work close to or under them with his team, sow and reap 
grain annually, besides making a stockyard of the orchard all winter, that person had 
better try something else. Yet it is a most fascinating pursuit to those who become 
interested in it and make it a sort of hobby. 

My first experience with the pear was on the other side of the Atlantic. When 
•an apprentice I was allowed to compound the clay for grafting a few trees in the garden, 
and there my love for the pursuit was first aroused, but I need only go back about 
twenty- five years to the time I purchased the site of our present home, commencing with 
four pear trees, if I count dead as well as partly so. One I dusj up, one had a 
sucker from the root that I grafted, cutting the old tree even with the ground, the 
other two were partly blighted, which parts I carefully removed.. My scion grew, 
showed no signs of blight, in three years, I topgrafted again with another variety, and 
it is to-day as good a tree as any left. It was a little blighted when I returned, I 
kept the soil well worked and manured and like many amateurs did a great many 
unnecessary things. 

I scraped the bark, washed the trunk with a variety of preparations, mulched with 
straw, coarse manure, grass, sawdust and chips and it would be difficult to tell what all 
I did ; all of which I regard as a waste of time, excepting whatever plant food there is 
in it. Mean-while I kept increasing the number of trees and varieties, which numbered 
more than the trees, at one time obtaining the stock from a variety of sources, the 
Fruit Growers' Association included. I did not heed the warning against too many 
varieties, a rock upon which a goodly number have struck, as we find when the buyer 
comes around and will take but one variety. I also raised quite a number of seedlings. 
I am saving two for further trial, which I think have merit. Two rows of seedlings 
suffered quite as much from blight as did the grafted varieties, during my absence. 
After a few years cultivation and care, blight disappeared and, for about twelve years 
before I left, I could have carried all the blighted branches in my arms at one time. 
Nor was there any sign of blight on trees young or old, when I left eight years ago, 
nor so far as I can learn two or three years later, the orchard then consisting of about 
four hundred trees, a few in other lots. During all that time, blight was just as common 
all around, as at present although not quite so many pears grown, but here let me draw 
the curtain and sum up my experience, or lessons of the past. 

Location. — Whilst it is well to select a suitable location when a choice is possible, 
still in most cases we have no choice, and, if lacking in any important quality, supply it 
as far as we can, such as drainage, shelter, or, even qualities lacking in the soil may be, 
to a great extent, made up. Our land is a sandy loam, with limestone, gravel and clay 
subsoil, naturally drained, and with southern exposure. 

Shelter. — I plant both evergreens and deciduous trees. Our native hemlock (abies 
canadensis) is a favorite with me, although of slower growth than many others. Our are 
sheltered on three sides, north, east and west, planting trees and shade at the same time 
and letting all grow up together. 

Preparation of soil — When time permits I manure and fall plow, but for the most 
part I have planted the trees and prepared the land afterwards which answered quite as 
well, often saving a year's growth in the trees. 

Choice of trees — When possible I select good sized, thrifty young trees, the wood 
well ripened. I prefer those grown south of where they are intended to grow, they are 
not so likely to be blackhearted. I get them either in spring or fall, with a preference 
for fall, heel in, but in no case plant in the fall. I can then plant in spring just as soon as 
frost is out, which is much earlier than we can get them from the nursery. 

Varieties. — The choice of varieties depends so much upon what disposition you are 
going to make of the fruit, as well as location, that I will say very little about it, especi- 
ally as there is such a good list of pears given in the last year's Annual Report of this 
Association, and although I have in cultivation about fifty named varieties, I would not 
like to discard any with two exceptions, that is the Autumn Belle and the KiefTer. To 



55 



illustrate, when I tried to sell a few of the first named variety to Mr. B. Foster, a well 
known fruit dealer of this city, he said : " No, sir, Mr. H., for 1 tell you when they come 
to be good, they are good for nothing, and that is more than can be said of Kieffer, for it 
never does come to be good at all, and I have tried it both here and in the State of Dela- 
ware, where it ought to grow to perfection, if any where." 

Planting. — Having the ground staked out J use a planter, figure of which was given 
in the Canadian Horticulturist some time ago. I only take up a few trees at a time, 
and keep them covered from sun and air with a horseblanket, dig the hole larger than 
will receive the roots and a little deeper, throw two spadefuls of surface soil in the bottom, 
leaving it a little crowning in the center, on this let the roots radiate, with a downward 
tendency, (after having cut of all broken ends with a sharp knife) and only a little 
deeper than the tree stood in the nursery, for most trees are planted too deep. Put in a 
little fine soil and fill well among the roots, then fill level and pack firm, holding the top 
a little to westward. Head in a little, cutting of all broken and crushed twigs. Trees 
are usually sufficiently pruned before leaving the nursery to suit me. 

Cultivation. — I make a point of keeping the ground well stirred around all young 
trees for the first two years at least, if situated where I can reach them with a cultivator \ 
if not, I keep a circle hoed at least three feet from the tree once in two weeks until the 
last of August. I prefer keeping the ground well stirred, to mulching, in fact I do not 
mulch at all. I think it does more harm than good. 

Manuring. — Give the land a liberal manuring broadcast, the trees will find it. 
Well rotted barnyard manure, wood ashes, broken or crushed bone, and if the land is 
sand or gravelly, a mixture of swamp muck is good for leaf and wood growth. I have 
also used considerable horse hoof-parings, which I think beneficial. I grow hoed 
crops ss long as there is room, and light corn is a favorite crop on account of the 
shade it affords during the hot weather. 

Pruning. — In the matter of pruning, I find myself in direct opposition to most 
of the advice given, even in the Horticulturist. I cannot help it. I would not prune 
any tree that I wished to live and grow, out of the growing season. I would not 
prune a scrub oak in winter, unless I wished to make it more scrubby. Why just 
look at those once beautiful shade trees in parks and streets of this city. The scars 
of last winter's pruning will not be healed over in the next ten years. I find the 
best time to prune is when fruit is setting, or a little later, both fcr growth and fruit- 
fulness, as well as quick healing. To prune in this climate in, winter, or early spring, 
whether hard frozen, or not frozen at all, is, to say the least, very injurious. I have 
noticed wounds made from winter pruning to bleed for three years in succession, causing 
sap rot and attracting borers and that too after the application of a coat of paint. 
Winter prunning came from across the Atlantic and, although not so injurious there, 
it were better done in the growing season. I like the pyramidal form of the pear tree, 
with branches coming close to the ground ; head in to keep them from going too 
rapidly skyward, and only remove the lower branches gradually. I use them to grow 
roots and stocky stems, being careful to leave enough of the lower ones to keep the trunk 
shaded, unless otherwise provided for. I am fully aware that it requires more hand labor 
to work under them, but we cannot get pears to do well with a tall bare trunk, like some 
of the long legged appletrees you see standing all about, with a tuft of branches resem- 
bling a broom on the end of a pole. Mine were so tteated during my absence and to 
this, more than anything else, I attribute the loss of so many of the most thrifty trees. 
Eetter prune none at all than too much, or out of season. I was much interested last 
summer in watching the fight for life with some trees that had been thus mutilated. A 
part of the branches grew straight up and part grew downward, forming a sort of cloak 
to shield the body from the burning sun. They spoke to me in unmistakable language, 
as though they felt the pain and said never allow me to be stripped in that way again. 
Those that had not vigor enough to thus shield themselves gave up the contest and I 
have grubbed out already over one hundred. 

Thinning. — I regard this as a very important operation, the pear, like the plum, is 
apt to overbear, and both for the life of the tree and quality of fruit should be carefully 
thinned. 



56 



Spraying is now a necessity. I suppose those who would grow smooth and sound 
fruit but not having sufficient experience in that line will be glad to hear it from some 
one who has, and this paper being already too long I thank you for a patient hearing 
and take my seat. 



SERIOUS INJURY THREATENING OUR PEAR TREES. 

The following paper on this subject was presented by Mr. D. W. Beadle of 
Toronto : 

In Saunders' " Insects Injurious to Fruits," brief mention is made of a very small 
insect that has recently spread in such immense numbers into western New York, and 
has inflicted such severe losses upon cultivators of the pear, that it seems highly im- 
portant to warn our fruit growers of the probable invasion of Canada by this destructive 
foe of the pear tree. It is known to entomologists as the Pear-tree Psylla. Psylla 
pyricola was imported from Europe in 1832 on some young pear trees into the State of 
Connecticut, from whence it has spread into Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, 
Michigan and Illinois. In the season of 1891 it suddenly appeared in such enormous 
numbers that thousands of dollars worth of fruit and many trees were destroyed by it. 
It seems at present to he most abundant and therefore most destructive in the adjoining 
State of New York, and for this reason we call attention now to this minute but form- 
idable insect, that our pear growers may be warned in time, and be on the look out for its 
appearance and prepared to give it battle. 

Its presence in force is indicated by the drooping and withering of the young shoots 
early in the season, followed by the sickly appearance of the whole tree, the leaves turn- 
ing yellow, and the fruit scarcely increasing in size, until at length the leaves and fruit 
fall. Accompanying these indications is the presence of large quantities of honey-dew 
on the twigs, branches and trunks, sometimes dropping in a shower upon the ground. 
This sweet, water-like fluid appears soon after the leaves expand, and continues during 
the season. At first it is clear like water, but soon a black fungus grows in it, spreading 
rapidly, giving it a dark sooty appearance as if the trees had been a long time enveloped 
in the dense smoke of some factory. 

The insect that is the cause of all this mischief may be found laying its eggs just 
as soon as mild weather sets in, usually about the middle of April. The insects found at 
this time have passed the winter hidden under the loosened bark of the large limbs or 
trunk or in cavities formed by the bark growing about the scar of a severed branch. 
They are so small and in color so like that of the bark that it is not easy to see them. 
Yet they are larger than those of the summer broods and differ from them so much in 
many respects that eminent entomologists have supposed them to be a different species, 
and gave them the name of Psylla simulans But the only differences are in their 
larger size and darker color. They are nearly one-third larger, and the predominating 
color is black, the body being of a dark reddish brown with intensely black markings, 
while the front wings are quite transparent. Both sexes will be found in about equal 
numbers, and if sought for as soon as the mild weather has warmed them into life will be 
seen in copulation. In the course of ten days the work of procreation will have been 
completed, and most of the eggs been laid. These are deposited in the creases of the bark, 
in the leaf scars about the bases of the terminal buds, and occasionally about the side 
buds near the terminal. Usually they are laid singly, but sometimes in rows of eight or 
ten. These eggs are so small that it would require eighty placed end to end to measure 
an inch, hence are scarcely visible without the aid of a magnifier. They are somewhat 
pyriform, smooth, shining, light orange when first laid, becoming darker before hatching, 
attached to the tree by a short stalk on the larger end, and exhibiting a long thread- 
like process from the smaller. The length of time elapsing between the laying and 
hatching of the eggs depends upon the temperature. Those taken into a warm room 
hatched in eleven days, while those left upon the trees did not hatch until more than a 
month after they were laid, the weather being cool. In about forty-five days from the 
time the egg-laying commenced the most of the eggs were hatched, and the insects that had 
passed the winter in hibernation had disappearod. 



57 



Immediately that the insect is hatched it seeks a feeding place, its favorite place 
being the axil of the leaf stalk, or of the fruit stems. At this stage of its life it is very 
unlike the mature insect ; it is now in what is called the nymph stage, corresponding to 
the larval stage of the butterfly, or to speak with greater precision, to the combined 
stages of larva and chrysalis. They do not move about much unless disturbed, then they 
crawl off quite rapidly. 

Figure 1 is a highly magnified drawing of an egg, showing the stalk by which it is 
attached to the bark projecting from the under side of the large end, and the long thread- 
like elongation of the small end. 

Figure 2 is a representation of the nymph as seen from above, when it has become 
full grown, also highly magnified ; and figure 3 exhibits the under side. The line at the 
side of each indicates its actual size. 




Fig. 1. 




Full grown nymph, 
dorsal view. 



When first hatched the nymphs are oval in outline, of a pale transparent yellow, 
the abdomen more opaque and darker ; the eyes crimson, large and distiact, but the 
insects are so small as to be scarcely visible without the aid of a lens, measuring only 
.013 of an inch in length. The wing pads are not yet to be seen. In about seven days 
they undergo their first moult, the skin bursts along the middle of the head and back, 
and the nymph crawls out to seek a new feeding place, leaving the old skin attached to 
the globule of honey-dew it had secreted. The wing-pads are now discernible. In about 
four days they moult a second time, and have now attained to .027 of an inch in length, 
and the wing-pads, perceptibly larger. The third moult occurs about three days after ; 
the nymphs are now .038 of an inch long, thn eyes have become of a dark crimson hue, 
and the wing-pads are larger. They continue in this stage about four days, and then 
moult for the fourth time. The nymphs have now assumed the appearance shown in 
figures 2 and 3, measuring .055 of an inch in length, and .045 of an inch in breadth, are 
of a general blackish color, often tinged with red, and the eyes of a bright crimson. The 
wing-pids are black and form a conspicuous feature ; while the whole body is very much 
flattened, the thickness being only one-fifth of the leogth. This is the last nymph stage. 
In about five or six days the perfect insect crawls out of the nymph skin. In all of 
these stages the nymphs secrete globules of honey -dew several times larger than them- 
selves, but the adult insects do not appear to secrete any, but instead void considerable 
quantities of a whitish excrement. 

Figure 4 is a magnified representation of the mature insect. Nine or ten of them 
placed end to end, and about forty placed side to side would be required to measure an 
inch. The general color varies from a light scarlet to crimson, with black markings. 
The front wings are slightly tinged with yellow, the hind wings are quite transparent 
and more delicate. When the insects are at rest these two pairs of large transparent 
wings slope roof-like over their sides. As might be expected from the fact that in this 



58 



stage they are provided with wings and strong legs, they jump up and fly off at the 
least disturbance ; and as they can fly from tree to tree by taking advantage of strong 
currents of air, they are able to spread rapidly over considerable distances. They are 
provided with a beak with which they feed upon the sap drawn from the tissues of the 
leaves and tender twigs. 

FRRS In three or four days after the mature insects are hatched procreation and egg-laying 
for another brood commences. These eggs are laid on the under side of the tenderest 
leaves near the mid rib or on the leaf-stalk near the leaf, usually singly, sometimes several 
in a row or in a group. The weather now being warmer than in the spring, the eggs 
are hatched in from eight to ten days, the crimson eyes of the nymph becoming plainly 
visible through the shells near the larger end of the egg a day or two before hatching. 
It is Dot yet known how long they live in this mature stage under natural conditions ; 
when'confined in breeding cages in the house they lived for several days. 









Adult Insect. 



Fig. 3. Full grown nymph, ventral view, 
a. anus ; b. beak. 



It has been ascertained that this year the number of broods was at least four. The 
adults that hibernated laid their eggs in April, and the adults of this brood made their 
appearance about the middle of June, and a new brood appeared about a month after, 
and so continuously during each month until about the 25th of September. The adults 
that appeared in September differed from those of the spring and summer broods, being 
nearly one-third larger, their coloring darker, the crimson changed to a dark reddish 
brown, the veins of the wings dark brown or black, and the front wings instead of being 
of a yellowish tinge were quite transparent with blackish shades of varying intensity in 
the cells. These adults are the hibernating form of this insect pest ; they continue to 
feed until the leaves fall, and then hide in crevices of the bark, etc , where they pass 
the winter aud emerge in the spring to begin again the cycle of perpetuation of the 
species. 

During all the stages of active existence they feed upon the sap of the tree ; their 
feeding apparatus both as nymphs and adults consisting of a short, pointed beak, and 
three long thread-like setse which move along grooves in the beak. When feeding the 
point of the beak is placed against the leaf or tender twig, the setse inserted into the 
sap cells, and the sap drawn up through the beak. The nymphs elaborate most of their 
food into honey-dew, but the adults do not seem to secrete any honey-dew. but all their 
food beiug assimilated they void considerable excrement, much more than the 
nymphs. 

The interesting question of how we can successfully combat this very destructive 
insect remains to be considered. Experiments carefully conducted during the past 



59 



summer have demonstrated that it is of no use to apply kerosene emulsion, undiluted 
kerosene, turpentine emulsion, turpentine undiluted, crude carbolic acid emulsion, sulphide 
of potash, doubie strength, concentrated potash, one pound to a gallon of water, nor 
benzine undiluted to the egg. Nor can the mature insects be destroyed by spraying the 
trees, for no sooner does the spray strike the tree than they take wing and fly off until 
they can return in safety ; also spraying has but little if any effect on the old nymphs, 
when they are so enveloped in honey-dew that the insecticide cannot reach them. 

But it was found that the young nymphs were very tender, that they succumbed at 
once under an application of kerosene emulsion containing less than three per cent, of 
kerosene, dying almost immediately after the liquid touched them. It will be seen from 
this that the best time to spray is early in the spring, just after the leaves have expanded, 
for at this time the first brood of nymphs will have been hatched and will not have be- 
come large enough to cover themselves with honey-dew ; and if we can succeed in killing 
even seventy-five per cent, of this brood we have made a great reduction in the number 
of the succeeding summer generations. It has also been found that heavy showers of 
rain wash the honey-dew from the nymphs so as to expose them to the fatal effects of 
kerosene emulsion if it is applied immediately after, or so soon after that they have not 
becoms again enveloped in the honey-dew. The trees are in no danger of being injured 
by such a dilute emulsion as one containing only three per cent, of kerosene. 

It is therefore important that fruit growers should very carefully examine their pear 
trees in the spring when the leaves are expanding, and search in the places where these 
insects resort for the newly-hatched, crimson-eyed nymphs, and if they are at all numer- 
ous lose no time in spraying the trees with the kerosene emulsion. If they are very 
numerous it will be advisable to repeat the spraying two or three times during the fort- 
night succeeding their first appearance. If thoroughly done at this time the destruction 
will be so great as to preserve the trees from any serious injury, yet it will be well to 
examine the trees frequently during the summer, and if they are still to be found return 
again to the spraying so that the hibernating brood may be so reduced in numbers as to 
be unable to multiply in sufficient numbers to work serious mischief the next year. 

The writer is indebted for the knowledge of the life history of this insect enemy of 
the pear, and of the efficiency of kerosene emulsion as a means of keeping it in subjec- 
tion, and of the time when spraying will be found to be most efficient to Mr. Mirk V. 
Stingerland, whose careful observations and experiments are published in extenso in 
Bulletin 44, October, 1892, of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment ^Station. 

The writer would further suggest that in the event of the weather continuing dry, 
there being no showers sufficient to wash the honey-dew from the nymphs, and they are 
found to be present in full force, the pear grower might find it highly advantageous to 
shower his trees artificially with pure water from a force pump, thus washing off the 
honey-dew, and following this speedily with the kerosene emulsion. 

Kerosene emulsion is made by thoroughly dissolving one quart of sofc-soap, or one 
quarter of a pound of hard soap in two quarts of boiling water ; as soon as this is done 
and while it is yet quite hot, one pint of kerosene oil is stirred in, and the whole violently 
agitated by drawing it into a syringe or force-pump and driving the liquid back into the 
kettle for at least five minutes, or until the whole mass assumes a creamy consistency, 
adhering to the sides of the vessel, not gliding off like oil. This will keep for a long 
time if placed in a cool, dark place. When wanted for use measure out the quantity 
taken and dissolve it in sufficient boiling wat^r to make the amount of kerosene one- 
fifteenth part. If the whole is take the quantity of water required would be four quarts. 
This is Prof. A. J. Cook's formula, of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station. 
The Hubbard-Riley formula is much stronger of kerosene. It is half a pDund of hard 
or soft soap, a gallon of boiling water, and two gallons of kerosene. The3e are to be 
combined in the same manner, and the emulsion diluted with water until the kerosene is 
reduced to the desired proportion. 



60 



REPORT ON PEARS. 

Mr. D. W. Beadle read the following report of Committee : (See appendix II). 

Mr. Beadle explained that the late, Mr. Dempsey was a member of the Committee, 
and Mr. Holton had been unable to meet A letter was read from Mr. Holton, suggest- 
ing that the column headed cooking should be omitted ; the list, as at present prepared, 
being more liable to mislead than to assist. The Vicar is rated at 10, while a number of 
better pears, in Mr. Holton's opinion, are rated only at 8 or 9. Mr. Holton asked that 
his resignation as a member of the Committee be accepted, as he was not able to properly 
perform the duties, Mr. Beadle moved the adoption of the report. 

The Secretary seconded the motion, and suggested that the meeting hear criticisms 
on any pear any person wishes to mention, not to go over the list one by one 5 as time 
forbids. 

Mr. Hunter thought the Keiffer pear should be cut out of this list. 

Mr. A. M. Smith : It is one of the best keepers in our district, and in Wisconsin 
has been so considered. 

Mr. Orr asked if the Keiffer hybrid is the same 1 

Mr. Smith : All the same. 

Mr. Hunter thought there must be some confusion as between the Keiffer and the 
Leconte. 

The Secretary : They are different in every way. The Keiffer is of very poor 
quality we all acknowledge, as a table pear. If has no place as a table pear, and ought 
not to have ; but if well grown it has a beautiful color, and certainly sells remarkably 
well until people get to know it. As a canning pear I believe it is not excelled. 

Mr. A. M. Smith : I would not place Souvenir de Congres among Summer pears. 
It is as late with me as Flemish Beauty. 

Mr. Blanchard : The Buffam should be struck out. It comes in with the Bartiett. 

Mr. Pattison : My experience with the Bartiett is that it does not generally ripen 
till October, 

Mr. Race : There is no object in striking a pear off the list, give it a lo w value. 

Mr. Blanchard : We are o 1 ged to pick that pear at the same time as the Bartiett. 

Mr. A. M. Smith moves thi«G the Doyenne Boussock be put out of the list of 
autumn pears. 

Mr. Beadle suggested that the words Summer, Autumn and Winter be struck out 
altogether, and that the names be put down alphabetically, because summer pears in the 
Niagara District are not summer pears down toward Trenton or up toward Muskoka. 

The Secretary : I would second Mr. Beadle's motion as to the adoption of the 
report, with the addendum that the list be re-arranged alphabetically. 

Prof. Craig : The present arrangement by seasons is a very valuable guide to the 
planter. 

Mr. Morris : Put them alphabetically, and the date when they ripen. 

Mr. Beadle : The date when they ripen at Niagara is one, and the date of rip a n" 
ing at Ottawa is another. 

Prof. Panton . Why not put a foot note saying this list is for Niagara District, and 
that for other districts allowances have to be made. 

Mr. Morris : If this list is for planters it should go further and give something 
about the condition of the trees, and pro luctiveness, and so forth. It is a little mislead- 
ing in that respect. I will move that the report be sent back to the committee for revi- 
sion. 



61 



The Secretary . That is throwing it off for a long time. Let the matter go out to 
the public, and let them criticise it. 

Mr. Morris : Those varieties subject to disease, and so on, should be mentioned. 

Prof. Craig moved that the report be accepted as it is, bat the committee be not dis- 
charged, but stand over, to report next year and make such additions as have been sug- 
gested, be accepted, and a committee composed of Mr. Beadle, Messrs. G. W. Cline and 
W. H. Dempsey be reappointed to further consider this question of a pear list, with a 
special view of adding a column giving the season approximately and another giving 
productiveness. 

Mr. Race : That is a very practical suggestion. 

Mr. M. Pettit : I would suggest that G. W. Cline be added to that committee, to 
take the late Mr. Dempsey's place. 

Mr. Pettit, Winona, seconded Prof. Craig's motion, which was carried. 

For the pear list, which constituted this report, see Appendix ill. 



GOOSEBERRIES. 



Mr. Beall (Lindsay) named, as the three most profitable gooseberries, Whitesmith, 
Pearl and Downing. He said : I am satisfied that these will produce more money 
than any three that I am aware of. I think we have neglected to bring this matter 
before our Association as we should have done for some time past. The gooseberry is 
certainly one of the most profitable fruits that is grown in Canada, I think there is more 
profit in it to-day than there is in grapes. Better financial results can be got from a 
quantity of gooseberries than from any other fruit grown. 

Mr. Race : The gooseberry has been a hobby of mine for a number of years, and I 
place the Whitesmith at the head of the list for profit. There is a general complaint 
against it for mildew. I never had any mildew in my garden on that berry ; and I 
have a larger growth of bush, I think, than almost any man that I have seen anywhere 
in the Province, and my bushes bear heavier than any I have seen. I use no fertilizer 
now except ashes. I believe if you give the Whitesmith plenty of sunlight aud air, 
and purify your soil beneath it every spring with a scattering of ashes, that it will 
prevent the mildew. That is all I have done for the last eight years. This year I 
was away from home a great deal, and did not do much in any garden, and neglected 
putting ashes beneath all my gooseberries ; and this is the first year in nine years that 
there has been a specimen of mildew in my garden. This has proved to me that ashes 
prevent mildew. I sprinkle unleached ashes from half an inch to an inch in depth, 
extending for about two feet from the centre of the roots in bushes, and leave them dur- 
ing the summer time. My soil is a clay loam. 

Mr. Blanchard : Pearl, Conn and Downing are the three that I have selected. 

Mr. Orr : 1 have grown the Whitesmith for a number of years, and have treated 
them with ashes — not so heavy as you speak of — and have had a crop every year without 
mildew. 



STATISTICS OF FRUIT. 

The Secretary introduced the topic : " Could not the Bureau of Industries give a 
more complete report of the yields of the various fruits of Ontario f Very frequently 
the question is asked : What is the quantity of the products of any fruit, the number of 
tons of grapes in any section, any county ; and we are totally unable to give any idea of 
the amount of the products of strawberries or any other fruit. Some attention is given 
to the orchard in general, and to the apple in the report; and I do not see why more 
attention should not be given to the various other fruits. There is very full attention 



62 



given to agriculture. We have full report as to oats and potatoes and beans, and we can 
find out just what each county produces ; but we cannot get at the figures at all to 
answer such questions regarding fruits. The collection of statistics is an important 
question to us, and if it would be at all practicable I am sure we would all be glad to 
have more attention given to the fruits in that way. I think probably Mr. James would 
say something to us in regard to that. 

Mr. James : You will remember that last year this subject was brought to the 
notice of the Association, and some resolutions were adopted ; and in accordance with the 
request of the Association at that time, I attempted this year for the first time to obtain 
some statistics in regard to fruit cultivation and fruit production. If there is any fault 
in the matter T think you will have to admit that the fault lies not with us but with the 
fruit men themselves. In the first place it will be necessary for us to get the acreage, 
or rather the number of bearing trees of the various fruits in the Province. I sent out 
and got from the various directors of the Association lists of apple growers. We 
attempted apples first. I got long lists, and sent out one thousand cards to apple- 
growers all over the Province. Now, from that list how many returns do you suppose 
I got? ["Fifty," "a hundred."] Well, I got just about 100. That is, one out of 
every ten men who were recommended by you as directors of this Association, replied 
to that card. Now, if we cannot get the fruit men to answer these questions, what are 
we going to do 1 That is the first difficulty ; and I put that right before you just to show 
where we are met. Now, it would not be advisable to make returns from simply one 
hundred answers. However, I had taken the precaution among our regular correspon- 
dents to ask certain questions in regard to apples and other fruits ; and thereby I got the 
material which was used as the basis of our reports in connection with the August crop 
bulletin, in which I gave a special section to the apple production of Ontario ; and 
I put the probable yield in Ontario at three million barrels. Well, I have been pretty 
harshly criticised for that by apple buyers. The criticism has not come from the apple 
p;cducers, but from buyers, who say that the estimate was away under the quantity. I 
suppose they thought the price might be affected somewhat by limiting the product. I 
might say, however, that some apple buyers of the Province thought that we were quite 
within the mark at that time. This estimate was based on some three hundred returns 
that we got from all over the Province. The later returns, which I hold in my hand, we 
have not published, and I am not quite certain whether we shall publish them or not. 
I want to consult some of the fruit growers in regard to it ; these later estimates were 
made from returns from the fruit-growers themselves. If that estimate was too small 
it is not our fault ; but it is from small returns made by the very men who were pro- 
ducing the apples ; still, later returns are quite a bit larger. As I stated last year, I 
did not think we would be able the first year to get anything that might be considered 
satisfactory — you never can the first year ; but now we have got something to work 
upon, and we hope next year, by going a little further, to get returns that may be a 
little more accurate than those this year. I will give you the returns I have here, and 
you may give me your opinion on them, as to whether they are too large or not. Lake 
Erie District, commencing at Essex and Kent and reaching along the north shore of 
Lake Erie, the average produced per tree we figured out at a little over three bushels. 
That of course is the most unfortunate district in Ontario this year for apples. We 
have returns here for pears, peaches, plums, cherries and grapes ; but we have no time 
to go into thoBe. Then Lake Huron — taking in Lambton, Huron and Bruce, which was 
one of the best apple sections this year — an average return of about six bushels to the 
tree Georgian Bay, including Grey and Simcoe, about the same. The Central Counties 
in the west what we call the West Midland Counties, a little under six bushels per tree. 
Lake Ontario, commencing at the west end of Lake Ontario and stretching through to 
Prince Edward County, between five and six. St. Lawrence and Ottawa, about five. 
The East Midland about five ; and the Northern Districts a little under four. This makes 
an a\erage over the Province of five bushels per tree. That would give an estimate, if 
the number of trees that we have returned is correct, of a'oout ten million barrels in 
Ontario. Now, some stated before that our estimate must be entirely too low on account 



63 



of the enormous export of apples this year. I do not think that is a fair ground 
upon which to criticise our returns at all, for this reason : I think a large propor- 
tion of the exports of apples made from Ontario this year have very seriously injured 
the reputation of Canadian apples in the Old Country markets. (Hear, hear.) For 
instance, you saw the letter in yesterday's Mail, which was simply a sample of very 
many that have come to us indirectly. I have had a large amount of correspondence 
with Old Country producers in trying to get at these special statistics ; and the com- 
plaint coming to us from various sources is, " inferior fruit." An enormous quantity 
of apples have been shipped to the Old Country that ought never to have left the 
farm at all. Here is one statement that was made : " Many of the apples were 
worm-eaten, gnarled and mis-shapen." I have here the market sales of one of the 
largest consumers in London of Nov. 23rd ; and apples are here quoted as being 3old 
at 3s., 2 s. 9d. ; 5s., 9s., and if I am not mistaken I have one return of Is. 9d. a 
barrel. Mr. Allan tells me it costs about 75 cents to ship apples to the Old 
Country. Taking the average, you will find that whereas there are some apples that 
are bringing as high as 17., 18s. and 20s, there are large numbers bringing 5s., 6s, 
and 7s., probably an average of about 8s. per barrel. Then here are two statements 
from Woodall k Co., of Liverpool, Nov. 12th, which show that a large number went 
over there early, therefore they were not winter fruit, or else they were winter fruit 
that went undoubtedly too early — which I think you will find is correct — as well as 
that large quantities were sent that should not have gone at all. For the week end- 
ing Nov. 12th the arrivals at Liverpool were 49,000 bbls. ; for the corresponding week 
last year they were 52,000 bbls. ; and yet at that time 23,000 bbls. had arrived over 
the year before ; so that although the arrivals during two or three weeks then were 
less than they were last year, nevertheless the total arrivals exceeded those of last 
year ; therefore the early arrivals this year must have been far in excess of last year 

Mr. James here read further extracts from English correspondents. Showing the 
poor quality of the apples shipped. 

1 his large quantity of poor fruit has been sent away to the detriment of those 
of you who have been sending good fruit. I think we have shipped a larger quan- 
tity of fruit out of the country than should have gone this year. Now, from what 
you know of the difierent sections, how does our estimate strike you — the average 
estimate of five bushels per tree over the entire Province — the large quantities beino: 
obtained from Huron, Bruce, Grey, Simcoe, the Counties of Durham, Northumber- 
land, Ontario. I am not quite sure whether it will be wise to publish these returns 
in full, or to use them as the foundation of our figures next year. The total number 
of pounds of grapes we have figured on this year is 62 million pounds for Ontario ■ 
that would be 31 thousand tons. 

Mr. Beall : When you spoke of the average per tree in the circular I got from 
you, you said " average per bearing tree." 

Mr. James : Yes ; trees that have come to the bearing age. 

Mr. Caston : Some bear early, but bear a very small quantity. What we call full 
bearing is bearing 1J to 2 barrels. 

The Secretary : What was the number of barrels, according to your last estimate? 
for the Province ? 

Mr. James : 3,384,000 barrels at first. This one gives us about three times that 
quantity. Now, who was right? When were the farm3rs right in making their returns 
— then, or now ? 

The Secretary : Would it not be possible to get at that from the actual statement 
of the number of barrels shipped from difierent points, and soon, so as to get at the act- 

ual quantity produced ] — because when you multiply those two numbers together the 

number of bearing trees and the suppDsed average quality that each tree produces 

that is another only approximate estimate. When you get these two together it seems 
to me it would not be quite as safe as if we could get at the quantity really sent away 
from each district. 



64 



Mr. James : To do that you have to wait till after your work is done. Of what con* 
sequence it to you, then 1 You want to know it before the shipment is made. 

Mr. E. D. Smith : It strikes me that the estimate is immensely too high. It may 
have occurred in this way : — You found the number of trees and multiplied it by the 
bearing. Now, more than one-half of the bearing trees had not a single apple on them. 

Mr. James : That is for your section 1 

Mr. Smith : Yes, and it would apply to the Province. 

Mr. James : You see from this discussion the difficulties in the way. 

Mr. Smith : I know it is difficult to get answers to enquiries. 

Mr. James : It is an easy matter to get, for instance, the wheat returns. We can 
get that accurately by two or three methods, and we feel satisfied that our ways of get- 
ting the wheat returns are quite accurate. 

Mr. Smith : I suggest that you ascertain the amount of the product in a given year 
from actual shipments and sales, as near as possible ; and then in future years an esti- 
mate could be made from that at such a percentage, higher or lower. 

Mr. James : We tried for two or three years the plan of percentage, and it upset 
matters entirely. You would be surprised how few men would handle the question of 
percentage properly. 

Mr. Pattison : Does your estimate mean only those apples lit for shipment, or does 
it include apples of a second quality 1 

Mr. James : This includes the apples produced in this country. 

Mr. E. D. Smith : What makes me think the estimate is high is that the total ship- 
ments for this Province will not exceed half- a million barrels. 

Mr. James : How many barrels of fruit does the average family use ? 

The Secretary : Say five barrels — that is a low estimate. 

Mr. James : How much is wasted in the country 1 

Mr. Pattison : My neighbor calculated he had 200 barrels. He shipped 30. The 
other poition he fed to stock. I think in our section the proportion that was not 
shipped was a great deal larger than the proportion that was. 

Mr. James : I was astounded when I got out the figures. I would not put them in 
the last Bulletin. 

Mr. McMichael : I think one reason why that report would be misleading would 
be that many of your correspondents have given the trees that were of bearing age. 
Perhaps one-third of the trees in the orchard were not; actually bearing ; and then in 
making up your report you take the full number of trees in the orchard. 

Mr. James : No ; we asked first for the trees — those that were bearing and those 
that were non-bearing. We figured out 66,000 bearing apple trees, and 2,200,000 non- 
bearing. 

Mr. Pattison : It would be better to use another term. Instead of using the word 
" bearing," put it " for ten years planted." 

The Secretary : I think we ought to express our approval of this work. I really 
think that it promises to be of great benefit to the fruit growers of the Province. 

On the su<*<*estion of the President the matter was left till after dinner for action. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON INSPECTION OF FRUIT. 

Mr A. H. Pettit reported on behalf of the Committee on this subject. This mat- 
ter was pretty well discussed at the last meeting. The Bill that has been framed was of 
such a stringent nature that it was considered it could not be put in -working shape ; and 
we asked that the Bill be amended in accordance with the plan submitted to and adopted 
by the meeting last year. 



65 



Your Committee on Fruit Inspection beg leave to report : That they, in connection 
with a delegation of the Central Farmers' Institute of Ontario, waited upon the Govern- 
ment and presented the wishes of this Association. 

An Act was framed by the Government and passed, but the provisions of the Act 
were cf such a stringent nature it was not considered workable. It read as follows : 

APPLES. 

" 109. In the inspection of closed packages of apples, the inspector shall open not 
less than one package in every five ; and if the manner of packing is found to be fraudu- 
lent or unfair, then he shall open all the packages put up by the shipper of such package : 

" 2. Every package found to be fairly and properly packed he shall brand as ' No 1 
Inspected Canadian Apples/ or ' No. 2 Inspected Canadian Apples,' as the case may be, 
if fit to be so branded : 

" 3. The inspector shall also examine the varieties of apples submitted for inspec- 
tion, and shall correct the nomenclature if incorrectly mirked, or if tin name of the var- 
iety is not marked he shall cause it to be marked on the package : 

" 4. The inspector may charge a fee of ten cents for each package inspected by him, 
and such charge shall cover the cost of opening and closing the package. 

" 110. No. 1 inspected Canadian apples shall consist of perfect specimens of one var- 
iety, of uniform size, and, in the case of a coloured variety, of fairly uniform colour, and 
shall be free from scab, worm holes, knots and blemishes of any kind : 

" 2. No. 2 inspected Canadian apples shall consist of specimens of one variety, free 
from scab, worm-holes, knots and blemishes of any kind, but not of uniform size or 
colour. 

" 111. The Governor in Council may make regulations for the inspection of cheese 
and the branding of packages thereof, and may make a tariff of the fees and charges to 
be allowed to the inspector for such inspection." (General Inspectors' Act, chapter 23.) 

We wanted a well defined standard of excellence, such as was defined by this Asso- 
ciation, but we are hardly prepared for perfection itself, such as is embodied in the Act. 

We would therefore recommend that the Bill be amended in accordance with your 
first defined standard, as one calculated to promote the best interests of trade and place it 
upon a better basis. 

The following extracts are from the Canadian Horticulturist for 1892, volume XV., 
p. 128, the organ of the Association, and may assist in further explaining this subject : 

Apple Inspection. 

The solid advantages which might accrue to Canadian fruit growers through a pro- 
per inspection of fruit intended for export, has been twice discussed at meetings of our 
Association. As things now are, it ia impossible to sell for cash f. o. b. to an English 
buyer, because he cannot be satisfied of the quality and grade until the apples have 
crossed the ocean and come under his personal inspection. In this way the Canadian 
grower or shipper is entirely at the mercy of the English buyer, who has the goods in 
charge. 

If it is possible to plan some definite system of grading, so that a distant buyer 
would know, from the mere mention of the grade, just what kind of stock was being 
offered him, there is not the slightest doubt that apple growing in Canada would be a 
much more remunerative occupation than it is ; for the Canadian grower could sell for 
cash at his own home for the full value of his stock, and a Canadian shipper wo aid 
always know exactly what margin he was allowing himself on any lots he was handling. 

By reference to our combined reports for the years 1890 and 1891, it will be obser- 
ved that this subject has been pretty fully discussed, and that a committee was appointed 
to urge upon the Minister of Agriculture for the Dominion, the importance of a system- 

5 (F.G.) 



66 



atic inspection and branding of Canadian apples for export. We have drawn up an out- 
line of the duties that would be expected of such an inspector, and defined what would 
be understood as meant by grades No. 1 and No. 2, expressing as nearly as possible the 
sense of our meeting on the subject, and submitted it to the committee. As it soon may 
be presented for consideration at Ottawa, we have thought best to publish the outlines 
of the inspector's work, in order that the committee may have the benefit of criticisms 
from any of our. readers. 

Duties of the Dominion Apple Inspector. 

1. To make headquarters at the most important shipping port of the Dominion, 
probably at Montreal, during the fall, and at Halifax during the winter months. 

2. In the inspection of closed packages of apples, the inspector shall open out as 
many of the packages, say, one in ten, less or more, as shall enable him to judge fairly 
of the grade, and of the manner of packing. 

3. L pon satisfying himself of the grade, he shall apply his inspector's brand, mark- 
ing them " Canadian Apples, No. 1, inspected," or No. 2, as the case may be. There 
should be no No. 3 inspected ; any such stock going forward should go without the 
inspector's brand. 

4. The inspector shall have a special care to avoid branding any package, unless he 
is satisfied that it is honestly packed through and through. He may refuse further atten- 
tion to any carload of apples, which he finds faulty iu this regard ; and the shipper of 
such carload shall forfeit the privilege of having any further attention from the inspector 
for the current season. 

5. The inspector shall hold himself in readiness to inspect all fruit within one or 
two days after receiving notice, and engage a sufficient number of assistants to accom- 
plish the work speedily, without delaying the loading of a cargo. 

6. No person shall be obliged to have his lruit inspected, but, if he desires the bene- 
fits of the higher prices which will be eventually secured by the inspector's brand, he 
will be expected to pay a fee of at least one cent per barrel for each barrel branded by 
the inspector. 

7. On account of some lots going by Suspension Bridge and New York to Great 
Britain, and other lots going to Chicago, the inspector should have, as soon as practi- 
cable, one or two trained assistants in 'Western Ontario during the apple season, ready to 
go when called upon, to any station for the inspection of car-lots of apples which are ready 
for shipment. 

8. The inspector may make arrangements, wherever practicable, to do the work of 
inspection at railway stations where apples are being loaded, providing a certain number 
of car-loads are in readiness. 

9. The inspector shall also make it his business to see that all lots of apples branded 
by him are properly named as well as graded. 

JO. The inspector shall take especial care to make known to growers generally his 
address, and business, and also to give them a full description of the proper methods of 
packing and grading as to the No. 1 or No. 2 brand. 

11. Grade No. 1 shall consist of well-grown samples of the variety named, some- 
what uniform in size, well-shaped, of normal color, free from scab, worm holes, curculio 
knots, etc. 

12. Grade No. 2 shall consist also of apples free from scab and worm holes, but 
which, for lack of uniformity in size, deficiency in color, abnormal shape, or for any other 
reason, are considered by the inspector unfit to be graded No. 1. 

13. In addition to the ordinary grades No. 1 and No. 2, the inspector may use his 
judgment in the use of one or more stars, in cases of very fancy stock in his opinion hav- 
ing especial merit. 

14. Any inspector proven guilty of receiving compensation for his work from inter- 
ested parties, and thus being in any way influenced to favor any particular shipper, shall 
at once forfeit his position, and be subject to a heavy tine. 



67 



15. It iQight, perhaps, be well, the first season, to have little or no fee for inspec- 
tion until the benefits of the work begin to be appreciated, and growers begin to find that 
they can sell for cash f. o. b. to distant buyers their inspected stock, on account of the 
confidence gained by the brand. 

The following extract is from the same volume of the journal, p. 292, appearing 
after the amendment of the Act : 

We have just received a copy of the "Act to Further Amend the General Inspec- 
tion Act," to which has been added a section providing for the inspection of apples. This, 
of course, was in reponse to the request of our Association, made through a committee 
to the House of Commons at Ottawa. Unfortunately, the wording of this amendment 
has been done without consultation with the members of our committee, or with any 
apple grower ; and the standards have been made so absurdly exacting that it will be 
absolutely impossible for our packers to come up to the requirements. In consequence, 
no one will be likely to attempt to comply, and the Act will become a dead letter. 

Then follows a copy of the amendment. 

Now let us look into the matter. To open one barrel in five may be necessary in 
the case of shippers that are known to be somewhat careless, but we are of the opinion 
that, where the inspector has become acquainted with the character of a certain packer, 
it is not at all necessary that he should open more than one barrel in ten, taken at ran- 
dom. To open one barrel in five would mean at least thirty barrels in a car-load. Now 
this would cause too great a delay of a shipment of apples, at Montreal, or at whatever 
port they were inspected and transferred to the steamer. The inspector should not be 
obliged by the Act to open more than one barrel in ten. 

It is all right to correct the nomenclature, if incorrectly marked ; but to make it 
compulsory that every unnamed lot should be named by the inspector might frequently 
give him a task which no human being could satisfactorily accomplish. 

The fee of ten cents a barrel is too high, at least while the benefits of inspection are 
as yet unproved. The Dominion Government should provide for the larger part of the 
work ; a small fee of two or three cents would be enough for the shipper to pay, and, if 
found necessary, after the benefits are fully appreciated, the fee might be raised. 

In section 110 we read that No. 1 shall consist of perfect specimens, Now perfec- 
tion is a lofty word and is a state not easily reached either by apples or men. Had there 
been a modifying adverb it would have been all right, but no packer would be able to 
submit his apples to inspection, with any confidence, if the inspector is to apply this word 
in its strict sense. It provides that the apples are to be of a uniform size. " Nearly 
uniform " would have been a more suitable phrase. How would it be possible to put up 
a barrel of apples of exactly one size 1 Perhaps it is well enough, in the case of No. 1, to 
say that they shall be free from blemishes of any kind, but in the case of No. 2, the same 
provisions are made, making scarcely enough distinction between the two grades. 

That a properly arranged system of inspection, for Canadian apples which are going 
forward to Great Britain, would result in immense benefit so apple growers in Canada, 
seems well assured. We have lately received a communication from an extensive dealer 
in apples in Liverpool, England, who says that he is pleased with the prospect of such 
an Act being in operation, and that a reliable Canadian brand would much encourage 
our export trade. What a pity that the whole thing is inoperative, for this season, on 
account of such stupid legislation. lb will be necessary that this whole matter be care- 
fully discussed at our next meeting, at Brantford, and the secretary authorized to make 
representations to Ottawa concerning these egregious faults, in order that they may be 
remedied before another fruit season. 

Mr. Caston moved that the report be accepted and referred to the afternoon session 
for discussion. 

The Secretary urged that the matter be disposed of at once, on account of short- 
ness of time. 

Mr. A. M. Smith moved that the report be adopted without discussion, and referred 
to the Legislative Committee for action. Seconded and carried. 



68 



FRUIT STATISTICS. 

The Secretary moved that Messrs. E. D. Smith, A. McD. Allan and T. Carpenter, 
be a committee to make suggestions to Mr. James, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, and 
to advise with him in relation to the collection of fruit statistics. 

Prof. Craig : I would second that motion. Mr. James came here for suggestions, 
and I think there are practical fruit growers who are qualified to give them. 

Mr. James : One or two have said that they thought that estimate was very far astray, 
now, we have about 200,000 farmers and agriculturists in this country. The estimate 
would require an average of fifty barrels apiece. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan : Looking at the County of Huron, I am perfectly safe in say- 
ing 200 000 barrels for shipment this year, and 200,000 barrels besides that for the home 
market use, for family use, for the stock, and for the evaporator. 

The motion was carried. 



OBITUARY COMMITTEE. 

The Secretary moved the appointment of Messrs A. M. Smith, Beadle and Craig as 
an obituary committee. Special notice should be made of the decease of Mr. P. 0. Demp- 
sey, one of the esteemed directors of the Association. 

Mr. A. H. Pettit seconded the motion, which was carried. 

On motion of Mr. Caston the Convention adjourned to meet at 1.30 p.m. 



THIRD DAY.— AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Convention resumed at 1.30 p.m. 

APPLES AND APPLE POMACE FOR STOCK. 

Mr. H. R. Nixon, (St. George) said : I am not a very large fruit grower in any 
line but apples. I raise a great many apples, and I am a pretty large stock raiser as well ; 
so, running those two lines in connection with other branches of farming, I have fed a 
great many apples to stock. The first valuable lesson I learned in relation to feeding 
apples to stock was about six years ago. We had a very large apple crop, and I was at 
that time shipping milk to Hamilton. I had a large dairy, and thought I would try the 
experiment of feeding apples to the cows. My contract with the milk dealer required 
that I should fepd no turnips to the cows. I had always fed turnips pretty largely, and 
I told him I could feed turnips and he wouldn't know it. However, he thought that was 
not possible, so I had to agree to feed none during this contract. So we started feeding 
apples — first very lightly, about a peck to a cow, and we found it increased the yield of 
milk considerably. Then we got up to about half a bushel and three pecks per cow, and 
we found them very valuable in increasing the yield of milk. When I got my March pay 
ment of milk the dealer wanted to know why I sent such good milk during the latter part 
of November and December, and the milk had not been up to such a good standard since. 
I told him I did not know, — did not think of the apples. " Well," he said, " We haven't 
had as good milk from you since the first of January as we had previous to that. That 
started me thinking ; and when I came to consider the matter thoroughly, I found that 
just on the first of January, my supply of apples had given out. He said the milk had 
tested one-half per cent, higher during the month of December than it did later on. I 
could not attribute that to any other cause than feeding apples to the dairy cows. I con- 
sider apples fully equal to any kind of roots for stock, no matter what kind of stock you 
have on the farm — horses, pigs or cattle. I think they are far preferable to any roots for 
pigs. A neighbor of mine tried feeding his pigs one-quarter less peas and more apples, 
and he found they fattened faster. It is a mistake to allow apples or wind falls to lie 
around and rot. I never do it. I give my boys three cents a bag for picking them up, 



69 



and they are always glad to do it. Some Saturdays they make 50 cents and don't work 
half the time. I never allow any apples to go to waste, bat have fed them ever since my 
Hamilton experience. As regards feeding pomace to stock, I have operated a ider mill 
all my life until about four years ago, and made a great quantity of cider, and handled a 
great quantity of pomace, and always considered in the dry season, when we had no fall 
pasture, that the pomace repaid us well for all the work in making cider — though we got 
a profit as well. I never tested the pomace quite as thoroughly as I have the apples, in 
regard to direct increase of milk ; but as soon as we started to make cider we started to 
feed our horses on pomace in connection with other feed. We never shortened off the 
other feed, but gave them a peck of other grain and a peck of pomace every day ; and the 
horses always put on a sleek coat at once. We would notice the difference immediately — 
they would always look shiny as if they had been fed on oil cake, or something like that. 
One season we took our horses in off the pasture, and put them to hard work in August ; 
and as soon as we started to make cider, we began to feed pomace and they gained in 
condition and showed it at once in their coats looking sleek, and the hair having an oily 
appearance. The next season I sold out my cider mill, and contracted to buy pomace at 
ten cents a load ; and we drew it to the farm about a mile distant, all the fall, and thought 
ourselves very well repaid for money and trouble. The season after that a farmer near 
by, thought I was having a snap on the pomace, and offered more for it. He had a large 
stock of cattle, about 30 head, put into his hands by the sheriff, to hold for two months, 
and he had them in a small field, about ten acres, and fed them on nothing but pomace, 
and they gained in condition so that at the time of the sale they looked fine — though 
there was no more pasture on the field, after the first week, than there is on this floor. 
That was a very striking illustration of the advantage of pomace as feed. 

Mr. Hunter : Did you find any difficulty with the teeth of the cattle fed on either 
apples or pomace ? 

Mr. Nixon : No, not the least, with apples or pomace or ensilage — which is some- 
times objected to on that account. When I first began feeding apples I was very nervous 
about them choking, and ran them through a pulper for safety ; but we tried them with 
whole apples, and never had the least difficulty in choking. Of course apples should be 
fed moderately at the start. 

Mr. Beadle : Do you see any difference between sweet and sour apples 1 

Mr. Nixon : Yes, I would certainly prefer sweet apples ; but I would like to have 
the apples ripe. It is a good thing to have the apples gathered some time before they 
are fed, so that they will get mellow. 



GRAPES. 



1 his topic was then taken up : " What Grapes yield the most tons of fruit per acre V* 

Mr. Orr : I would say Niagara. 

Mr. Allan : I will back that up. 

Mr. Lee : I have no objection if you confine that to the Niagara Peninsula. If you 
go outside of that district you find that it is cut off, more or less. The Niagara will not 
grow successfully here. Niagara is all right for Hamilton and below ; but when you rise 
above the mountains I would object to it, and take the Concord. 

Mr. Hunter : I have had very little experience in grapes, but I would suppose 
Concord would have the greatest amount of yield for our section. 

Mr. Orr : I have been surprised to learn how well the Niagara was doing at different 
points. A gentleman from Gait told me the Niagara there was bearing very abundantly. 
A gentleman from Goderich said it was doing very well there. We have b^en surprised 
at it ripening so soon as it does. 

Mr. Nixon : I think the Concord would be far the heaviest bearer with me — about 
ten miles from Brantford. 

Mr. Mitchell, (Innerkip) : Ours is a very poor district for any kind of grapes. The 
Concord gives us a larger yield than the Niag ira. I think for yield of ripened grapes we 
prefer the Worden in our district. 



70 



Mr. Dempsey : I think the Worden and Concord are best yielders with us. The 
Vergennes is next to the Niagara. 

Mr. Orr : We are obliged to take a large amount of the crop of the Vergennes off 
before we can get a yield. 

Mr. Turner : Does the Worden drop the fruit in this district ? 

Mr. E. T). Smith : T don't think it does with us. I had Wordens hanging on this 
year till all the rest of the grapes were picked — and good then. 

Mr. Race : Don't you find a difficulty in getting enough wood with the Worden. 

Mr. Smith : Not with the Worden. 

Mr. Turner : The grower I alluded to uses a large amount of wood ashes. Per- 
haps that has a detrimental effect. 

Mr. Orr : The cause of the fruit dropping is that there is too much matured on the 
vine. Take off the fruit ; and if you find it drops with ease, take off more next time, and 
you will get a better quality of fruit, and just about as much. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 

Mr. Woolverton read his annual report as Treasurer, which was adopted on motion 
of Mr. M. Pettit, seconded by Mr. Turner. 

TREASURER'S REPORT .FOR THE YEARS 1891-92. 



Receipts. 



Balance on hand last audit 

Members fees 

Government grant 

Advertisements 

Bound volumes 

Back numbers, etc 

Petty cash 



$ c. 

120 51 

2,102 24 

1,800 00 

361 11 

56 34 

46 58 

1 10 



$4,487 



Expenditures. 



The Canadian Horticulturist 

Salary 

Chromo lithographs 

Directors' expenses 

Plant distribution 

Express and duty 

Postage and telegrams 

Printing and stationery 

Commission 

Stenographer 

Electrotypes 

Committees 

Auditors 

Exchanges 

Dipcount and interest 

Russian exchange. 

Care of rooms at meeting. . . . 
Balanoe on hand . . 



$ c. 



1,604 19 


1,033 40 


388 00 


312 10 


225 25 


190 68 


133 34 


124 11 


112 29 


66 00 


65 34 


23 85 


20 00 


12 28 


12 27 


6 00 


5 00 


153 78 


$4,487 88 



We, the undersigned auditors, having examined the various books of accounts kept 
by your secretary-tieasurer, and carefully proved them by comparison with the vouchers, 
have pleasure in testifying to their correctness and to the careful manner in which the 
books have been kept. 



John M. Denton, 
W. M. Orr, 



Auditors. 



71 



NOMINATIONS. 



The President named Messrs. A. M, Smith aud Prof. Craig to act on the nominat- 
ing committee. 

The three other members of the committee named and adopted by the convention 
were : Messrs. Dempsey, of Stratford ; Race, of Mitchell, and Turner, of Cornwall. 



REPRESENTATION ON AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

Mr. Cavers : In accordance with notice of motion given yesterday, I beg to move 
my resolution relating to the Agricultural College, Guelph. Many member3 have been 
considering the mitter since the meeting in Hamilton last year, when the same matter 
was suggested by myself ; but it was then found impracticable. My object in bringing 
this matter up is to endeavor to bring this Association into closer relations with the 
Ontario Agricultural College than have hitherto existed. As is well known, the College 
is in a very prosperous condition as regards general form. The horticultural interests 
have not had very much attention so far ; but having acquired some additional ground 
it is in a better position to do some experimenting than it has hitherto been. The 
question of an experiment station comes up in this connection. The climate of Guelph is 
not the most favorable for experimenting on fruits, except those that are of the hardiest 
character. At the same time, it is the agricultural college of the Province, and it seems 
to me it should be the centre of all the experiments made in any kind of horticulture or 
farming, having regard to provincial interests ; and what I would like to see would be 
that in course of a little time, by the exertions and influence of this Association on the 
Advisory Board with our Minister of Agriculture, that at least one sub-station should be 
established in close relation to the Ontario Agricultural College, but situated in a more 
favorable locality for testing new fruits, vegetables and nursery stock. I therefore beg 
to move : 

That, in the opinion of this meeting of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, 
the horticultural interests of the Province are of such importance as to entitle these to 
be specially represented on the Advisory Board of the Ontario Agricultural College ; 
that the President and Secretary be a special committee to bring this matter under the 
notice of the Hon. the Minister of Agriculture ; and further, that this meeting respect- 
fully recommends the following names of members of the Association, viz.: A. H. Pettit, 
Grimsby ; L. Woolverton, Grimsby ; T. H. Race, Mitchell ; A. M. Smith, St. Catharines ; 
James Goldie, Guelph, and D. Nicol, Cataraqui, as a suitable list from which might be 
selected representatives of the horticultural interests of the Province on the said Advisory 
Board. 

You will understand that the affairs of the Ontario Agricultural College are directed 
to a certain extent by the Deputy Minister, who is present with us, and seven other 
gentlemen. These latter are principally representative men in general farming — cattle 
feeding, raising grain, etc. — but I think no one of these seven has any special interest in 
horticulture — either in fruit growing or in nursery growing ; and my object is that two 
or three members of this Association should be added to the Advisory Board, or that 
they should take the place of two or three of those gentlemen who are already on the 
Board. I have not asked any member to second the resolution ; I hope some member 
will second it, so as to bring it before the meeting in proper form. 

Mr Pattison : I have much pleasure in seconding it. 

Mr. Morris : Perhaps it is not very well known that some few years ago there 
was a committee from this Association that was appointed to take part in the manage- 
ment of the horticulture ; and I believe it was considered that they did not make a 
success of it, and through that means it was discontinued. Al present they have a 
horticulturist, and men at the head of different departments who are paid large salaries, 
and I do not see why we should not leave that work in their hands and let them be- 
come responsible for it. The suggestion in the resolution would add very much to the 
expenses of the College, and I do not believe the government would agree to it. 



72 



Mr. Allan : Placing one upon the Advisory Committee would not a id very much 
expense. Practically, in some ways they have had advice of this description on several 
occasions past. The matter Mr. Morris refers to I remember very well. It is now ten 
years ago ; and there are very good reasons why that work was not successful. I believe 
the same thing could not be repeated with the sime results. They are in better shape 
there now ; and I believe with one — or at most, two men — on the Advisory Board, they 
would now be in a position to carry out experiments that they could hog have done in 
former years. It was simply an unfortunate thing at the time the orchard was planted 
there. I was there at the time ; looked the land over, and picked out a place where the 
experimental orchard should be planted ; but Prof. Brown at the time said that it was 
impossible to get that particular piece of land, and pointed out a piece on the western 
side of the gravel road and said that it was the only available field. I said : " Very 
well ; that settles it in the meantime, because it will take a year to properly under-drain 
that particular field to make it in any way fit for the purposes that we want." However, 
thinking that he knew more than we did, he proceeded to have it planted, with the 
results that we predicted — that the orchard never would be a success. It never has 
been. But that thing would not be repeated, I am satisfied ; and things are now in 
much better shape to prosecute work of this description properly. Other matters are 
brought into the resolution, connected with experiment station, etc. I have had some 
conversation with the Minister on this subject, and also with one or two of the present 
members of the Advisory Board; and at present there is no possibility, that I know of, 
of making any change in that Advisory Board so as to allow extra members; nor is 
there any vacancy on the Board — in fact, one of the members gave me to understand 
that there was so little for the Board to do in that way that, comparatively, they were 
not required. 

Mr. Orr : There is a committee appointed by this Association that is looking to 
having an experimental station for horticulture in the southern section somewhere. 
Now, to associate that with the Agricultural College 1 am afraid would not be advis- 
able. Guelph, as a point for testing fruits for the southern section, is utterly worthless. 
I think we don't want the matter in that shape. I think we are looking to the time 
when we will have an experimental station of our own, and be entirely independent of 
that institution in that connection. Guelph is all right for agriculture, but no use for 
horticulture. 

Mr. Beall : Prof. James at the last meeting of our Association made a suggestion 
that I think was the wisest thing said there. It would, I think, cover all the difficulties 
connected with our present system of experimenting. It is to furnish trees or plants, as 
the case may be — to buy them in comparatively large quantities — and send them to 
different persons who could be depended on in different parts of the Province; thus 
making perhaps a hundred different experiment stations without any expense whatever 
more than the cost of the trees themselves. I cannot see the slightest good that can 
result to the Province at large from an experimental farm, say in Hamilton, or some- 
where not far from Hamilton, or Grimsby, or somewhere in that direction. I do not see 
how they can experiment for the benefit of those who are in the northern portions. 
What necessity is there for an experimental station for a few persons just where we 
know almost everything will grow? 

Mr. James : The point as to experiment stations has — or should have — nothing to 
do with the original question. Perhaps a word here may be useful. The Advisory 
Board of the Agricultural College is appointed by the Government, to advise with the 
Minister in regard to the teaching and experimenting carried on there ; and those men 
have been chosen from different parts of the Province. They are called together at least 
once a year, and spend two days at the College looking over the institution and its 
work ; and on account of their wide range of information and experience, they perhaps 
are able to suggest certain things that would not occur to a man whose experience was 
limited simply to one locality. They are simply paid for the one or two days that they 
are there, and the traveling expenses. The expense of course is not very large. They 
have nothing to do with the question whether an experimental station will be there or 
not. That does not enter into it at all, and should not be connected with it, in my 



73 



opinion, but simply whether they can increase the efficiency of that department. 
Whether the Government would add to that Board or replace one by another I do not 
know at all. 

Mr. E. D. Smith : It is altogether astray to imagine that this experimental station 
in the southern part of the Province would be for the benefit of a few persons only. It 
would benefit chose who grow 99-100ths of what is put on the markets of this country ; 
while the station at Guelph would not. If they are going to conduct experiments in 
fruit at Guelph, then certainly a fruit grower ought to be on the Advisory Board. 

Mr. Cavers : The question of an experiment station really does not come in under 
this resolution except in a very indirect way ; and it seems to me it advances the idea 
of the experiment station rather than otherwise, because this Association, if represented 
on the Advisory Board, must surely have more influence with the authorities in connec- 
tion with the Agricultural College than when the Association is not represented at all. 
I hope the experiments at Guelph may be enlarged ; but even so, they cannot be of great 
interest to fruit growers of Grimsby and Niagara, and along Lake Erie counties. I hope 
there is room for the experiments at Guelph and for the sub-station somewhere in the 
Niagara Peninsula. The idea is not original at all, In the State of Michigan the 
chief experiment station is pretty near the centre of the State, in connection with the 
Agricultural College, and the chief fruit experiment station is near the south-west. All 
the purposes that the fruit growers can possibly require can be served by sub stations, 
as it is in several places in the United States. 

Mr. Orr : We have an experiment farm at Ottawa ; we have one at Guelph for the 
northern section ; let us have one in the south for the fruit-growing section. 

Mr. Cavers : The institution at Ottawa belongs to the Dominion as a whole. It is 
intended to further the farming interests of the whole country, and by sub-stations in 
the several provinces. What we have to deal with chiefly is the Provincial, not the 
Dominion institutions, though the Dominion institution is doing excellent work for the 
horticultural interests of this Province. 

The President : My view would be this — -that one matter would facilitate the 
other. If we can improve the present system of Guelph in reference to experiments in 
horticulture, it ought to be a benefit not only to some portions lying adjacent in the 
southern belt, but also greatly facilitate the northern portion Again, if the authorities 
there felt that their location is not suitable for the southern belt of Ontario, there might 
be a branch established from which it would fulfil the purpose. Now, I have heard 
northern men expressing the same view of the situation at Guelph — that it is not 
really a suitable place even for the very northern section of the Province all along the 
Georgian Bay and Huron districts. They have a splendid fruit section there — much 
superior, I would think, to the section at Guelph, and they might require an additional 
branch in that portion of the Province, even further north. I do not wish to say any- 
thing to injure either cause, but would like to see them work together and help each 
other. 

The resolution was put and carried. 



FRUIT DISPLAY. 



Mr. Morris read the report of the Committee on Fruit Exhibit at the Convention, 
and moved the adoption of the report. Carried. 

The Committee on Fruits on Exhibition beg to report as follows : L. Woolverton 
exhibits very fine samples of Cranberry Pippin, Roxbury Russet, Canada Baldwin, 
Blenheim Pippin, Ribston Pippin, also fine specimen apple from British Columbia, said 
to be a seedling and having a strong resemblance to Canada Reinette. 

The next collection a very attractive one by W. S. Turner, Cornwall. La Rue, 
or Baxter, in size and appearance leads the well-known King of Tompkins in size and 
appearance, and of sufficient firmness to be a good shipper. Quality fair. Also fine 
samples of Bourassa, Wealthy, Pewaukee, Fameuse, Golden Russet, Blue Pearmain 
Shiawassee Beauty. 



74 



Professor Craig of the Ottawa Experimental Farm exhibits an interesting collec- 
tion of new Russian and hardy native apple seedlings, altogether twenty varieties, we 
place at the top of this list McMahon White for size and appearance, and Belle de 
BosKoop for flavor, firmness and keeping qualities. 

T. H. Race, exhibits nine varieties of apples, one of which Olivers' seedling de- 
serves special mention. It is grown in Hibbert, South Perth. Tree said to be strong 
grower, and very productive of evenly sized fruit. The apple is large, light red, of 
good quality and from the specimens produced evidently a fair keeper. We heartily 
recommend this variety for propagation. 

E. B. Edwards, Peterboro, exhibits beautiful samples of Blenheim Pippins. Their 
uniform size, freedom from spots, and excellent dessert qualities, make them worthy 
of this highly esteemed apple, and grown at Peterboro, shows that they can be culti- 
vated successfully in northern localities. 

Seedling apple shown by S. C. Wait, St. George, lacks size and quality for pro- 
fitable market purposes. 

In pears a very fine specimen, President Druard, exhibited by W. M. Orr and five 
varieties by A. M. Smith, St. Catharines, as follows : CJairgeau, D'Anjou, Lawrence, 
Mount Yernon, Josephine de Malines. 

E. Morris. 
W. S. Turner. 
J. D. Stewart. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

Mr. A. M. Smith reported from the Nominating Committee. He said : Most of 
you are aware that two years ago we adopted a Presidential term of one year ; but cir- 
cumstances have occurred which I think render it very necessary for the Association to 
either break or waive that rule. Our present President, as you know occupies the posi- 
tion of Superintendent of Fruits at the coming exhibition at Chicago ; and we want to 
strengthen him in every way we can, and we believe that by occupying the position he 
now holds as President of this Association, he will be in a position to do more for our 
Society and for the country at large than he would in any other way. We have there- 
fore nominated him as our President for the next year. 

The Secretary, at the request of the President, took the chair, and the name of 
President Pettit was put to the meeting and carried unanimously. 

The President : I would like to say that I feel very much flattered and very 
highly honored by being placed in the chair for another year. I must say that I have a 
very responsible duty placed upon me during the past season as your President. As I 
said in my address, it was with a great deal of doubt in my mind that I accepted so 
responsible a position as the superintendency of the fruit exhibit at the World's Fair. I 
have put forth my best efforts up to the present time, and I look to you to day to 
strengthen my hands during the coming season, so that Ontario may at the World's Fair 
stand where you and I and every Canadian wish to see her — at the head of all other 
countries in the world. (Hear, hear.) While you honor me by placing me in the chair 
of this the most active organization of the kind on the American continent, I ask you to 
strengthen my hands in every way that you possibly can. (Applause.) 

The remainder of the officers suggested by the Committee were elected without 
debate. The complete list of officers appears on paj e 2. 



COMMITTEE ON GRAPES. 

Mr. G. W. Cline, Chairman of the Committee on the Catalogue of Grapes prepared 
for the guidance of judges at fairs, in presenting his report, said the list had been revised 
after spending a day over it. Copies of the report had been printed and were circulated. 
For catalogue of grapes see Appendix III. 



75 



EXPERIMENTS TO ASCERTAIN THE VALUE OF DILUTE SULPHURIC 
ACID FOR CHECKING THE SPROUTING OF POTATOES. 

By Frank T. Shutt, M. A., Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 

The quality of potatoes for culinary use is seriously affected in spring by "sprouting." 
Despite great care this often takes place, materially deteriorating the value for table use 
large quantities of potatoes annually. 

Of late a statement has been widely circulated in the press of Canada, setting forth 
a so-called successful treatment for thp prevention of this sprouting. This treatment con- 
sists in immersing the potatoes in a two per cent. (2 per cent.) solution of sulphuric acid 
(oil of vitrol), for some time, and then rinsing with cold water. This, it is claimed, will 
effectually prevent the eyes from sending forth shoots In order to ascertain the vali- 
dity of this statement, a series of experiments was inaugurated in the spring of the pre- 
sent year with the following results. 

Experiment 1. — February 25th 1892. Variety of potato, Early Ohio. The potatoes 
showed no signs of immediate sprouting, and were in good condition. They were 
immersed in a solution of sulphuric acid and of the recorded strength, in which they were 
allowed to remain 17 hours. The potatoes were then rinsed with cold water, spread out 
to dry and put in large wide-mouth glass bottles. Result : On standing, the potatoes 
become covered with pink spots or patches, which after a few days shrivelled. Decom- 
position soon set in at these places. After about two weeks a few of the eyes began to 
sprout. On cutting the potatoes, litmus paper showed that the acid had thoroughly per- 
meated the tuber. The appearance of the potatoes was entirely destroyed for marketing 
purposes. 

Variety, Chicago Market ; treated as above throughout. Result : The potatoes 
were more shrivelled than the Early Ohio. Many of the eyes were deeply pitted and 
decomposed, yet one or two, apparently unaffected, sprouted after two weeks. Examina- 
tion snowed that the acid had completely permeated the tissue of the potatoes. The 
potatoes were not fit for use. 

Experiment 2. — Variety, State of Maine. Immersed for four hours in the acid solu- 
tion. Subsequent treatment was identical with that in former experiments. Result : 
Potatoes became slightly pitted with pink spots ; sprouting greatly retarded, but begin- 
ning after nine days. 

Experiment 3. — Variety, Beauty of Hebron. Immersed for two hours ; subsequent 
treatment the same as before. Result : Potatoes showed a few pink spots upon drying, 
sprouting evidently retarded, but beginning after one week. 

Experiment 4- — Variety, Empire State. Immersed for one hour, subsequent treat- 
ment the same as before. Result : Potatoes but very slightly affected by the acid ; 
sprouted readily. 

Experiment 5 — Variety, Thorburn. Immersed for twenty minutes ; subsequent 
treatment the same as before. Result : Potatoes were not apparently affected by the 
acid, sprouted readily. 

Summarizing these results we find that immersion for 17 hours did not kill all the 
eyes, though the potatoes as a whole were much affected by the acid, destroying them 
entirely for table use. Immersion for i hours injured the potatoes somewhat, but sprout- 
ing, though retarded, finally set in. Treatment for 2 hours but slightly affected the ap- 
pearance of the potatoe but was valueless in preventing sprouting. Shorter periods of 
treatment did not injure the potatoes, but the acid was then not efhcaceous in killing the 
eyes, sprouting took place after 20 minutes immersion as readily as in untreated tubers. 

Conclusion. — Under the conditions stated above, there can be no doubt that two per 
cent, sulphuric acid is valueless in preventing the sprouting of potatoes. In these ex- 
periments no effort was made to preserve the treated potatoes from the light ; future trials 
will be made in order to ascertain to what extent light is instrumental in promoting the 
sprouting of treated potatoes. It is also proposed to treit the potatoes in the autumn 
instead of in the spring, as it is possible that the eyes would then be more easily killed. 



76 



VOTE OF THANKS. 

Mr. D. M. Lee, Secretary of the Braut County Association, reported the following 
resolution as having been passed by the local body : 

That the members of this Association do hereby tender our hearty thanks to this 
Provincial Association now in session in our midst for accepting our invitation and hold- 
ing their winter meeting in this city ; and further that we shall ever be thankful for the 
benefit we have received from the very able papers and the discussions that have followed 
the same. 



FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Lee said the local Association had entertained the Convention as best they 
could considering the unfavorable weather. He invited the Association to meet in Paris 
from which he came ; and extended an invitation personally to every delegate to call 
and see him when in Paris. Some of the members of the Provincial Association had 
contributed papers during the past year to the local Association, for which the latter 
were very thankful. 

The President acknowledged the courtesy, and said the general expression from the 

delegates showed that in no place yet visited had there been a more hearty reception 

than in Brantford. The delegates had thoroughly enjoyed the intellectual and social 

entertainments provided for them. This meeting would be remembered for years to come 

Applause.) 

Mr. Mitchell thought this an opportune moment to move that the thanks of the 
meeting be tendered to the people of Brantford and those who contributed to the pleasure 
of the delegates. Never since he had been a member of the Association had he seen such 
inter- st taken, or so many new faces, or met so many local members. 

The motion was carried amid applause. 

The Secretary : I notice Sheriff Watt present. We are thankful for the courtesy 
he has shown us. 

Sheriff Watt said the County Council and the officials of the Court House were 
only too glad to welcome the Association. He regretted that owing to a misunder- 
standing yesterday the delegates were crowded in the County Council Chamber 
It was the oversight on the part of those who had the matter in charge and if it had 
been known in time it might have been remedied. 

The Secretary called attention to a proposed change in the by-laws which appears 
in a report which was not formally adopted. He moved that these amendments be 
embodied in ohe report as approved of formerly. 

Mr. Thos. Graham seconded the motion. 

Mr. Beall : T am the only representative of affiliated societies that have a place on 
the Board, therefore I would like to move that No. 18 be changed so as to read " provided 
the first lot of names shall be ten in number, and after that as many as may be con- 
venient." Also to change No. 19, from " fifty members " to " twenty -five members" for 
local societies. 

Mr. Dawson, from the Brantford Society, seconded the amendment, v\ hich was put 
and carried. * 



GRAPE REPORT. 



The President : Is the Convention ready to discuss the grape report ? 

Mr. A. McD. Allan : Amendments could be made, but on the whole, I think the 
Committee have paid a great deal of attention to it, and they have looked upon it as a 
Provincial report, and I don't know that any single committee could do very much better, 
and perhaps no other Committee could do as well as the report now before us ; and I do 
not know but that, under the circumstances, the better plan would be to adopt the report 
as it is. I would so move. 

Mr. J. 1). Stewart seconded the motion, which was carried. 



77 



GRAPES RECOMMENDED. 

Mr. G. W. Oline presented the report of this Committee, which was distributed in 
printed form. 

After some discussion and some changes in the list to suit various localities, 
Mr. Cline moved the adoption of the report as amended. He said : I consider the 
grapes best fitted to any one neighborhood are the few that are doing something ; and 
the large list that can be grown don't amount to a row of beans. That is the list that I 
would put, and that is what I endeavored to get when I asked for those best adapted. I 
don't want to limit a man to twelve varieties, or to five varieties, because in some 
places you can grow a dozen, and in other places you can't grow more than four or five. 

The Secretary : I would move that this report be referred back to the Committee 
to make any changes, before handing it to the Secretary, which they consider wise, in 
consultation with parties present. 

The President : It ought to be carefully considered before we send it out ; and the 
Secretary's motion is good. 

Mr. Allan : I would rather see the list go into publication so that the members 
generally throughout the country would have the advantage of looking it over, and by 
another year we would be in a much better position than we are to-day to so classify the 
list that we would have a reliable one. 

Prof. Craig moved that this be printed as a preliminary report of the Fruit Com- 
mittee on grapes, and that it be subject to revision next year; that any special changes 
wished by any particular director of any district be made now, before the report goes in ; 
and ohat the report be revised as a whole next year if necessary. 

Mr. Race seconded this motion, which was carried. 

(See Appendix III. for list.) 



NEW FRUITS. 



The President : Have the Committee on new fruits any report ready 1 

The Secretary : I don't think they have any report to make. 

Mr. A. M. Allan : That is a matter that has fallen out of the Association entirely, 
and I consider it a great pity that it has. It is one of the. best reports the Association 

can have. If we could get a competent committee to act as they do on the other side 

all new fruits being sent to the chairman, who examines and gives a description of them 
— there is nothing this Association can do that will be of higher value to the people of 
the country generally. (Hear, hear.) 

The President : Suppose the Secretary be that committee, and report through the 
Horticulturist in that respect 1 

The Secretary : I would prefer to have others to consult with. 

Mr. Allan : That report ought to be read at the annual meeting of this Association 
every year, and it should cover everything that is being introduced in the way of new 
fruits. It is more and more necessary as we are getting new varieties of fruits continu- 
ally brought into the country and forced upon growers. 

Prof. Craig : I understand that I am on the new fruit committee, but I do not 
know what the duties are. 

The Secretary : The committee already appointed, is to act through the coming 
year. 

Mr. Allan : I think the committee — or at least the chairman — should be the same 
from year to year, so that the people will know to whom they shall send these fruits 
for examination, and they will look for that report from year to year. 

The President : The following committee were duly appointed last year : ' 
Secretary, W. E. Wellington, and A. McD Allan. 



78 



Mr. Allan : I know that, but it is expected by the rest of us that all these new 
fruits shall be sent in to the Secretary. Two years I was chairman of the new fruit com- 
mittee, and there was no trouble at all in getting a report. Of course we had to work 
for it ; and I was under the impression we looked to the chairman for everything ; we 
who are in the ranks take no responsibility. Amongst other things we are supposed to 
look into all the new fruits placed upon the tables at exhibition time ; but the chief duty 
is to report on the new fruits as being introduced into the country. It is a heavy piece 
of work, but most important. 

Mr. Caston : I *;hink the Secretary has done pretty well in reporting on new fruits 
The reports in the Horticulturist from time to time are quite satisfactory. 



OBITUARY. 



Mr. A. M. Smith reported as follows, and the report was adopted on motion by 
Mr. Smith, seconded by Prof. Craig. 

RESOLUTION REGARDING THE LATE P. C. DEMPSEY. 

Resolved : That this Association hereby expresses its deep sense of sorrow at the dispensation of Provi- 
dence in the removal from our midst, by death, of the late P. C. Dempsey, of Albury, Prince Edward 
■County. One who was an esteemed president of our Association and for many years an honored and effi- 
cient director. The Society ever recognizes the value of his sagacious counsel and his efforts in encouraging 
improvements in hybridizing and in importing new fruits adapted to the wants of the country ; and, be it 
further resolved, that this Association does hereby express its sympathy with the bereaved members of 
his family, and request our secretary to forward them a copy of these resolutions. 



AN INVITATION. 



Mr. Brand was asked to speak, and invited all the members to the Minnesota Fruit 
Growers' Convention at Minneapolis about the 10th January. 



EXPERIMENTAL \VORK. 

Mr. A. M. Smith wanted to get an expression of opinion from the Convention 
whether plans should be formulated and laid before the Minister of Agriculture during 
the coming season, with a view to getting legislation in regard to experimental farm 
work. 

The Secretary : To simplify this matter I would move that the following com- 
mittee be empowered to prepare some scheme for the carrying out of the experimental 
work in southern Ontario — or in our Province, I might say — and to advise with the 
Minister of Agriculture with regard to further procedure : A. M. Smith, M. Pettit, A. 
McD. Allan, and W. W. Hilborn. 

Mr. Allan : I beg to be left off that committee, for certain reasons I do not think 
it necessary to explain now. I have had some conference with the Minister, and I know 
certain difficulties that will arise j so that I would rather not be on. 

The Secretary : Then I would propose the three names that are left. 
Motion put and carried. 

The Secretary moved a hearty vote of thanks to the Brantford press for their full 
and interesting reports of the meetings. 

Mr. Caston seconded the motion which was carried. 
The convention closed at 4.30. 



APPENDIX I. 



PAPERS CONTRIBUTED TO THE WINTER MEETING AT BRANTFORD 

BUT NOT READ. 



FUNGI AFFECTING FRUITS. 

By the Secretary. 

How charming, to the inhabitant of the town, are the scenes of rural life ; the rosy 
apples, the golden peaches and the various-hued grapes — how attractive ! His visits to 
the country are usually made during the summer season, during the time when the 
orchards are either clothed in rich abundance of pink and white blossoms, or else are 
laden down with their luscious fruits. The harvest time to him appears a time 
of joy, a time of festivity, and he thinks that, if he could exchange his life in the town 
for one upon the farm, he would reach the height of bliss. It is a mistaken notion to 
suppose that the whole round upon the farm, and especially upon the fruit farm, is but 
one continued round of pleasurable occupation and at the end of the year a pot of 
gold. 

How true in this case is the old proverb, "distance lends enchantment to the 
view." 

So, old Horace, the Roman poet, puts it when he describes in his first Satire, the 
people who are always wishing they could exchange their lots with others, fancying that 
any other occupation is more pleasant than their own. 

" Qui fit, Maecenas, ut nemo, quam sibi sortem 
Seu ratio dederit seu fors objecerit, ilia 
Contentus vivat, laudet diversa sequentes ?" 

Our friends in the town know little of the hardships and discouragements which 
are the lot of the fruit grower, nor of the many long years spent in battling with diffi- 
culties before reaching his present prosperous condition ; and it is to give the public some 
idea of the difficulties which are in our way as fruit growers that the writer has agreed 
to prepare this paper. 

The recent problems facing horticulturists come naturally under two heads, first, 
Fungus Diseases, second, Insect Enemies ; and in the brief time which you will be able 
to place at my disposal, I shall only have time to outline some of those which come 
under the first head. It is only recently that these two branches of science which refer 
to the very tiny subjects, such as can only be studied through the microscope, have been 
pursued far enough by scientists to make their investigations of real use to practical 
men, but now we are finding that the professor and the farmer are nearer friends than 
they were in days gone by. " Book larnin' " was for many years despised by the latter, 
but now the prejudices are wearing away, owing largely to the exertions of our professors 
who visit the Farmers' Institutes throughout the country. A neighbor used to tell me 
that he could not see any use in " eddication " ; he never had any " larnin' hisself " and 
he said that he knew more than those who had. His favorite subject of conversation 
was astronomy, and he used to delight in meeting with us young students from the 
university and proving to us that all we learned at school concerning the rotundity of 
the earth and the distance away of the sun, moon and stars was erroneous and absurd. 

Such men remind one of the redoubtable preacher spoken of by Dean Alford in his 
Queen's English, who used to hold forth at Cambridge, in a chapel on Green street. The 
Dean says his wont was to rail at the students of the university, trying to make out that 
it was a waste of time to study Greek and Latin. On one occasion, having wound 
himself up to the requisite pitch of fervor, he exclaimed in a voice of thunder, " Do ye 
think Powl knew Greek 1" 



80 



"T One of the problems that was long unsolved among us fruit growers was the cause 
of the Plum- knot, but lately mycologists have given us an insight into its life history. 
For a long time it was thought to be caused by some insect, and even yet we meet with 
men who will not give up this theory. Insects are found in it, they say, and this they 
claim is positive proof that they are the cause. Careful investigation, however, shows 
that these insects are not the cause of it, but they simply make use of it as a favorable 
place for oviposition. We have had many foolish remedies proposed and as often tried 
by foolish fruit growers. No less an authority than an American Consul, residing in a 
Canadian town, recommended, as a sure cure for plum-knot, boring a hole in the trunk 
of the tree and filling it with flowers of sulphur. He said this would circulate through 
che sap of the tree and destroy the insect of the black-knot. Any one cognizant with 
chemistry or botany will see the foolishness of such a recommendation. 

The Plum-knot is now known to be a well defined fungus, and is calfed by mycolo- 
gists Plowriyhtia Morbosa. Little spores, corresponding with seeds, float along in the air 
and alight upon a suitable host, either in the form of a cherry or a plum tree. Soon the 
hated parasites send down their mycelial branches among the cells of the wood and derive 
means of nourishment. Soon they begin to throw up innumerable filaments, called 
conidia, on the ends of which are borne egg-shaped spores, as shown in the accompanying 
drawing, figure 1. These are summer spores which ripen and fall of! and are carried by 
the wind long distances to propagate the disease. 








Fig. 2.— Cavity of Perithecium, with Asco? pores. 
(May be seen in February with hand glass.) 



Fig. L— Conidiospores enlarged. 







Fig. 3. — Asci, containing 
Ascospores. 



Fig. 4. — Ripe Ascospores, 



Fig. 5. — Ascospores germinating. 



But it is not only in the summer time that the knot is active, but also in the winter. 
During the month of February winter spores are formed in the little sacs called asci 
(fig. 2). On cutting through a knot in the month of February, these little sacs are 
plainly discernible with a small hand-glass (fig. 3). Each contains about eight winter 
spores, known to mycologists as ascospores, which one by one are carried forth to some 
favorable host. For a long time the cause of the plum-knot was an unsolved problem, 
but, thanks to science, this problem has been solved, and we now know that cutting and 
burning the affected limbs will effectually stamp out the disease. We also know that a 



81 



paste made of kerosene and paint or turpentine is destructive to it. But, although we 
have information enabling us to overcome it in our own orchards, the problem still 
remains, how we can compel the lazy and indolent in town and country to destroy those 
plum and cherry trees in their gardens which are affected. The present law seems very 
inoperative. True, it provides for the appointment of an inspector in every municipality, 
but the council is not obliged to appoint such inspector except on a petition of at least 
fifty ratepayers, and this is too cumbersome a mode of proceed ure. Further, the 
inspector is not required to act unless he receives written notice of the disease. All 
this is a mistake. He ought to be obliged to make a round of the orchards several 
times during the season, and have all affected trees destroyed without receiving notice 
from anybody. 

Another problem in horticulture, which, as yet, is unsolved, is the cause of the 
Yellows in the peach. This mysterious disease originated in the peach orchards of some 
of the Middle States a good many years ago. It has gradually spread from state to state 
throughout the larger part of the Union, and across the borders into the peach orchards 
of our own country. Periodically its visitations seem to be more severe in character, 
destroying orchards by wholesale. Then, after peach growers have given up peach grow- 
ing for some time, they find themselves able to begin again with some fair hopes of 
success. The Department of Vegetable Pathology of the United States has taken this 
matter up and spent an immense amount of money in investigating into this disease, 
and to this work have appointed Professor Erwin Smith, who has made elaborate re- 
ports of his work. But, although a large amount of money has been spent in this direc- 
tion during the last three years, as yet no definite results have been obtained. 

A year ago last summer I had a call from Professor Burrill, of Champaign, 111., who 
was a delegate to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, then meet- 
ing in Toronto. He was looking up cases of yellows, which he said were not common in 
his own state. He is a man of most careful research, and his opinions are worthy of 
consideration. He believed that the disease was caused by bacteria, and, in this, most 
scientific men are in accord with him. 

One thing we do know about the yellows, and that is that it is of an infectious 
character, in which respect it equals scarlet fever and small-pox. It may be carried from 
tree to tree, either by the bees in their searches for honey, or by instruments used in prun- 
ing the orchard. 

We may hope, however, that ultimately the mystery will be solved, for the Pear 
Blight was, until lately, quite as mysterious. This latter has been the terror and despair 
of pear growers in all parts of the country. It would come in a single night upon the 
choicest trees in the garden and sometimes upon the whole orchard. You viewed them 
at night, the pride of the homestead, and on your next visit the foliage was blackened 
and sickty and the young fruit shrivelled and worthless. Some said it was caused by 
electricity, others by sunshine, others by insects, and so on, and just as numerous were 
the remedies proposed ; as, for instance, digging in iron filings about the tree, slitting the 
bark, painting the bark, etc., all of which have been tried in vain. 

But now it has been shown conclusively that this terrible disease is the re3uh of a 
tiny bacterium, which lives in the sap and has the power of locomotion. It is called by 
botanists Micrococcus Amylovorus, and its size, when magnified 890 diameters, is only 
about half the size of a pin's head and very similar in shape. Prof. J. 0. Arthur, who 
was at that time botanist of the Geneva Experiment Station, in his report for 1887, 
described this bacterium and stated that it was proved to bs the real and only cause of 
the pear blight. He discovered the organism itself in blighting tissue, and inoculated 
healthy tissue of other trees with the germs from that which was diseased, and, as a 
result, the healthy trees were at once affected with the blight. Besides this, he found 
that the blight could not be communicated to healthy trees by the juices of the disease, 
after the germs were removed from them by filtration. 

The same organism causes the twig-blight of the crab apple, the quince, and even, to 
some extent, ordinary cultivated varieties of the apple. 



6 (F.G.) 



82 



Prof. Burrill told me at the time of the visit referred to, that the bacterium of the pear 
blight ordinarily comes through the young and succulent wood of the trees and also 
through the stomata of the leaves and blossoms in the early pxrt of the growing season. 
This explains why pear trees, which are stimulated to make a very rapid and succulent 
growth, are more subject to the blight. The little bacterium, according to Mr. Burrill, 
has a sort of corrosive nature which enables it to pass through the cellular tissue from 
cell to cell, thus working along through the wood, carrying destruction in its course. 

Still the pear blight is only a half solved problem. It yet remains to be shown 
how we may prevent its ravages and how to save the trees that are already affected. 
Spraying with the Bordeaux mixture early in summer has been recommended by the 
United States Department of Agriculture as being of great value in preventing leaf 
blight. 

One of the greatest plagues of the fruit grower is the apple scab. This has been 
known to botanists on the continent of Europe for some fifty years, but, since the year 
1869, its habits have been more carefully observed by mycologists, who have named it 
Fusicladium dendriticum. We gave some space to its description in the Canadian Hor- 
ticulturist, volume x., page 103, and since that time have endeavored to keep apple 
growers posted concerning the progress of the evil 
and the success of the various remedies proposed 
for its destruction. At that time it had reached 
Australia ; now we have reports of its presence 
even in New Zealand. 

An important step in advance was made 
when it was shown that the fungus causing the 
leaf blight of apple, which resulted in its early 
dropping from the tree, was identical with that 
known as the scab on the fruit itself. 

On the leaves the scab appears first as 
small olive-green spots, of a definite and rounded outline 
and assume a velvety appearance, with a less regular 




large a: 



Fig. 6. 

(Fig. 6). These increase in size, 

border; sometimes two or more 

id irregular one. Sometimes even 



spots will coalesce, as it were, forming one 

the petioles and the young twigs become affected, thus in every possible way the fungus 

tries to rob the tree of its vigor. 

The most favorable conditions for its growth are the cool, moist weather of spring 
and fall, while its spread is retarded by the drouth and heat of midsummer. Owing to 
the dry warm weather prevailing in the early part of last summer, our apple3 were much 
freer from scab than usual. 

The fungus appears to retain its vitality during the winter season, being known to 
spread even in barrels from apple to apple ; and it remains in a living conditioa through 
the winter on the twigs of the apples , ready to begin its work of devastation iu spring- 






Fig 



Fig. 9.— Spores of fungus 
of Apple Scab, one germ- 
inating. 



time. The loss caused to the country is alirming. The Secretary of the Illinois State 
Horticultural Society places the annual loss due to this parastic growth of $400,000, but 
this is very small compared with the annual loss to apple growers in Ontario. 

Fig. 7 shows a section of one of the leaf spots, and fig. 8 a section of the skin of an 
apple with scab bursting up through the epidermis, or outer skin, both magnified 200 
diameters. The mycelium, or plant body of the fungus, resembles a dense mass of tissue 
composed of dark brown walled cells. These do not penetrate the cuticle, or inner skin, 



83 



but grow between it and the epidermis, or outer skin, which they soon burst 
open, and send up brown threads on the ends of which are borne the spores for the 
propagation of the fungus. 

These latter are so tiny, that it would require 3,200, side by side to reach an inch. 
They germinate in moisture at a temperature of 50 F., in about eight hours ; and the 
germ tubes have power to penetrate healthy skin and thus quickly spread the disease. 
Fig. 9 shows spores of fungus of Apple Scab ; one germinating. 

Prof. Scribner, in bis report of 1887, recommended spraying the trees in the early 
spring before the buds began to expand, with sulphate of iron, 4 lbs. to 4 gals, of water ; 
then, after fruit is set, with Bordeaux mixture. More recently, Prof Taft and Prof. 
Trelease have highly commended the use of ammoniacareopper carbonate. 

This spring, in the last report of the Ohio Experimental station, we observe that Prof. 
Green asserts that the most satisfactory of the copper compounds for destroying apple 
scab, with regard to cost, convenience and effectiveness, is the dilute Bordeaux mixture. 
The method of preparing it is as follows : Dissolve four pounds of copper sulphate in two 
gallons of hot water ; add sufficient water to cool it. Slake four pounds of quick lime 
add water to make a milk of lime. Pour into copper sulphate through sieve to dissolve 
the lime better. Dilute to fifty gallons. 

One advantage of this mixture is that Paris green may be used with it and no injury 
to the foliage results. The effect should be bright, clean, healthy foliage and fruit, as well 
as comparative freedom from curculio and codling moth. 

In the Journal of Mycology, Vol. VII, No. 1, Prof. Goff, of Madison, Wisconsin, re- 
ports his experiments in 1891, in treating apple scab. He used, chiefly, copper carbonate 
(1) in suspension, using one ounce to twelve gallons of water, and (2) dissolved in 
amoionia, one ounce to twenty five gallons of water. In the latter case the ounce of salt 
was first dissolved im a quart of ammonia. 

He found that the copper carbonate applied in suspension, just as we use Paris green, 
was nearly as effective as when half the amount was used diluted in ammonia, and it had 
the advantage that Paris green for codling-moth could be safely added. Treating the 
trees before the opening of the flowers was of great value ; indeed, in one instance, where 
the Canada Peach apple was sprayed with copper carbonate, it was found that one appli- 
cation previous to the opening of the bloom was more effective than four after. On trees 
badly infested, the scab reduces the size of the apples so much as to lessen the crop at 
least twenty percent., besides rendering a large part of it worthless. 

The result of the use of diluted Bordeaux mixture was, by Professor Green, a saving 
of three quarters, at least, of fruit which would otherwise have been ruined, besides in- 
creasing the size of the fruit itself, and giving it greater beauty for market purposes. In 
addition to this there resulted a brighter and healthier foliage upon the tree itself, which 
means a great deal for the vigor of the orchard. The excellent effect of spraying with this 
mixture is shown in the results of Professor Green's experiment at the Ohio Experiment 
Station with the Newton Pippin, a variety perhaps more subject to scab than any other. 
Of the 100 apples from the sprayed trees, 15 were first class, 74 second and 11 third, 
while of the same number of apples from unsprayed trees there was no first-class samples 
only 40 second, and there were 60 third class. Thus, it appears that, while spraying does 
not wholly prevent the scab, it pays well for the outlay required of time and money. 

There are other ways in which the results are benefical besides those mentioned. 
The leaves of our trees, when affected by the scab, fall prematurely, carrying with them 
much potash and phosphoric acid, a direct loss to the strength of the tree. Now, if the 
leaves can be made, by spraying, to hold fast until the proper season for maturity of 
growth, these fertilizing constitutents will be withdrawn from the leaves into the body o! 
the tree, and there be stored up for the following year. This spraying is useful also in 
blight and some think in plum knot. 



84 



Tomato Rot. — This is a fungus for which no remedy has been certainly found. It is 
very wide-spread in Ontario, and does great injury to the business of truck gardeners. 
Some varieties, as Acme and Mikado, 
seems very subject to it, while Perfection, 
Paragon and Trophy are less so. The 
appearance of the affected fruit is shown 
in fig. 10. 

By scientists it is called Macrosporium 
SoJani. The fungus consists of a dark 
colored mycelium or vegetative system, the 
growing tubes of which can be readily 
traced to the cells of the sound tissue of 
the tomato, (see fig. 11a), and of spores, 
which are borne on the end of branches, 
called hypbie, represented in fig. 11, b and 
c. These are at first dark brown, but at 
length turn olive-black. When these 
spores come in contact with green or ripe 
fruit they germinate rapidly under favorable 

circumstances, such as heat and moisture, and send out slender tubes, shown at fig. d. 
These spores survive the winter in the shrivelled fruit, and in old leaves and stems. The 
remedy proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture is : One half ounce 
sulphuret of potassium, dissolved in a gallon of water, and sprayed upon the vines, so as 
to thoroughly wet all the fruit. 

The Powdery Mildew of the Grape (Uncinula Spiralis) is quite common in the 
Niagara district, and in some varieties very injurious. It appears first early in June, in 
the form of dull greyish white patches on the leaves and fruit. Under the microscope 
these patches are seen to be the mycelial growth of the mildew which spreads over the 




Fig. 10.— Tomato Rot. 




Fig. 11. 



surface of the host plant, and does not penetrate its tissue except that it sends down 
among the cells occasional suckers (see fig. 12, b. b.,) by which it draws nourishment. 
That threads of the mycelium are not easily distinguished is evident when we note 
Prof. Fcribner's statement that they are each only one six-thousandth part of an inch in 
diameter. In June or July short upright branches appear, which are jointed, as shown in 
Fig. 12. One by one these terminal cells drop off. They are really summer spores for 
the propagation of the mildew, and are known as condia. Two of these are shown in Fig. 



85 



12, a. a., which according to Prof. Scribner, are only one-thousandth part of an inch in 
length at their largest diameter. These float about in the air, and alighting on a proper 
host soon germinate under the favoring conditions of summer heat and moisture. 

Fig. 13 shows a very small portion of epidermis of a grape berry, upon which the 
mycelium of Uncinula has grown, highly magnified. 

Later on in the season, during the months of September and October, spores quite 
different in character are formed. The case in which they grow is apparent to the naked 
eye, and is known as the perithecium, or " fruit " of the mildew. Each of these is full of 
asci, three of which are shown emerging from the perithecium in fig. 14. Inside these, 



o^ 




as 







Fig 13. 



Fig 12. — Mycelium of Uncinula Spiralis, from a 
grape leaf. 

in turn, are the ascospores, or winter spores. These are safely protected during the winter 
season by the hard compact walls of the perithecium, which in spring crack open and 
allow the asci to escape, and bring about a new infection of the vines. While this mil- 
dew is not nearly so destructive as that variety called the Downy mildew, still it is cap- 
able of wholly ruining the crop of certain varieties which are subject to it, as for instance, 
the Salem. 

The usual remedy found to be quite effectual in most cases in the Niagara district is 
dusting flowers of sulphur on the vines, or, in hot weather, underneath them ; but a more 
certain and effectual method is spraying the vines with the Bordeaux mixture, or the car- 
bonate of copper early in the season. 

The Powdery Mildew of the Gooseberry (Sphoerotheca mors uvoe). — Like the 
powdery mildew of the grape, this is a parasitic fungus, iila jaentous or thread-like in growth, 
and only attacks the surface of the host, giving it a powdery appearance. Gooseberries 
affected, as everyone knows, are rendered both unsightly and undesirable for food, and it 
is owing chiefly to the prevalence of this mildew in Ontario that so few of the superb 
English varieties are found in our gardens. 

It first appears on the young half grown leaves and young wood, and later upon the 
young berries. Prof. Scribner, in his report on Vegetable Pathology for the year 1887, 
gives full illustrations and description of this fungus, and to it we refer any one who wishes 
to carefully examine its growth. Suffice to say here, that its summer spores are formed 
similarly to those of the powdery mildew of the grape, the upper segments of the conidia 
dropping off, and being carried about easily by the wind to scatter the evil ; and that its 
winter spores are also formed within perithecia in a similar manner to those of the grape. 
When these perithecia ripen they become a chestnut color, hence the gooseberry mildew 
in its last stage loses its white appearance and becomes a dirty brown ; and in this way 
the condition of the mildew may be determined. 

Any remedy to be successful must be early applied. Early and frequent applications 
of flowers of sulphur are useful, but not so effective as in the case of the grape vine mildew. 
Experiments at the Geneva Experiment Station, conducted last summer, have resulted in 



86 



the discovery that the most successful treatment of gooseberry mildew is with sulphuret 
of potasssium. The bushes were sprayed at an early date with a solution of one half 
ounce of this substance dissolved in a gallon of hot water. It is therefore recommended 
as the best known remedy for this evil. 

Cherry Rot (Oidium fructigenum) is the most serious obstacle in the way of the suc- 
cessful cultivation of this valuable fruit. The Heart and Bigarreau varieties, and especi- 
ally the latter, are particularly subject to this fungus. The Napoleon Bigarreau, for 
instance, is frequently very heavily laden with fruit, but a protracted season of wet wea- 
ther so encourages the development of this fungus that the rot, beginning in small spots, 
soon spreads from cherry to cherry, until, before picking time, the whole crop is entirely 
unfit for shipping. Could we succeed in overcoming this evil, we are of the opinion that 
the cultivation of the many very excellent varieties of cherries would be more remunera- 
tive to the grower than strawberries. 

The fungus itself consists of much branched threads, or mycelia, which permeate the 
tissue of the fruit causing it to turn brown and decay. When the air is moist these throw 
up tufts of dirty white dusty fruit stalks. These divide into minute sections, which, when 
ripe, separate and fall off from the top, one by one, in the form of spores. These spores 





Fig. 15. 
Fungus of Cherry Rot. 

Fig. 14.— Perithecium of Uncinula Spiralis, with hooked 
arms, which give rise to the name uncinula. 

are so light as to be readily carried about in the air from tree to tree, and thus the evil is 
rapidly spread about through the orchard. Fig. 15 is a representation of two fruiting 
threads of this fungus befort the 3pores have begun to fall away, magnified 250 diameters. 
The engraving is reproduced from a late report of the Geneva Experiment Station. 

Since the spores can only develop in a moist atmosphere, it is quite evident that, if 
we could keep our cherries perfectly dry, there would be no rot. But, as this is impossible, 
we must endeavour to find some other means of preventing the evil. The spores have 
great vitality and preserve their generative powers from one season to another. The old 
ripe cherries which dry up and hang upon the trees during the winter, as well as the fallen 
cherries beneath the trees, are the means of carrying the fungus through to the following 
season. Any mode by which these could be destroyed would be helpful, whether by burn- 
ing or by allowing the pigs to run in the orchard, so as to eat up all that drop. Probably 
the most reliable method of combatting the evil will be found in the universal remedy of 
spraying the trees with the Bordeaux mixture as soon as possible after the blossoms have 
fallen. 



87 



Plum Leaf or Shot Hole Fungus (Seploria Cerasina). — The leaves of cherry and 
plum trees are often affected by this fungus, the appearance of which is well represented 
in Fig. 16. 

The holes are frequently so round and even that they awaken considerable curiosity 
on the part of the observer as to their cause, but lately the mystery has been explained by 
Prof. Scribner, who says that they are caused by a fungus which is very widely distributed 
throughout the States east of the Mississippi. Though not a very serious pest, it often 
inflicts considerable injury both upon the cherry and the plum trees, by interfering with 
the proper function of the leaves, causing them to drop prematurely, sometimes as early 
as the first of August. The leaves attacked show at first, scattered here and there over 
the surface, dark purple spots, visible on both sides, varying from one twenty-fourth to one 
eighth of an inch in diameter. After a brief period, the tissues covered by these spots 
becomes dead and brownish in color. On examining one of these brown spots under the 
microscope there will be detected from one to several minute black points. These are the 
iruits of the fungus, like little capsules, in which the spores of the fungus are produced in 
great abundance. These are very slender and many times longer than broad, and quite 





Fig. 16. 



J.N l<* 



Fig. 17. — Section of diseased plum leaf : 
a spore?. 



transparent. They are usually divided by one or more cross walls into two or more cells, 
and each cell in every spore is capable of producing a new growth of this parasitic plant. 

Fig. 1 7 represents a highly magnified section through the leaf, including one of the 
four capsules, and at a, above, are shown some of the spores, still more highly magnified. 
The parasite buries itself within the leaf tissue and, therefore, any treatment, to be suc- 
cessful, must be preventive. Spraying the trees with the copper carbonate compounds, 
or with the Bordeaux mixture, for preventing the plum or cherry rot will result, in all 
probability, in preventing the growth of this fungus. 

Strawberry Leaf Blight (Sphcerella Fragarice'). — This is another of the well known 
difficulties which meet the grower of small fruits in Ontario. It is commonly spoken of 
as the " strawberry rust," " sun scald," or "spot disease," although, according to Prof. 
Dudley, the term "leaf blight" would be more applicable as a common name. 

This blight first appears on the new leaves about the time of the setting fruit, and if 
the weather of the succeeding months is dry and hot, there will result serious injury to 
the vitality of the plants. Any one will readily recognize the common appearance of this 
fungus from Fig. 18. The spot is at first brownish or red purple, but when fully matured 
it has a circular centre dead white, from one-eighth to one-quarter of an inch in diameter. 



88 



The red-purple color is the result of a growth of filaments of the vegetative portion, or 
mycelium, (fig. 19a) of this fungus, pushing their way through between the cells of the 
interior of leaves, disorganizing their contents and absorbing their fluids. Air spaces are 
then formed in the centre of the spot, giving rise to the dead white appearance which 
results. In fig. 19 there is seen the transection of a strawberry leaf, of which the por- 
tion on the left is healthy and of the usual thickness, while that at the right shows a 
margin of the " spot," and this portion of the leaf is shrivelled to one-fifth its usual thick- 
ness. At b is seen the reproductive portion of the fungus known as conidia. The con- 
idia spores are oblong and very minute, and \*hen they fall on the fresh leaf surface, where 
there is a moisture, soon germinate, bore their way to the epidermis c, and give rise to 
fresh spots. 

In addition to this mode of propagation by conidia, which are summer spores, and 
short-lived, there are also winter spores grown in sacs called asci. Each ascus, or sac, 
contains eight ascospores, and these preserve their vitality in the dead leaves through the 




Fig. 18. 

winter, and mature in the early spring. From this explanation it is evident that con 
siderable benefit might be derived by strawberry growers through the plan adopted by 
some, of burning over the plantation in the early spring, for, in this way the fungus, to 
a large extent, may be destroyed. 

The fnngicide recommended by Professor Scribner for spraying the strawberry bed, 
is three ounces of carbonate of copper dissolved in one quart of water, and then diluted 
with twenty gallons of water. This should be sprayed on the plantation after the crop 
has been gathered, and repeated once or twice before the first of September. No doubt 
the Bordeaux mixture would be equally effective. 

Some of the varieties, as the Manchester and the Wilson, are especially liable to this 
disease, while other varieties, such as Sharpless, are little troubled with it. 

The Raspberry Anthracnose (Glceosporium venetum). — This fungus is one which 
has thus far not prevailed to any great extent in Ontario. But from a late report of the 
Cornell Experiment Station, we note that it was observed in New York State last season, 
both on the raspberry and blackberry canes. This may yet become a serious injury to us 



89 



in Ontario. An instance is given by Prof. Burrill, of a blackberry plantation in Missouri 
that yielded a profit of $400 one year, which was so reduced by the disease that it scarcely 
paid expenses the year following. The apparent injury to blackcaps in Missouri in the 
year 1887 from this fungus was estimated at from ten to twelve per cent, of the entire crop. 
It first appears in the form of small purple spots scattered around the lower parts of 
the canes. These soon rapidly increase in size and spread from the lower portion of the 
canes upward, giving them a scabby, pithy appearance, as shown in fig. 20. The damage 
done by these blotches rarely extend to the pith, but the greatest injury is done to the cam- 
bium layer, or the portion through which the sap is conveyed in the process of growth, 
resulting very much the same as if the canes had been girdled. As a result, the leaves 
do not attain more than half the normal size, and the fruit, if developed at all, does not 





Fig. 19.— Section of diseased strawberry leaf. 



Fig. 20.— Raspberry Anthracnose. 

reach its full development, but ripens prematurely, or simply dries up and is worthless. 
If the canes are not killed the first year, the continued action of the fungus on the leaves 
and branches prevents the formation of fruit the succeeding year. After the fungus has 
appeared upon the canes, the petioles of the leaves are attacked in the form of purplish 
spots near their base. Gradually the disease spreads throughout the whole framework of 
the leaves, showing white blister-like spots. 

We omit any description of the botanical character of this fungus, but simply remark 
that in overcoming it a vigorous condition of the plant is important, and any old planta- 
tions which are diseased would be better cleared out and burned. One experiment station 
recommends spraying early in the spring, before the growth has begun, with sulphate of 
iron, a pound to a gallon of water, and after the leaves appear, with the Bordeaux mixture. 

For many of the illustrations used with this paper, and for much information, I am 
indebted to the excellent publications of the Department of Agriculture, Section of Myco- 
logy? oi the United States. In this important field of study a great advance has been 
made during the last few years, and the results are proving to be of immense value to fruit 
growers and gardeners. Many of the worst problems facing the horticulturist have been 
satisfactorily solved, and many others will be cleared up during the coming year. The 
importance of a widespread dissemination of the work of these experimenters, in its rela- 
tion to the prosperity of our province, can scarcely be over-estimated. 






90 



ADDRESS OF DR. W. J. BEAL AT THE LAYING OF THE CORNER-STONE 

OF THE NEW BOTANICAL LABORATORY OF THE MICHIGAN 

AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

In view of the resolution passed by our Association at its winter meeting in the 
City of Hamilton, in December, 1891, looking toward the establishment of a Provincial 
Botanic Garden in the City of Toronto, or at some other convenient point, this address 
of Dr. Beal's contributed to us by him, seems quite opportune. 

The Equipment of a Botanical Department at an Agricultural College. 

In March, 1890, the old Botanical Laboratory of the Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege, after serving as a busy hive for ten years, suddenly turned to smoke and ashes. 
Since that time we have been dependent on the kind hospitality of the Agricultural De- 
partment for rooms in which to meet our classes and perform other duties incident to a 
department of botany. Not without some opposition, doubtless on account of a lack of 
knowledge as to what modern botany can do for agriculture, the members of the last 
legislature made a fairly adequate appropriation for a new building, which will be a, 
great improvement over the one destroyed. 

Planted on yonder knoll by the wisdom of the State Board of Agriculture, between 
the laboratories uf agriculture and horticulture, this second and better botanical labora- 
tory is to stand. It was doubtless so located with the notion that botany is the right 
hand support of the one and the left hand support of the other ; or perhaps with a notion 
that botany is of a greater importance, and that agriculture and horticulture are her 
foremost allies. 

So far as I know, this simple ceremony is the only one that was ever held at the 
laying of the corner-stone of any building at this college — and this block is not a corner- 
stone, nor the key-stone of an arch, but a " broadrider " placed near the left of the main 
entrance, marked " Botany," to let those who enter see what they are comins; to. 

In 1859, a third of a century ago, when I took my first degree at the University of 
Michigan, there was but one institution of learning in the United States that employed 
and paid a man for devoting all of his time to the science of botany. The person referred 
to was the late Dr. Asa Gray, who was for many years the professor of botany at Har- 
vard University. At that time only eight weeks of daily work were required of under- 
graduate students, and they had the opportunity of electing about three weeks more. A 
very few resident graduates — one to three at a time — pursued the science further. 

In a limited number of other universities and colleges, botany found a small niche in 
the course of study, one man usually teaching all the botany, zoology, geology that were 
taught, and often also taught all the chemistry, and had plenty of time to spare for classes in 
mathematics and possibly in rhetoric or some other subject. The short course in botany 
at that time consisted almost entirely of some lessons in the gross anatomy and morph- 
ology of flowering plants and ferns and their allies. A very little attention was given to 
the geographical distribution of plants. 

I need not tell you, Mr. President, that in those times most scholars considered 
botany of little importance, either for the facts acquired or the discipline and culture that 
it could give. Little was expected and little was given. 

For the rapid and wide-spread interest and attention which botany has attracted 
in this country within the past fifteen or twenty years, nothing in my opinion has done 
so much as the work performed in our colleges of agriculture, and in the United States 
Department of Agriculture. I have carefully watched these influences in the numerous 
national, state and local gatherings of scientific men. The large number and the nature 
of themes discussed ; the practical mode of treatment and the rapid increase of wide- 
awake and able men and women who bow at Flora's shrine, has been most remarkable, 
and this movement has but fairly got under way. 

I will not attempt at this time to enumerate what botanists are doing, but refer you 
to numerous journals and transactions of learned societies, to recent books and bulletins > 
to courses of study in every college which has the least spark of modern thought in it. 



91 



In these days a well equipped agricultural college cannot get along, so far as botany is con- 
cerned, by employing a man to teach botany who shall also beiequired to teach other subjects. 

Under good management a botanical department will advance just in proportion to 
the means at its disposal. 

This may be a suitable time for a little indulgence in considering an ideal plan for a 
botanical department of a college with as good an endowment and as great pretentions as 
this one. To attract students and give them good opportunities, the department should 
be many sided and symmetrical. One or more of the teachers should be enthusiastic in 
field work — a good collector and well skilled in preparing plants for the herbarium. Very- 
much yet remains to be done in systematic botany, as studied b}^ those of the u old 
school, 1 ' with all the aids that have come from histology and physiology and embryology, 
The latter are indispensible in any course of botany. 

In an agricultural college, special attention should be given to the study of grasses 
and other forage plants, to trees, shrubs and weeds. 

Another broad and fertile field is the study of variation and description of our 
cultivated plants, subjects which have been receiving little attention from naturalists. 

There are many sections of cryptogamic botany of great interest and import- 
ance ; among the most important of which in an agricultural course are the 
study of parasitic fungi and bacteria. For several years, about these days 
we are adding annually 5,000 or more plants to our herbarium, including plants 
of many of the lower families. This growth ought to continue for a long time yet. This 
should include specimens of cultivated plants, such as grown in the vegetable gardens, 
orchards, and those which are grown for flowers or foliage. Such a college must have a 
good supply of compound microscopes, so that only one person shall have access to the 
same instrument during any term. New and improved instruments are all the time 
appearing, and we must have them or suffer the consequences of falling behind the times. 
Microtomes, a host of re-agents, apparatus for experiments in plant physiology, maps, 
charts, purchased or made to order, must be all the time accumulating, even though the 
garret becomes replete with old rubbish. Lantern views and means to use, and conveni- 
ences for photographing objects large or microscopic are indispensable in 1892. 

For years I have been experimenting and watching the effects of numerous lectures 
given to students on botanical subjects. I have kept reducing the lectures, and instead 
have given the students references to first-class books in which they could, in connection 
with original work, read and take notes to better advantage than when following a 
lecture. Our botanical books are far better and more numerous than they used to be. 

As nearly all of you know for some time past we have kept on the shelves or on the 
tables of the botanical class rooms from five to ten or more copies of such books as : 

Saab's Text Book and Lectures on Physiology ; De Bary's Comparative Anatomy of 
Phanerogams and Ferns, his Morphology and Biology of the Fungi, Mycetozoa and 
Bacteria; Goebel's Outlines of Classification and Special Morphology of Plants; Stras- 
burger's Handbook of Practical Botany ; Bessey's Botany for High Schools and Colleges; 
Plowright's Monograph of the British Uredinese and Ustilaginese ; Burill's Uredinese, 
ErysipheaB and Bacteria ; Bower's Course of Practical Instruction in Botany ; Campbell's 
Elements of Structural and Systematic Botany ; Cryptogamic Botany, by Bfc&iet and 
Murray ; numerous bulletins of the United States Department of Agriculture, especially 
those of the section of Vegetable Philosophy ; Goodall's Physiological Botany ; Gray's 
Text Book ; Plant Dissection by Arthur, Barnes and Coulter. These and a smaller 
number of other good works are on the tables, and we use many others. The plan of 
freely using these books as needed in place of numerous lectures works admirably. A 
good library is one of the requisites of our ideal Botanical Department. 

Our thrifty botanical club of thirty members, meeting voluntarily three or four times 
a month, demands some hints and some time at the hands of the teachers in this depart- 
ment. In like manner, for many years past, the students in botany at this college have 
helped maintain a thriving natural history society. 

Please keep in mind that [ am naming the necessary equipment for the botanical 
department of a good agricultural college. Some of the force, at least, should be skilled 
in the use of the pencil and crayon. 



92 



The department will be defective if it abandon a botanical museum, such as was 
fairly begun and set up in the old laboratory. 

Green-houses in variety we have already. Some day we should have one for use in 
summer in which to grow plants of cold regions. In these houses to serve botany best 
should be placed a greater variety of plants to illustrate certain points of culture, or 
plants of economic importance. 

We have a botanical garden, recently much enlarged, but still with room enough for 
far greater extension. In such a garden there are, or will be sunny slopes and shady 
bants, ponds and bogs, an aboretum for specimen trees and shrubs. 

We once 8gitated the scheme of purchasing twenty to forty acres, two miles from 
here, because it contained many nice swamp and bog plants. I now think it would be 
better to move the nicest portion of such a swamp to our own college grounds, and with 
a little support we can do it and have a gem right at our own door. 

Here we have perhaps 200 acres which contain our buildings, the orchards, gardens, 
lawns, groves and playgrounds, saying nothing about experiment plats and the fields to 
the south of us. Let us imagine the valley along our lazy brook filled to the top of its 
banks on either side with hardy herbs and shrubs, with extensions in suitable places 
along the flats of the Red Cedar and on the north bank of this quiet stream from the 
boiler-house to the west entrance at the foot of the hill, a distance of three-quarters of a 
mile. The plants in question should be to a great extent grouped by families and gene a, 
each plant occupying a much larger space than is customary in any botanical garden 
wh'ch I have ever seen or read about. For example, a patch of viola pedata should be 
well grown and not less than three feet in diameter ; of helianthus orgylis, six to ten 
feet ; peltandra undulata, eight feet or more. So of sedges and grasses, which have not 
been introduced for use in masses as they might well be. In numerous cases, whether 
we wish it cr not, it is better to grow plants much alike each other a little way apart 
with .'cmething else between them, especially where they are inclined to mix by seeds or 
root-stalks. 

Again, I have learned by experience, that in very many cases it is easier to shift 
plants to other places every few years than to take up and change the soil and reset in 
the same spots. A rotation of crops is a good practice for a botanical garden as well as 
for fields of grass and grain for the farm, or berries and vegetables for the garden. This 
occasional shifting of plants may seem to some too unstable for a well-planned botanical 
garden. On the campus in connection with our large groves and groups of trees and 
shrubs could be planted one or more good specimes to represent many families or genera 
ol hardy, woody plants. 

The scattering of duplicate trees, shrubs or herbs is unnecessary and tends to con- 
fusion in a botanical garden, but it may often be just the thinsj to produce the best effect 
for ornamenting a campus, a park, or a cemetery. For such a garden we should need a 
map, lists of plants in alphabetical order, and everything well labelled. 

With a course of instruction like ours extending through the summer months, a 
botanical garden is of much greater value, if possible, than it can be to a college which 
takes a long summer vacation. Such a girdem, with all the accompaniments to which I 
have referred, could not fail to make itself felt in advancing agriculture and horticulture, 
as well as botany. This campus w r ould more than ever interest visitors from all parts of 
the State, but would be of great value to the neighboring city and serve the place of one 
of its parks. In more than one of my former reports I have dealt at length on the rela- 
tions of botany to agriculture, and attempted to show the great value of botany as a study 
to cultivate the observation and strengthen the reasoning powers. 

The number of botanical garelens in the United States is usually given as one each 
at Harvard, Washington, St. Louis and Michigan Agricultural College, and none of these 
are yet what they should be or what they are certain to become. I have seen all of 
these and am encouraged to believe that with continued and increased support, right here 
at this college there will be in a very short time a botanic garden which in many respects 
will surpass any to be found in the country. For many reasons this is an admirable 
location for a first class botanic garden. 






93 



We have already made a good beginning towards such a garden in the broadest 
sense. Including species and varieties in the experiment station, we now have not far 
from 5,000. To maintain an establishment in a creditable manner money is needed. I 
will not say how much, but considerable ; the more the better. The more I think of it 
the more the subject grows upon me. 

This college is supported mainly by the United States Government, and to a con- 
siderable extent also by the State. Perhaps this condition of things may tend to prevent 
endowments by wealthy persons. 

Mr. President, as you know we have been looking over the list of Michigan's enter- 
prising wealthy citizens with a view to finding one or more whom we could interest in 
botanical work. The endowment of a botanical garden is comparatively a new way of 
spending a fortune in this country, and perhaps in any other country. The only 
instance that has come to my knowledge of a person liberally endowing a botanic garden 
is that of the late Hon. Henry Shaw, of St. Louis, Mo. This exceptionally bright 
example was of so much interest to botanists that three of us, Hon. 0. W. Garfield, Prof. 
L. R. Taft and your humble servant were recently authorized by our wide awake State 
Board of Agriculture to make a pilgrimage to the Shaw gardens. In St. Louis a good 
deal has already been done in several directions, and after a little time we may anticipate 
great things in a botanical way. Only a small portion of this great endowment is yet 
available, as so much of it consists in unimproved real estate. 

One point I had especially in mind during our recent visit was to glean all the facts 
possible as to the nature and disposition of Mr. Shaw, that this might aid us in finding 
his duplicate in our ovrn state. What were his surroundings ? Who were his most inti- 
mate associates in early life 1 What were the influences after his early retirement from a 
prosperous business that tended to induce him to lay a large fortune at the disposal of 
the neatest science known 1 Who were Mr. Shaw's advisers 1 We learned that he was 
a bachelor. The trees, shrubs and other plants he learned to like in place of a loving 
wife and children. For many years he was accustomed to consult the late Dr. Gray, 
who doubtless may have done much to shape the destinies of the Shaw gardens. 

We learned that in his last visit to Europe Mr. Shaw was much impressed while 
walking through the grounds at Chatsworth, the most magnificent private residence in 
Europe, and then and there resolved to have a garden of the same sort in a smaller way. 

In this country men of wealth and ambition seek office and promotion in many 
directions and often make for themselves good records. In a very large majority of cases, 
however, the fame is emphemeral. 

As it seems to me, Mr. Shaw in endowing the garden of St. Louis has placed his 
name where it will be long and most favorably known, not only to those living in the 
immediate vicinity of his former home, but to those living in remote countries. I can 
scarcely conceive of a pleasanter way of remembrance than to have a name long 
associated with a garden of native trees, shrubs, flowers and foliage plants. 

In the meantime, while all are looking and waiting and hoping to find the man to 
endow a garden with money, we shall keep making additions and improvements as 
best we can. 

The chief use of a botanical department here is to give instruction to students, 
especially the sort of botany of greatest value to the farmer. 

Another object should not be lost sight of, viz , original research. If the teacher's 
time and that of his assistant's is fully occupied with routine work, nothing can be done 
by way of investigation. A college will fail in a very important part of its work, if no 
provision is made for research by its teachers. This gives them a chance to grow, in- 
spires them with enthusiasm and is a great help to the students, and to the world at large. 

On this subject Dr Farlow, one of Harvard's brightest men, says : " What does 
investigation mean 1 It does not mean anything which is of necessity capable of partial 
application at first sight. The investigator is a dull, plodding mortal, working away 
year by year. But at last he discovers something which is of benefit to all mankind. 
You should not hurry the investigator ; we must have a report in six months ; we must 
have a report in a year. Tell us about this thing, about that thing or about the other 
thing. An investigator is one who knows what he is about and he knows a grext deal 



94 



better than you do. He is one who has been trained, who has studied deeply, who is 
thoroughly in earnest." 

Dr. Trelease, the director of the Shaw gardens, says : " No one who has not himself 
done original work can appreciate the slowness with which results are are obtained." I 
have often heard similar remarks from Dr. Gray, one of the most industrious and suc- 
cessful of investigators of the present century. 

The new laboratory is to be a well lighted, substantial building, so constructed that 
vermin cannot effect a lodging. It is 45x55 feet, practically four stories iiigh. The 
rooms for museum are expected in a few years. 

To summarize : I note a rapid progress which botany has made in this country, 
attributing the increased number of workers largely to the agricultural colleges and the 
United States Department of Agriculture. 

At present botany is recognized in all of our best colleges as an important part of 
instruction for the knowledge, culture and discipline it affords. In these institutions investi- 
gations in great variety are carried on in all families of plants, from the highest to the lowest. 

For the best results a botanical department must be many sided — with teachers who 
are experts in numerous directions. 

We must have a well kept and continually growing herbarium. 

Such a department should have as many compound microscopes as there are students 
using them in any term, and much other apparatus for experiments and photography. 

Duplicate volumes of books are needed all the time in the class-room, besides a 
generous library. 

A botanical club or society, which shall meet as does the one here, every week. 

The department will not be complete without a museum of plant products. 

There must be numerous green houses, varying in temperature and light and. moisture. 

Also a botanic garden and arboretum. 

Original research must not be neglected nor crowded out, nor should the study of 
varieties of cultivated plants. 

A liberal and uniformly increasing and permanent endowment is indispensable. 

In addition to what the nation and the state are likely to afford for the purpose, we seek 
a cultured gentleman or lady of wealth, who shall interest himself in a most substantial 
manner. In aiding such work follows a guarantee that the name of such person shall be 
kept green, bear frequent blossoms and a liberal harvest of fine fruit for centuries to come. 

In his garden, foliage and flowers, in pond, bog, arid slope and shady ravine, in soil 
wet or moist, fertile or sterile, in the open air or in the conservatory, each plant in the 
most favorable surroundings and well kept, shall pronounce a succession of benedictions 
on the name of the liberal benefactor. 



RUSSIAN FRUITS. 

Considering the large variety of apples and pears which are being introduced into 
Canada from Russia by the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association — many of which are 
being distributed to those of our members who ask for them, it will be of great impor- 
tance to preserve in a compact form, the letters describing them, sent us by Mr. Jaroslav 
Niemetz, of Real College, Winnitza, Podolia, Russia, who has been instrumental in pro- 
curing the varieties for us, and who has so interested himself in our work as to become a 
member of our Association. The originals of these letters were written some in French, 
some in German and some in English. (The Secretary.) 

i. Stone Antonovka. 

One of the finest of Russian apples, the white (ordinary) Antonovka is well known 
in America, although it has there unfortunately lost its Russian name, and is cultivated 
there under other names. " Queen of the Steppes " is the name which has been given it 
by the celebrated Prof. Budd. In the provinces of southern Russia, where it keeps until 
October, it is not counted among the winter apples, and is replaced by an apple which 
they call here " Lipovoe " (Linden apple.) The finest qualities of the Antonovka are 
developed only in northern Russia, and there is no reason to doubt that in America it 



95 



will succeed best in the North. That apple has several varieties in Russia, of which the 
best is without doubt the "Antonovka longovia " (meadow) or " Ramenaia " (Ramen sig- 
nifies stone,) which is a veritable winter apple, not only in the South but also in the 
North. Having only some very insignificant distinguishing points, it is very difficult to 
identify the " Stone-Antonovka," and it is necessary to have long practise to be able to 
recognize the two trees, but the former grows more slowly, is less umbrageous, and the 
wood is so hard that it scarcely yields to a knife ; in one word, this apple tree 
occupies among others the place which the oak occupies among the forest 
trees. The great difference is in the fruit. That of the Stone Antonovka 
is not so long in form as that of the Antonovka ordinary ; it is of a brighter color, 
and has a red tint on the side turned to the sun. The wind is unable to cause it to drop 
until it is ripe in September. The apple carries easily, keeps well until June without 
losing either its flavor or aroma; while the ordinary Antonovka loses its flavor and 




Stone-Antonovka. 

becomes mealy. All these qualities have made the Stone-Antonovka a very lucrative 
product, especially in the gardens* situated at a distance away from the great centres, and 
in the market it is more prized than other apples. It is not by any mistake that this 
variety supplants all the others in our gardens. Perhaps the " Stone-Antonovka " is 
already known in America under some English name, if it is not I would advise the 
Canadian horticulturists to introduce into Canada that variety, which for its excellent 
flavor and ease af transportation, may become an article of export and as pDpular as the 
" Duchess." 

ii. Koslov Prolific Bush Morello. 



The best Morello cherries suffer much from the cold in the gardens of Northern and 
Central Russia, indeed it sometimes happens that they freeze to the root, consequently 
the growth of the delicate varieties of cherries in the commercial gardens is impossible. 
It is with great pleasure that horticulturists have learned that an amateur gardener, T. 
W. Mitshourine, raises in the village of Koslov (province of Tamboff) two varieties, which 
are named in honor of the originator, " T. W. Mitshourine's prolific bush Morello," and 
" T. W. Mitshourine's Morello with small leaf." It is the former, which is the better, 
that I wish to make known to the members of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association, 
and I propose to name it, " Koslov bush Morello." 



96 




The Koslov Bush Morello. 



'This engravir g is reduced nearly one-quarter. 



97 



The mother trees, which are in the gardens of the cultivator, are fifteen years old, 
have a height of one metre* and a half, the diameter of the very large head is two and a 
half metres, the trunk is three and a half inch. That tree flowers very late and gives 
without rest, each year, from twenty to thirty five kilogrammesf of fruit, which ripen 
about the end of August, a time when there are very few cherries in the market, which 
is an advantage from a commercial point of view. The fruit is large, the surface is pol- 
ished and of a brilliant color, the flavor is an agreable acid, the flesh is juicy and the pit 
small. The originator does not grow this cherry by grafting, but from the pits, because, 
in grafting, this cherry loses in quality. The plants grown from pits do not vary, and 
after three or four times transplanting, bear fruit at the age of four or five years. The 
tree delights in shady places and is not affected by the cold, having already endured 35 
Rea. J (46 below zero Fahr.) without any injury. I beg jou to pay attention to this 
early fruit. 

in. Pears. 

There are some varieties of pears which can endure the rigorous climate of the north, 
of which I may mention the following: Bessemianka, Tonkovieska, Volga-Bergamotte, 
and some others. They pre of no great value, but they are cultivated because the better 
pears are tender. Lately, attention has been called to some varieties of pears from Lith 
uania little known here, viz : " Beurre Slutsk " and " Bon Chretien Sobiesky." These are 
dessert fruits and not yet tested with respect to hardiness. Two pomologists, so far as I 
know, are occupied in the acclimatisation of some varieties of table pears imported from 
foreign countries, viz : our renowned connoisseur of Russian fruits, Mr. A. Grell, of Mos- 
cow, and Mr. Mithourine, in the Province of Tambow ; and their experience appears to 
me exceedingly instructive. I think it very suitable to quote a passage from one of Mr. 
Mithourine's letters. Here is what he says about the past winter and the hardiness of 
pears: "'The past winter at Koslov has been unusually severe ; it began without snow 
and found the trees still in foliage. The first cold was about 15 degrees Rea. (2 ° below 
zero Fahr.) and in the month of February it touched 32 Rea. (40 ° below zero Fahr.) ; 
and as a result all the pears have been frozen. The following kinds have endured this 
severity without any special protection, viz : Foreign varieties : Princess Royale. Beurre 
gris d'Ete, Beurre Six, Champagne longue, Souvenir de congres. Russian varieties ; 
Beurre blanc de Livonie, Beurre verte de Livonie, Kvoschtchinskaia, Bergamotte rouge, 
Medviedievka. It is astonishing that any of the Bessemianka should have survived." 

iv. The Rostov Pea. 

The Russians are very fond of roasts served with sweet dried peas, and, indeed, of the 
latter in many ways. A variety under the name of the " Moscow," is grown in large 
quantities in Russia. The kitchen gardeners of Rostov, a town of the Jaroslav Govern- 
ment, are occupied with the preparation of these dried peas, and for this they have a 
native species, which is very sweet. This species, known as the Rostov Pea, is the very 
best for drying, being the sweetest of any European kind ; even the English Marrowfat, 
or any other of the foreign kinds, are found to be much its inferior. Besides its excellent 
flavor, it is very productive and hardy, as are all the Russian vegetables. 

I will describe the Russian method of drying, and would advise all American ladies 
to give it a trial. All the young peas, before they are over ripe, are taken out of 
their pods, and put into a basket, which is speedily plunged into a cauldron of boiling 
water, and left for a few minutes. After the first plunging, the basket is taken out, shaken 
up, and then again plunged in. This is again repeated the third time. After this, #re 
basket is plunged into cold water, and when taken out the peas are put on linen cloth 
in an absolutely dark place, until they are nearly dry. Then they are put for final 
drying in a hot bakery. Any one having an evaporator can use it for this purpose. 

*A metre is 39.368 American inches. t 

fA kilogramme is about 2 1-5 pounds avoirdupois. 

^Reaumur's scale of grading the temperature is chiefly confined to Russia ; in it the freezing point of 
water is made o°, and the boiling point 80°. 



7 (F.G.) 



98 



It must be remembered that for preserving the green color, which is the beauty of dried 
peas, the drying must be done in a dark place. For tiials, on a small scale, a sieve can be 
used in place of a basket, and a large pot in place of a cauldron. I now send you a 
sample lot of the Rostov Pea, and if the members of your Association wish it, I can 
send you some more. 




The Rostov Pea. 



v. Crimean Apple " Synap.' 



The " Synap " is a very ancient Tartar species, propagated in large quantities at 
Crimea, where there are large orchards, some of them one hundred acres in extent, and 
Crimean orchardists prefer it for profit to all French Noble Reinettes. Crimea produces 
one million poods (one pood equals 36 kilogrammes-'), and this quantity always sells 
at good prices in the markets. There are three varieties, all somewhat resembling each 
other in shape, whfch is oblong, viz : — 1. Kara Synap, which is red, and of poor quality ; 

*1. Kilogramme— 2.20 lbs. 



99 



2. Sary Synap, which is the most widely cultivated and is perfectly hardy ; 3. Kandyl 
Synap, which is somewhat larger and more handsome than the preceding one, but is not 
so hardy. The color of the Kandyl and Sary Synap is remarkably beautiful being 
white at the stem, and the remainder yellow with a red blush on the sunny side. 
The skin is lustrous, the flavor particularly pleasant and aromatic, so much so that the 
fruit may be eaten while yet immature. The fruit is harvested about the end of Septem- 
qer, and ripens at Christmas, but will keep until the new crop is ready. At St. Peters- 
burg, Moscow and Riga, in the month of May, when there is no other apple to be seen in 
windows of the shops and in the markets, the Synap is to be found quite fresh. There 
are often samples of the Synap to be seen which have been kept two years. 

For firmness and consequent adaptability for transportation in large quantities, I do 
not know its equal in Russia, or indeed in all Europe. How it will stand shipment is 
proved by the fact that when there was no railroad in Russia, the Synap was exported 







Kandyl Synap. 



on carts from Crimea to the Siberian towns, Perm and Archangel, a journey which occu- 
pied from three to four months. Another good quality of the Synap is that it never rots. 
The tree grows in a pyramidal shape, like the Conifers, yields very large crops annually 
and thrives best in moist soil. 

The question may arise, Why do I describe a kind, the origin of which is in Southern 
Russia, where the temperature is never lower than 10 degrees (Rea) ? The Synap has 
been planted at the north, and has proved its hardiness during the last severe winter, 
when only the Antonovka, Anis, Duchess and a few other kinds escaped, while all others 
were frozen to the roots. Thus, the Synap remained uninjured when the temperature 
was 20 degrees (Rea.) It is said, however, the fruit is neither so aromatic nor of so hand- 
some a color at the north. Perhaps so, but this apple, growing equally well at the south 
or at the north, will prove an excellent variety both in Canada and in the United States. 

I send you scions for testing, both of the Sary and the Kandyl Synap. 



100 



vi. Russian and Ansjutin's Apricots. 

The Mennonites were German colonists of Russia who emigrated to America because 
they did not believe in military service; they inhabited the southern Governments of Rus- 
sia, viz : Karsonskaja with chief town of Odessa, Ekaterinoslavskaja and Crimea, which 
last was the central colony. In all these governments, grapes, peaches and apricots grow 
wild, and on the south coast of Crimea even the almonds and figs will succeed. Although 
sometimes there is a heavy frost in the governments of Karsonskaja and Ekaterinoslavs- 
kaja, and the grape requires protection in winter time, yet these countries may be consid- 
ered well adapted for the cultivation of grapes. 

In the above-named governments the apricot grows in vineyards, gardens and fields, 
into a large tree, and yields abundantly. The fruit is sold in the gardens for twenty or 
thirty cents per poud (one poud equals 36 kilogrammes). The fruit is used chiefly for 
eating fresh, and to some extent for preserving ; no other use is made or it, because we 
Russians are not so ingenious in preparing fruit dishes as you are in America. 

There are many varieties in southern Russia, of which the following are the chief, 
(1) "Holland red cheek" (probably raised from pits of the Breda,) a good large table 
kind, and (2) " Odessa," pale yellow, excellent, sweet and firm ; a suitable apricot for 
preserving. 

It is to be inferred that it was chiefly these two kinds of apricots which the Menno- 
nites brought with them into America, as they were generally cultivated in the places 
from which they emigrated ; and, therefore, that all American varieties of the Russian 
apricot have been raised from pits of the Holland and Odessa. The method of propagat- 
ing them by pits is very popular in this country. The fruit of such trees is variable, but 
the trees themselves are more hardy than those propagated by grafting ; they are also 
more productive and long-lived, and the acclimation of them to the conditions of any 
country is easier. The success of the Russian apricots in North America can be explain- 
in this way, though brought by the Mennonites from southern Russia, they are grown 
from pits. The difficulty of the acclimation of the apricot, the peach and the tender var- 
ieties of plums to cold climates, may be overcome both in north of Russia and in America 
by propagating by the seed and not by grafts. 

No doubt it will at first produce fruit of poorer quality, but many among them will 
prove worthy of selecting for dissemination. 

As I observed above, a seedling that has not been transplanted and whose tap root 
is entire, is the more hardy because it strikes deep below the reach of frost. The most 
northern point in Russia where the apricot succeeds, thanks to the labors of our experi- 
enced and eminent pomologist, Mr. F. Ansjutin, we must count Niegin, in Chernigovs- 
kajagov. His apricot originates in Crimea, and was raised from two pits brought away 
about the year 1840 by Mr. F. Ansjutin, who was at that time a young man. At first 
he tried propagating several foreign kinds of grafting. After these had all perished in 
the first cold winter, he noticed two seedling trees which were wholly uninjured by the 
cold, and after these had fruited he was so pleased with them that he raised a large planta- 
tion. I saw in his garden apricot trees like apple trees in growth twenty-five years old ; they 
require no protection in winter ; also a plantation of seedlings which had been raised in 
quite an open exposure. 

Frost is sometimes twenty-eight degrees (Rea.) at Niegin ; the trees do not die even 
at that temperature, but it destroys the flower buds and consequently the fruit crop. Mr. 
F. Ansjutin raised, from two stocks, some varieties of which the four following are worthy 
of attention: (1) Apricot, large white, early (like Nicholas); (2) Apricot, small white, 
late, sweeter than preceding ; (3) Apricot, yellow, large, early ; (4) Apricot, yellow, small 
late. I sent you some scions and pits of these, the most hardy of all kinds. Next year Mr. 
Ansjutin promises to give me more of them for your respected Society. Many American 
nurserymen's catalogues call these seedlings of the Mennonites " the Siberian Apricot," and 
same gardeners in their fancy actually suppose it originates in the Blue mountains of east- 
ern Siberia. These gardeners are in fault for inducing buyers to purchase by such ridicu- 



101 



lous mis-statements. We should be very glad if not only the apricot, but the orange also 
would grow in Siberia ; but to our sorrow it is doubted whether any fruit trees will grow 
there except Siberian crabs and small inedible wild pears. 

I find that the name "Russian" Apricot is not proper, because it would lead one to 
suppose that it will grow at Moscow or at St. Petersburg, which is not the case. A better 
name would be the Crimean Apricot, from the place where it originates. 

vii. Bohemian Queen Cherry. 

The cherry pits which I sent you are taken from the fruit of the celebrated 
"Bohemian Queen," which I propagate on account of its excellent qualities and its hardi- 
ness. As a market variety it is unequalled. It is an abundant cropper and the[fruit is 







The Sapieganka Pear. 

of excellent flavor, larger and more fleshy than that of the Ostheim, which some years 
is dry and therefore poor. 

It is more delicious than " Frauendorfer," or " Double Natt," and even the " Large 
Spanish " can only be compared with the Bohemian Queen in point of size, and not in 
productiveness or flavor. 

In quality there are only two new kinds that can be compared with it, viz: (1) 
Cerise D'Olivet, large, sweet and delicious, and (2) the well-known Empress Eugenie. 
The introduction of this cherry is the most important matter, because it can be propa- 



102 



gated, like Ostheim, from seeds or root suckers. Sixty per cent of the seedlings are 
constant. It succeeds well in places where the ground remains moist until the month of 
May. 

viii. The Sapieganka Pear or Autumn Polish Bergamotte. 

I give a description of this pear, not on account of any particular prominent qualities 
which it possesses, but because I am of the opinion that on account of its hardiness it may 
be successfully grown in Canada. 

In its home in Lithuania, old and large trees are met with which have endured many 
severe winters. In the Tamboff Government it is the most hardy of all pears there 
grown, and for this reason the Sapieganka can be positively considered a hardy variety. 

The fruit is of middle size, of Bergamotte type, the skin is smooth, yellow and has 
a red cheek on the sunny side. In Luthuania it ripens on the 1st of September, in the 
Tamboff Government in October, and keeps in the cellar two months. The flavor of the 
flesh depends upon local conditions, for though it is tasteful enough in the warmer dis- 
tricts, it is sometimes harsh ; and when grown in the north it is juicy and buttery. The 
fruit is adapted for the table, drying and other home uses. The pear is recommended by 
Russian horticulturists as being adapted for cultivation in market garden. 

ix. Babuskino or Grandmother Apple. 

This Russian apple may be classed with the best winter varieties. I think it is 
known in America, perhaps under some other name, but with us this is its only one. 




Babuskino or Grandmother Apple. 

For localities, where the high winds prevail, there is no better variety than this, because 
the fruit has such a tight hold upon the tree that the most vigorous storm cannot knock 
it down. 

The tree is a spreading grower, has a large leaf, is hardy and very productive. The 
fruit, which hangs firmly by its stem, may be gathered about the first ot October, at 
which time it is quite green and flavorless. About Christmas time it becomes a light 
yellow color, with a little red, and by spring it becomes a rich yellow with a deep red 
blmsh, covered with small russety dots. It keeps in good condition until the end of 
June and even later. At maturity this apple has an excellent flavor, with an especially 
agreable degree of acidity. The flesh is very juicy and aromatic. It is little affected 
by the curculio, probably because of its thick skin. 



103 



As yet, this apple is not very widely disseminated in Russia, but those fruit 
growers who have found out its merits prize it above any other. I am of the opinion 
that in Canada, also, it would soon become the chief market variety ; therefore, unless 
you have it already, 1 will be gJad to send you some scions. 

x. The Hamburg Pear. 

This pear is growing in Chernigov Government, having been brought there from St. 
Petersburg. It is a pear of the Bergamotte type, not large, yellowish green in color, 
with russety dots, juicy, of pleasant flavor and ripens in September. It may be kept 
in the cellar for about three or four weeks. 

As there is such a small selection of really good pears that can endure severe 
cold, the Hamburg has considerable value for horticulturists in cold countries. It has 










r J he Hamburg 1'ear. 

been well tested in the Chernigov Government and has been found to be perfectly 
hardy, while most other varieties entirely succumb. This is explained by the fact that 
its flower-buds are firmly closed and, therefore, not sensitive to the action of the frost. 
I have sent you cuttings of this variety. 

xi. Grand Duchess Olga.* 

This is one of the best Russian winter Reinettes, and our celebrated pomologist 
Lieb has given it the name of Grand Duchess Olga ; the same apple is also known in 
Germany as " Reine Olga." In the gardens and markets it is usually called Little 

*The Grand Duchess of Russia is now the Queen of Wurtemburg. 



104 



Crimean Apple, Red Crimean Apple, etc. The fruit is large in size, and has a pleasant 
aroma ; the skin is thick and quite smooth. The color at the calyx is green ; the rest 
of the fruit is beautifully shaded with deep carmine dots and stripes on golden 
yellow ground. Whitish dots are observable on the red ground. The closed calyx 




The Olga. 

is usually surrounded with five characteristic humps, which do not extend over the 
surface of the fruit and therefore do not change its round form. The flesh is yellow, 
fine grained, juicy, of pleasant vinous flavor, and delicious. It ripens in March and 
keeps till July and even later. It bears shipment well, and is very little affected with 




Section of Olga. 

worms; indeed, it possesses every quality which a commercial apple should possess, for 
it is suitable both for dessert and cooking purposes. The tree is hardy, being able to 
withstand not only great cold, but also extreme heat and drouth, grows rapidly while 
young, and is very productive. It is also an early bearer. I can highly recommend 
this kind to you. 



105 



xi. Exhibition of Fruits at St. Petersburg. 

In the month of October, 1890, the Imperial Society of Horticulture held an exhibit 
at St. Petersburg. The department of fruit growing and decorative horticulture was 
excellently arranged through the efforts of the skilful gardeners who have charge of the 
well stocked hot houses in that city, but, on the other hand, the section of fresh fruits 
was a comparative failure, there being only some forty-two exhibitors. 

The finest fruits were those shown by Polish growers, and particularly those from 
the Warsaw State Poraological Garden, which received very high commendation. All 
the Polish fruits were correctly named, well formed an I large, whereby one would judge 
that fruit growing in Poland is in a good and prosperous condition. The fruits, how- 
ever, were mostly tender varieties grown under glass, few native sorts being among the 
exhibits. Among these latter were some pears, and a winter apple under the name of 
Glogierowka (of pigeon class). It is a very beautiful apple of excellent flavor and the 
fruit growers of Warsaw consider it to be one of the best of their hardy and productive 
dessert sorts. 

From Lithuania and Western Russia there were very few exhibits, none worthy of 
special mention. Crimea showed very few fruits from her commercial gardens ; her 
exhibits were mostly French varieties of pears, peaches, grapes and nuts, which are 
exported into the northern districts. Of apples there were some very good local varieties 
of the Synap, and two very beautiful and delicious Crimean apples, Gulpembe and 
Chelebi, scions of which I sent you, also a large filbert, known here as Bomba. 

From Caucasus there was only one exhibitor, who showed some forty six varieties of 
apples and twenty-four of pears ; most of these were local kinds. Or' pears, one variety 
attracted everybody's attention on account of its enormous size, the Tash-Armud, a local 
Tartar name. It is an excellent, juicy, autumn pear, of about three pounds weight. 
Caucasus is little known in pomological circles, and it is interesting to know that many 
quite new sorts of excellent fruits grow there, some without any culture, and even in 
its forests. In course of time, this country, owing to its favorable climate, will become 
one of the principal centres for growing apples and grapes ; even now it exports a large 
quantity of wine into France. 

The exhibitors of Russian fruits from the northern governments were very few, and 
from some there were no representatives. In all the exhibits were met such wide spread 
and popular varieties as the Antonovka, Borovinka (Duchess), Titova, Aport (Alexander), 
Anis, etc. These typical kinds are known and distributed throughout the whole of 
Russia, and have reliable names, but other and less known varieties have numerous local 
names. The most beautiful and perfect apples were from Tula and Luga. 

A large collection of apples were exported from the garden of Doctors Regell and 
Kesselring. Fifty-three of these varieties were seedlings of Dr. Regell's own raising. 
The fruits were small and poorly colored, and would not tempt anyone to go into fruit 
growing in the climate of St. Petersburg. From such a prominent pomologist as Dr. 
Regell, we were really expecting something better. 

The following are some of the Russian fruits, among those exhibited, which I con- 
sider worthy of mention : 

1. From the government of Riasan there were three beautifully colored seedlings of 
the type of the Crimean Synap, and of the true Chernigov. In your country, and almost 
everywhere abroad, this apple is known as Borovinka (Duchess.) These apples differ in 
this respect that the Borovinka is much superior to the Chernigov. 

2. From the same government a kind of Anis, the calyx of which is closed entirely. 

3. From the Kasan some new local varieties, among th^m a good-sized Siberian crab. 

4. From Chernigov a winter apple, Woloshka, of good quality, resembling Titovka. 

5. From St. Petersburg government Aport Riepchatz, a special kind of Aport 
(Alexander) ; Metla, a new sort ; two varieties of Stone Antonovka one an oblon<$ and 
the other flat. Bt sides these, there are exhibited a red autumn plum, growing freely 
without winter protection. 

The whole exhibition was of no special use to Russian horticulture, excepting to 
the exhibitors themselves, who received a large number of rewards. 



106 



The earnest fruit growers expected that by means of such a large collection of Rus- 
sian apples from the whole of Russia, it would be possible to establish, once for all, a 
correct nomenclature, and thereby put an end to the chaos of names given them at the 
whim of gardeners ; but the Imperial Society of Horticulture, upon which rests the res- 
ponsibility of conducting its provincial divisions, did not stir up this important question. 
It is therefore set at one side, possibly for a long time, and in consequence nobody is in 
a better position than before to judge of the most suitable kinds for each government of 
this empire with respect to the hardiness and other qualities of the several varieties, a 
thing which is of the utmost importance to our country. 

xii. Uriuck Apricot. 

In the Russian provinces of Central Asia, Bokhara, Khivi, Turkestan, and even as 
far as the boundary line of China, is met, both in the wild and the cultivated state, a 
variety of apricot, known locally as Uriuck. As I am better acquainted with the Sem- 
irechenskaja district, with its principal town Yjerny, than the other districts in Asia, I 
will, therefore, make some observations on this apricot as grown in that locality. I think 
it necessary to observe that Vjerny and its suburbs have a climate subject to great drouth 
in summer and extremely cold northwest winds in the winter, and frequently there are 
very sharp changes from heat to cold. 

The Uriuck apricot is growing at Yjerny in wild situations in the woods, where there 
are still to be found very old trees which endured the severe winter of 1877. They 
have thick trunks about one meter in diameter, with low, broad, but roundish, heads. 
But such giants are only left in protected places. The cultivated Uriuck is grown in 
the gardens of Vjerny, as also in other places in Asia, entirely from seeds. Previous to 
the occupation of this country by Russia, the Uriuck was the chief fruit grown in local 
gardens. Now the inlanders have learned from the Russian people how to grow other 
varieties of fruit also, especially the popular Alexander apple. They sow the seeds of 
the Uriuck directly in the place where they wish the trees to grow, usually in the time 
of the season when fresh gathered from the fruit, spring planting not being so favorable. 
The Uriuck does not bear transplanting well, because the trees thereby become more 
bushy and liable to injury from gumming. As soon as the stone opens, it sends out long, 
vertical roots, which take hold deep down in the ground and supply the plant with 
water during the extreme heat of the summer. The seedling som grows up, if there is 
sufficient moisture, and throws out lateral twigs on the lower part of the trunk. The 
seedling should be pruned in the second or third year, or else these lateral twigs dry up 
and render the trunk unsightly. In the third year the seedling usually blooms for the 
first time, the flowers being small, white, or rose-colored, and in the fourth year it bears 
fruit. The Uriuck blooms earlier than other fruit trees and sheds its bloom sooner. 
The time of ripening of the Uriuck at Vjerny begins in July ; the wild variety in the 
mountain ripens later. The color of the Uriuck is orange yellow, blushed on sunny side, 
though not always. In the ripe fruit the stone parts freely from the flesh. In taste, 
some are sweet, juicy and aromatic, not inferior to our apricots, others are inferior in 
quality. 

There are many varieties of Uriuck which, in general terms, may be divided into 
wild and cultivated. Usually the wild Uriuck bears a small fruit, oftener round than 
oval. The color of this is dark green ; the kernel of the stone is sweet or bitter in taste. 
The cultivated, or improved varieties of Uriuck are a larger trait, ofcen oblong, leaf 
lighter, but the kernel of the stone is not always sweet, occasionally it also is bitter. 

It is the general opinion that the best sugar Uriuck grows in Yjerny. being brought 
there by the Sartes. These are a people of ordinary intelligence, occupying the lovely 
fruit-growing and kitchen-garden district. They 'have also very good vegetables, especially 
melons. The Sartes brought the sugar Uriuck, from South Turkestan. It is a variety 
much resembling that grown in our European gardens. There are also many other 
varieties of Uriuck. but there is no great difference between them. They are sold under 
the name of gargens, where they were raised. In China, they are growing several 



107 



varieties — but chiefly four, two. early and small kinds, known as the Kandak Uriuck and 
Khasake Uriuck, white and two late, large, very delicate kinds, Pivande Uriuck and Pchar 
Uriuck (yellow with rose blush). 

In the outskirts of Vjerny we still meet occasionally with the Black Uriuck (Prunus 
Armenica), which grows at the town of Dj argent, situated at farthest border toward 
China. The trees bear large fruit, almost round and almost entirely brown in color, 
The stone is not free. In taste it resembles a plum more than an apricot. 

The people living in the inland use the Uriuck fresh and dry it for winter. The 
Russian ladies cook the Uriuck green in sugar until the stone is soft, and in such a state 
it is also pleasant to the taste. The Bucharians dry a great quantity of the Uriuck apri- 
cots in the sun, and their trade in this article is large. It is brought on the markets from 
Northern Siberia and from the governments bordering on the Volga. It is possible to 
buy dried Uriuck even in the market at Moscow. 

But, as a garden tree about Vjerny and the outskirts, the Uriuck is the favorite, on 
account of its early growth, and its merits for cooking, for which purpose it is largely 
grown. The wood of the Uriuck is also valuable as a material for wood work. Things 
made from it are very beautiful, but very heavy. 

With regard to the hardiness, a Russian officer who lives in China, P. Alexanderovsk 
writes, speaking of its hardiness. He says : "In the years 1888 and 1889 heavy frosts 
continued for about two months, from the middle of December until th i middle of 
February. Some days it was-37F., occasionally it was + 5F. to -2F. In February a 
south wind blew and the thermometer rose one or two degrees. Afterwards it soon fell 
to -13F. Notwithstanding such severe changes, only the old trees of the Uriuck were 
injured, and this not everywhere. Young trees came out all right, just the same as if 
there had been mild weather. Rich people living inland had no crop, but the poor had 




The Uriuck apricot. 

every tree full of fruit, and early varieties are very heavily laden, At first view, this is 
difficult to explain, but the fact is that riches and poverty are measured in China by the 
quantity of water controllod. Rich people watered their grounds during the whole sum- 
mer, but the poor watered theirs very little on account of the scarcity. I am inclined to 
think that it is almost certain that the luxurant growth caused by the frequent waterings 
was the cause of their failure to the fruit." 

I shall be much pleased if the Fruit Grower's Association of Ontario, of which I 
have the honor to be a member-, will call public attention to this useful fruit. It will be 
a gratification to me to see the time when the Uriuck apricot will occupy in the orchards 
and gardens in your country, a place along with the other highly prized novelties. I 
send some pits of the Uriuck apricot. The illustration accompanying this article repre- 
sents the fruit of medium size, and pits of various sorts. 

xiii. Some Hardy Pears. 



In the gardens of northern Russia the cultivation of pears without protection is 
very difficult, indeed, almost impossible, with the exception of a few varieties. From 
this it may be understood why our northern gardeners are so much interested in all 



10S 



hardy pears, without very much reference to the qualify. On this account I gave a list 
of foreign pears Tihieh grow freely without protection as standards in northwestern Russia 
and Poland. Of course the seedlings on which they are grafted increase their hardiness. 
The best wild pear, to he used as stock for these pears, is Tonkovitka, which is* not 
affected by the cold even north of Moscow. It is a strong, upright grower. Z- S gj. 

Dr. Grell, one of our pomologies, who has established in Moscow an acclimated garden 
where he is growing foreign and tender pears, grafted on the root of Crataegus Oxya- 
cantha and Sorbus Aucvparia, and where he is endeavoring to show that this method of 





Long Pear. 



BUERRE ROMAIN. 



treatment has great possibilities for gardening [in the north. So far he^has received no 
positive results. 

The following is a list'of some hardy and excellent foreign varieties'of pears growing 

in Russia. . . 

1. Pana (Polish name) Krasaoka, (Beauty, Russian name). In Geimany rt is called 
Langbirne; in France, Vermilion 5 Estranguillon. German pomologists describe 
it as being of Swiss origin. It is very widely cultivated, growing ai much as two 



109 



thousand feet above the surface of the ocean. Judging by the old trees which I have 
seen this variety has been known long in Russia, growing principally in the western 
governments and Poland. In form the fruit is long and of a peculiar shape. The skin is 
lemon yellow with a blush on the sunny side, which is sometimes lacking. The flesh is 
white, very juicy, but not buttery, sweet and agreeable, ripening in the end of August or 
the beginning of September, and if picked early will keep a couple of weeks. It is 
principally good for eating, and also useful for drying or perry. The tree grows to a 
large size with straight branches and is productive in good ground. In the north- 
western governments I never knew of this pear being winter killed at any time, and ih 
even endures the cold in Chernigov and Kirsk, where it is being widely distributed. I 
hear that it is succeeding in Moscow, and I suppose it will succeed in Canada, but I do 
not wish at present to place it in the hands of your large commercial nurseries. 

2. Red Panna, Princess, Beautiful girl in Russia ; Romishe Schmalgbirne in Ger- 
many ; Beurre Romain in France. It is of unknown origin. In western 
Europe all the markets are full of it, although it cannot be called first-class and buttery, 




Slutsk Pear. 



beurri, as the French say. The flesh is agreeably sweet, a little gritty when ripe and 
soon becomes mealy. The color of the skin is yellow, with red side, on which there are 
little red stripes The tree is not as large as the former sort, but gives a good crop 
annually. In north-western Russia it winters well, and is grown in many gardens of 
central Russia. 

3. White Doyenne. Of this pear I shall say little as it is well known. It is con- 
sidered hardy in Russia and is widely distributed in Poland. Near Riga there was origi- 
nated a seedling which was named by gardeners there Beurre blanc de Livonie, and in 



110 



quality and shape it resembles its parent. This variety is remarkably hardy, and for 
this rrason I call the particular attention of Canadian fruit growers to it. It is hardy 
as a standard, without any protection in Kirsk, Orel, Tambov and Voronej. The winter 
of 1888 was very severe without snow, the thermometer reaching 40° below zero, F., injur- 
ing even the hardy Bessemianka, but the Eeurre de Livonie was uninjured. The tree 
is a modeiate gvower ; the buds are grouped on the ends of the twigs in clusters of five, 
so that the tree is very beautiful when in fruit. The fruit does not drop from the tree 
even when ripe. Altogether this tree combines so many excellent qualities that it will 
be one of the most highly valued in northern Canada. 

4. Slutsk. This received its name from Slutsk in Minsk government, near 
which place it grows in large quantities. Its origin is unknown. Probably it is an 
acclimatized French variety, or a seedling of some foreign table pear. The fruit is of 
medium size, variable in form ; the skin is green with carmine stripes on sunny side 




Liegel's Winter Paar. 



when taken from the tree, yellowing when ripe. The flesh is juicy, white, delicious. 
The fruit is good for use at the end of October, and keeps till April. The form of the 
tree is characteristic, growing very upright in conical form, with thick almost vertical 
branches. The trees grow very large and bear annually. In Chernigov it endures the 
cold without protection. Fruit growers in Russia are paying special attention to this new 
and comparatively little known variety. 

5. Beurre Blumenbach (Soldat laboureur). This variety is large, excellent in 
taste, and ripens late in the autumn. It is an annual bearer and a very productive pear 
and very hardy. I have old trees which are perfectly healthy. 

6. Flemish Beauty (Fondante de bois). This is usually counted very hardy; at 22° be- 
low zero, F., of cold the tree does not suffer. I know th?.t positively, but perhaps it might 



Ill 



endure more frost than that. This variety is now so largely grown in Russia that it no 
longer brings its former high price. My trees do not produce fruit in the same quantity 
every year. In quality they are variable. Beurre Blumenbach is a better pear and more 
productive. 

7. Nina (Elizabeth de Van Mons, Manning's Elizabeth Beurre de Jelles). One of 
our best varieties of summer pears ; yellow, blood red on sunny side, melting, of excellent 
agreeably sweet taste. This variety ripens in August and keeps a couple of weeks. The 
tree is not large, but is productive and hardy, enduring the climate of Kersk and 
Chernigov; good variety for market ; very beautiful and delicious, but the tree is not very 
widely distributed. 

8. Liegel's Winter Butter Pear (Supreme Coloma Kopertsche). This variety is 
commended by the German Pomological Society. It is very hardy and suitable for com- 
mercial orchards. The fruit is large, greenish yellow, somewhat buttery and agreeable 
mushy taste. It keeps until January. The tree is pyramidal and an annual bearer. The 
ruit, notwithstanding its size, does not drop early. Formerly Moscow imported a large 
quantity of this fruit, but now it is grown widely in western and northern Russia and 
in Poland, at Koon. The young twigs endure 25° below zero, F. This pear, which is 
highly prized in Europe, I do not notice in your American or Canadian catalogues. 

Descriptions of other hardy varieties of Russian pears will follow. Scions of these 
which I have here described I have forwarded to you. 

XIV. WlNNITZA RAMBOUR. 

(Sent to Canada under the name of Niemetz' Winter Rambour ) 

The tree is of uncertain origin. I found it in a garden which I purchased some 
time ago and Russian pomologists think it is a new variety cf the class Rambour, and 
gave it the name of the place where it was found. 

The iruit is roundish, ribbed at the cavity, light yellow with a slight blush, often 
without it, or with only a rose stripe. Flesh almost white, very firm, sub-acid, moder- 
ately juicy and of an agreeable flavor. The seed vessel is very small compared with the 
size of the fruit. The fruit ripens in October and keeps till January in perfect 
condition. 

The tree is spreading, pyramidal in form, an annual bearer. In size and weight it is 
one of the largest apples in the world. I have frequently had fruit as much as 14 centi- 
meters in diameter and 2J to 2J pounds in weight. It is difficult to grow such large 
fruit on a standard tree and for this reason I propose to grow it in the dwarf form on 
which it reaches a larger size. 

It is a very suitable kind for exhibition, but for the table it is not so desirable. 

xv. Lithuanian Pippin. 

This apple has been a long time in Russia, but, notwithstanding its excellent quality, 
it was for a long time unappreciated. Now our new society of Russian fruit growers, 
with its president, Grand Duke Nikolaus, cousin of the Emperor, drew attention to this 
excellent variety and made an exact description of it, giving its true value. I send you 
scions of this apple under the name of Tirol apple (see Canadian Horticulturist, 1890, 
page 190). It is also called Glogiernoka in Poland, Hungarian Rosemarine, Tirolka, etc., 
but the Russian Fruit Growers' Association determined to name it Pippin of Lithuania, 
as this apple is grown there in large quantities, and from there has been distributed into 
other parts of Russia, It is supposed that this kind occasionally grows true from 
seeds of the Tirol-Rosemarine, while others confirm that this is impossible. 

The description of the fruit is as follows : Fruit large on young trees and of medium 
size on old ones, irregular, oblate ; in shade it is yellow, even almost white, on sunny side 
it is beautifully painted with a carmine blush, and generally is a beautiful apple to be 
hold ; flesh white, juicy, tender and highly flavored. The fruit in quality is not inferior 



112 



. 



to that of the Rosemarine apple that is brought from South Tirol into Petersburg and 
Moscow and which is bought at a high price. It ripens in September and keeps till 
January in a good cellar, and even longer. The fruit is easily knocked off by the wind 
before it is ripe, and so find their place on the markets early in the season, since they 
color before the} 7 are ripe and have a good flavor and soon become in good condition for 
eating. 

While young the tree grows rapidly, but does not live to a great age. It is an early 
fruit bearer. The leaf is of a grizzly green color and so characteristic that it is easily 
recognized by this and by the form of the tree. I consider the Lithuanian Pippin the 
best Russian apple in flavor and very valuable for the amateur's garden, but as a shipping 
sort is less suitable on account of its tender skin that demands very careful packing for 
transportation. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO FRUIT DURING THE SUMMER OF 1892. 

By James Fletcher, Dominion Entomologist, Ottawa. 

Although there have been no outbreaks of injurious insects during the past sum- 
mer, which demand special mention, still there are a few items which it seems to me are 
of sufficient interest to fruit-growers to be brought before the members of the Association 
on the present occasion. 

Spraying ivith Paris Green. The experience of the past season have proved again 
the extreme value of this insecticide, and the safety with which it can be used when 
ordinary precautions are taken. With the assistance of the Editor of the Canadian Hor- 
ticulturist and Mr. F. T. Shutt, who analyzed carefully some fruit which had been 
sprayed in the manner and with the mixture of the strength recommended by entomolo- 
gists, it was proved that the statement made in some of the newspapers that sprayed 
apples were dangerous for use, was quite untrue. Not only was it proved scientifically 
by chemical analysis, but common sense shows that these statements are absurd, and the 
fact that the English market has in no way been affected, demonstrates that this view is 
also taken in England, whence these false reports emanated. I will now draw attention 
to the following tacts. One pound of Paris green to 200 gallons of water is the strongest 
mixture which needs ever to be used. This quantity of water is sufficient to spray a 
great many trees — a tree of the ordinary size takes from one to three gallons — and these 
trees bear many hundreds of apples and thousands of leaves, so that there would be only 
a very minute quantity of poison on each fruit. Even supposing soluble arsenic were 
used and every apple were covered with it, none could get into the apples. At the time 
apple trees are sprayed, the fruit is very small, indeed, hardly formed, and is then pro- 
tected from anything falling on it by a thick covering of down and the spreading lob3s of 
the calyx. In spraying, the liquid is applied as a very fine mist ; most of this falls on the 
foliage ; but some — a minute quantity — falls into the open calyx, where the eggs of the 
;odling moth are laid. It is an infinitesimal quantity, yet it is sufficient to destroy the 
insect if it be there, as frequent experiments have shown us. As to the time of spray- 
ing — this need never be done while the trees are in flower. The proper time is after the 
petals have fallen. 

Spraying with Paris green is a useful remedy against all insects which attack the 
Loliage, and it has been lately proved that a small quantity of milk of lime added to the 
mixture materially reduces its corrosive effects upon vegetation. 

The Canker-worms. These are the caterpillars of two snail moths which have been 
complained of in some localities. Last spring they were very abundant about Ottawa, 
but were not so injurious in orchards as in the surrounding woods, where they attacked 
particularly ashes and basswoods. The best remedy ia undoubtedly spraying with Paris 
green. 



113 



Th« Eye-spotted Bud-moth. This has been very destructive in orchards for some 
years. Probably the best remedy is spraying with Paris green very early in the spring, 
just after the buds burst, but before the flowers open. The young caterpillars pass the 
winter upon the twigs of the apple trees, protected by a silken case. 

The Apple leaf Bucculatrix. (Bucculatrix pomifoliella.) This insect is reported in 
large numbers from St. Catharines, where they occurred on apple and peach trees. The 
white elongated ribbed cocoons may be found upon the bark during the winter. The 
moths emerge from these in the spring, and the eggs are laid on the leaves in May. 
When the caterpillars are numerous they frequently do a good deal of harm, but they sel- 
dom remain long in any one locality. Spraying with Paris green in June is the best 
remedy. 

The Fall Web-worm was one of the most noticeable orchard pests of the year. It 
did not, however, confine its attacks by any means to fruit trees. The eggs are laid in 
clusters upon the leaves of a great many different kinds of shrubs and trees in July. The 
eggs soon hatch, and the young caterpillars at once begin to spin a protecting web. They 
grow rapidly and remain almost entirely in their tent until just before they attain full- 
growth, the web being enlarged as they develop. The webs are conspicuous objects from 
the very first. From the social habits of the caterpillars a whole colony is easily de- 
stroyed by cutting off the nests and trampling them underfoot. 

Pear-leaf Blister Mite. {Phytoptus pyri.) An insect which is giving a considerable 
amount of trouble in Canada at the present time is the Pear-leaf Blister Mite. It is, 
however, so extremely small that few people at first recognize the injury as due to the 
attacks of an insect, and in nearly every instance the blistered leaves have been sent in 
as specimens of a fungous attack. The mites, which are hardly visible with the naked 
eye, emerge from the scales of the leaf-bud early in spring and attack the tissues of the 
unfolding leaves. The blisters soon begin to show as small red spots, each of which has 
a small central hole on the lower side of the leaf. The eggs are laid inside these blisters, 
and the young escaping through the central opening at once form new galls, until some- 
times the greater part of most of the leaves is rendered unfit to perform its functions. 
When mature the galls are brown and spongy in texture, and are raised perceptibly 
above the surface of the leaf. Before the leaves fall, the mites leave the galls and secrete 
themselves beneath the scales of the winter buds, where they remain throughout the 
winter. As a remedy, kerosene emulsion seems to be the only substance which up to the 
present time has given any promising results. Mr. M. V. Slingerland, of Cornell University, 
treated two lots of trees, one with pure coal oil, another with kerosene emulsion, containing 
20% of kerosene, and then compared these with an untreated tree. In the spring the 
mites appeared in force on the check tree — but there were hardly any on the treated 
trees. Those treated with kerosene emulsion were uninjured, but those with the pure 
coal oil were perceptibly injured. 

Imported Currant Saw-fly. (Nematus ribesii.) The currant worm has this year 
received a severe check at Ottawa from a minute parasite belonging to the genus Tricho- 
gramma. Many years ago Dr. Lintner, of New York State, bred one of these minute 
insects from the eggs of the Imported Currant Saw-fly ; but from that time on, it had been 
a rare insect. This year, however, another species was found at Ottawa in considerable 
numbers. It may be well for fruit-growers to remember that when eggs of the saw-fly 
are attacked they turn black and shining. If, therefore, any of these are observed on 
the leaves, they should be carefully preserved, so that the beneficial parasites may in- 
crease. Species of the same useful genus also did good service in destroying the eggs of a 
destructive saw-fly on willows in the botanic garden at the Experimental Farm, and also 
of another pest of the garden, the Zebra caterpillar {Mamestra pictd.) Thousands of 
specimens were bred from the egg-clusters of this last insect. 



8 VF.G.) 



114 



SHEEP AS ASSISTANTS TO THE APPLE GROWER. 

An address given at Grimsby Park, before the fruitgrowers and farmers of Ontario, 
by J. S. Woodward, Lockport, N.Y., by special request of the Association. 

Apple growing is one of the most important branches of horticulture in our country 
and yours. There is no way in which the same amount of land will yield the same 
amount of human food as by planting an apple tree upon it ; and there is no food that is 
better for mankind than the apple. Consequently, it is to you and to us one of the most 
important branches, not only of horticulture, but of farm husbandry. 

My theme suggests, first, that the apple grower is in trouble and needs assistance. 
Is it true, or is it not % Nine tenths of the orchards that are planted nowadays are planted 
on old soil. Not content with that, the orchardist continues to crop them year after 
year, removing crops of apples and other products. 

Now, in doing this, he has taken from the land the elements that are necessary to 
the production of apples. One hundred barrels of apples take away thirteen pounds of 
nitrogen, seven pounds of phosphoric acid and seventeen pounds of potash, and no part of 
this is ever returned to the land from which it was taken. And that is not the worst, 
because the poorer the fruit, the more of these elements do you take away. They exist 
mostly in cores, stems and seeds — the flesh of the fruit is almost all water, so the poorer 
the fruit the larger the waste of these elements. The leaves take more of these three elements 
than the fruit; and the leaves are nearly all blown away, so that no portion of these 
manurial elements go back to the tree. 

In coming along in the train this morning, instead of the rank, strong growth and 
thick, dark-colored leaves which indicate health, I noticed in so many places that the 
leaves were small and yellow, showing that something is lacking. Worse than that, a 
large part of the orchards were growing grass and hay. The trouble is, men are too 
avaricious. They have cropped their orchards, removing crops of grain, grass or vege- 
tables and crops of fruit, and returning very little, if any, manure to the ground to re- 
place what has been taken away, thus literally starving the orchards to death. Years 
ago we expected a crop at least every two years ; now we are happy if we get a crop once 
in four or five years, and the fruit is diseased and eaten up by insects. Surely the apple 
grower needs assistance. From what I have said you can easily see that the greatest 
need in the orchard is fertility in the soil. The question is, how shall we give it. How 
can we manage to get back the fertility which has been taken away from year to year ] 
We can make the tree healthy and productive by the application of commercial fertil- 
izers, but the question is, can we afford to do it ? Every ton of commercial fertilizers 
bought mortgages our crop to the extent of the cost of it 

There is nothing better for the orchard than the ordinary stable manure ; but can 
we afford to apply even this, if we have to buy if? If we buy stable manure we just as 
surely mortgage the prospective crops, and before we can get any profit we must pay the 
mortgage. Is there not a better way 1 We shall see. 

There is another principle involved, and that is, that two bodies cannot occupy the 
same space at the same time. This is true in the orchard. We cannot grow two crops 
in our orchard at the same time. As the result of cropping it with grass, the hay robs 
the trees, and they succumb to the evil influences of the grass. Either cut down the 
trees and crop the land with something else, or else keep off the other crops and devote 
the whole to apples. Apples and other crops cannot be profitably grown upon the same 
field at the same time. 

If an orchard be kept in complete and thorough cultivation, it is too expensive. 
If we attempt to keep the weeds cut down, that, too, is expensive ; so you see we are in 
a dilemma. Sheep, if properly kept in the orchard, will keep down the weeds and grass, 
eat the fallen apples and the sprouts, and add very materially to the fertility as well. 

Orchards are continuously over-run with insects, which are multiplying on every 
hand, and are more destructive than ever. Among them are the caterpillar, codling 
moth, maggot, army worm, borer, etc. We have on our hands a very persistent fight. 
By uung the spraying pump with insecticides and fungicides, we can subdue many of 



115 



them, but there is one little fellow that bores through the fruit right and left, which we 
cannot reach by spraying. I allude to the apple maggot. The only way with this is to 
destroy the fallen apples as soon as they drop. How are we to do it ? If we pick them 
up, that is expensive, and pigs are too sleepy. Here the apple grower has no better 
assistants than sheep. How to use the sheep to the best advantage is what we want to 
know. There is no use of putting twenty-five sheep into a ten acre orchard, expecting 
them to eat all the weeds, all the sprouts and all the fallen apples. They could not do it 
if they would. Put in not less than one hundred sheep. Put in at least twice, as many 
as the lot will pasture, and then coax them to work for you. Sheep require a large 
variety of food, and if you want the sheep to eat the grass and fallen apples, etc., all of 
which are very carbonaceous, you must hire them to do it by giving such food as will 
balance the ration ; feed them plenty of nitrogenous food and they will work for you 
faithfully and keep your orchard in the best possible condition. 

What shall we feed them 1 It costs $3 a week to hire pasture for one hundred 
sheep. Put one hundred sheep in a ten acre orchard, and with the $3 buy two hundred 
and fifty pounds of bran, and in addition, one hundred pounds of new process linseed 
meal. Feed the one hundred sheep fifty pounds of this each day, which is about one 
hundred quarts — a very liberal feed for them, and the)' will thrive wonderfully and do 
all I have said. 

By this means I accomplish these three objects. Those sheep are the best insecti- 
cides I ever had as against the codling moth and the apple ma^ot. They eat every 
sprout, every weed and every fallen apple, and eat the grass down like a road-side, and do 
all that at a price less than that at which I could hire pasture for them, and they add 
greatly to its fertility. Let us see what I am doing in the way of fertilizing. Two hun- 
dred and fifty pounds of bran, according to the experiment stations, contain of nitrogen, 
potash and phosphoric acid, about $1.63 worth; one hundred pounds of new process linseed 
meal contains of those three elements,a little over $1.00 worth, so that 1 am getting in my 
orchard, value in manure that is equivalent to $2.63. But you say, that costs money ; but 
it would cost me $3 00 to get the sheep pastured, so I am here getting the equivalent 
keeping for 37 cents, or, I am getting this amount of fertility for nothing. Now if 1 should 
put just enough sheep in my orchard to keep it eaten down, and so that the orchard would 
support them and keep them thriving, do you not see that I would not add any fertility 
to the ground? 

I want to enrich my ground and crowd in those sheep and feed them as I have said. 
It costs 37 cents a week for what the sheep do for me in the way of putting my orchard 
in the best bearing condition. Look at what I am doing for the season. 

Two hundred and fifty pounds of bran per week for twenty weeks make 5,000 pounds, 
or two and a-half tons ; one hundred pounds new process linseed meal for twenty weeks 
make one ton, and at the figures I have given you, that two and a-half tons of bran con- 
tains one hundred and eighteen pounds of nitrogen, one hundred and fifty pounds of 
phosphoric acid and eighty pounds of potash ; the ton of new process linseed meal con- 
tains one hundred and eight pounds of nitrogen, thirty -seven pounds of phosphoric acid 
and thirty-seven pounds of potash, making an aggregate of two hundred and twenty-six 
pounds of nitrogen, one hundred and eighty-seven pounds phosphoric acid, and one hun- 
dred and f sixteen pounds potash, worth in the market $54.57. If I counted the pas- 
turage of the sheep the same as I would have to pay for it, $60.00, at the expense of 
$5 A3, I get all that manure value in addition to the work done by the sheep. 

1 have said that one hundred barrels of apples contain thirteen pounds of nitrogen. 
Here we have nitrogen enough for thirty- seven hundred barrels ; one hundred barrels 
contain seven pounds of phosphoric acid ; here we have enough for twenty-eight hundred 
barrels. One hundred barrels contain about seventeen pounds of potash ; here we have 
potash enough for six hundred barrels, and all this at the expense of only $5.43. And 
all this beyond having all the assistance from the sheep I have indicated. 

I have an orchard that has not been plowed for seventeen years, which is remarkably 
healthy, and it makes an average annual growth of full fifteen inches on the limbs. The 
leaves are dark green and thick — in short, it is the picture of health, and I attribute its 
good appearance, health and productiveness to my manner of over-stocking it with sheep. 



116 



I am asked, how I keep the sheep from gnawing and injuring the trees 1 This is a 
pertinent question. Sheep should have plenty of water. They first learn to gnaw trees 
for the want of drink, but after the habit is once formed, like all bad habits, it sticks. 
But the trees can be protected by the use of what is called " chicken wire," simply wire 
cloth with meshes from one and a-half to two inches in diameter. Use that which is three 
or four feet wide. Cut pieces long enough to go very loosely about the trees, twisting the 
ends of the wire together. Where this is applied the sheep will not even rub against the 
trees. We want full crops of apples. We want good apples, free from worms and scab, 
and in order to get these we must restore the fertility of which we have robbed our 
orchards. To do all this we can have no more efficient assistants than the sheep. 

There is no danger of getting our orchards too rich. In addition to the methods for 
enriching them which I have indicated, we should aim to make all the manure in winter 
which we can, which should be applied at least every second year. Here, again, sheep 
will be found our most available assistants. By the proper selection of stock, proper 
quarters and by feeding proper food — those rich in plant elements — you cannot fail in 
making large quantities of manure, and that of the very best kind for our orchards. 

So I close by saying long live the sheep. May their numbers in the apple growers' 
hands steadily increase. 



MERCURIC CHLORIDE, AS AN INSECTICIDE AND FUNGICIDE. 
By Frank T. Shutt, M.A. 

Some few months ago the Editor of the Canadian Horticulturist forwarded to the 
Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, a letter from one of his correspondents who asked of 
what value this chemical was as an insecticide and fungicide 1 We had had no # experience 
with it, nor could any literature on the subject be found, with a view, therefore, of ob- 
taining an answer to the question a series of experiments were inaugurated, the results 
of which are here given. These experiments have necessarily been of a preliminary cha- 
racter, but they have given some interesting results, and serve to indicate the direction 
of future work. One of the easental characteristics of a successful fungicide or insecticide 
is that it shall not be injurious to the foliage to which it is applied. The first step, there- 
fore, was to investigate the effect of solutions of corrosive sublimate of different strengths 
on the foliage of certain plants and trees. 

Mercuric Chloride is a white crystalline salt, soluble in about fourteen, times 
its weight of cold water. In its physiological action it is irritant, corrosive and highly 
poisonous. These properties would lead us to suppose that solutions approaching satu- 
ration would be highly injurious to foliage as well as destructive to insect life. It is an 
antiseptic of great value and its well known power in preserving animal tissues from the 
growth of moulds and bacteria would suggest it as a useful agent in destroying or pre- 
venting the development of parasitic fungi. 

Solutions of two strengths were made and experimented with, A. 1 part of corrosive 
sublimate to 1000 parts of water by weight (3^ drm. to 1 gall.) ; B. 1 pirt of corrosive 
sublimate to 1000 parts of water by weight (1J drm. to 1 gall. 

First Series of Experiments. 

The following plants were selected : Hydrangea, Abutilon, Coleus, Geranium and 
Fuchsia, which at the time of experiment, were in the green-house. An atomizer which 
made the solution as fine as mist was employed for the spraying. 

Hydrangea sprayed with solution A. Shortly after drying it was noticed that both 
leaves and flowers were becoming brown. The sprayed parts soon shrivelled and died, 
presenting in the course of a few days a burnt and scorched appearance. Solution B 
was then tried, on drying from the first application no injury was apparent, the plant 



117 



was then sprayed a seoond time, the foliage in the interim not having been watered. 
Patches of small brown spots now appeared on the leaves a short time after drying, the 
leaf of the sprayed was not, however, visibly affeeted. 

Abutilon, sprayed with solution A. Small brown patches appeared after second 
spraying, but the vitality of the leaves appeared to be unimpaired. With solution B. no 
injury could be detected until about one week after second spraying (ten days after first 
application,) when a few brown film-like spots appeared, otherwise the leaves to be healthy 
and vigorous. 

Ooleus, sprayed with solution A. The leaves soon showed signs of scorching the 
injury extending to the destruction of all the cell substance. Death of the treated leaves 
and their falling off soon followed With solution B, the leaf was injured by the first 
application though not seriously. After the second spraying at an interval of three days 
the injurious effect of the corrosive sublimate was more apparent and finally the sprayed 
parts died. 

Geranium, with solution A. Almost immediately on drying, the foliage became 
brown as if the leaves had been badly scorched. The leaf shrivelled, died and dropped in 
the course of a week. With solution B very little injury appeared at first, but after the 
second application the injury was most marked. The sprayed foliage eventually died and 
dropped. 

Fuchsia, Sprayed with solution A. Very slight injury if any could be detected, 
even after several spiayings. With solution B, the leaves appeal ed perfectly healthy 
and normal after repeated applications. 

Second Series of Experiments. 

The effect of the trial solutions was then ascertained on the foliage of certain fruit 
trees ag follows, apple, pear, plum and cherry. These were all young trees from 4 to 6 
feet high and were in nursery rows. They were all sprayed twice with bDth solutions (A 
and B,) an interval of three days intervening. No injury to the foliage resulted in any 
case. 

Third Series of Experiments— as an insecticide. 

A clover plant infested with aphides was sprayed with solution A. The aphides 
dropped to the ground, in a short time, however, it was noticed that most of them were 
re-ascending, apparently none the worse for the spraying. Unfortunately the plant at 
this juncture met with an accident that terminated the experiment. As the thin film 
of poison would lie on the surface of the leaves we should expect it to be most efficacious 
in the case of those insects that eat away the substance of the leaf. To those like the 
plant lice just cited, that pierce the epidermis and suck the juice it could only act as irri- 
tant (perhaps to the extent of destroying) at the time of spraying. A colony of mealy 
bugs was sprayed several times but only succumbed after prolonged treatment No ex- 
periments have as yet been made to test the efficacy of corrosive sublimate directly as a 
fungicide, a suitable opportunity not having offered itself. 

Conclusions. With the limited data at our command it is not advisable to speak 
too definitely as to the future usefulness of this compound as an insecticide and fungicide. 
Some inferences however, may, I think, safely be drawn. The foliage of different plants 
evidently varies widely in its ability to withstand the corrosive action of this compound 
A solution which is very injurious to one plant is often quite harmless to another. The green- 
house plants with one exception, were all affected by solution B (though 3omenot disastrously 
so,) while the fruit-tree foliage was uninjured. From the properties of this salt (corrosive 
sublimate) and the result of work here given, I am not hopeful for its success as an in- 
secticide. I do not think it can safely be applied in solutions sufficiently strong to act in 
this role. I am more sanguine for its usefulness as a fungicide, and future experiments 
may show that solutions even more dilute than B. may be used to advantage in checking 
or destroying fungus life. 



118 



NEW RASPBERRIES. 

By John Oraig, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 

In introducing this subject Mr. Oraig said that " Few of the many new varieties 
placed on the market within the last five years possess merit over those already in culti- 
vation. Out of a large number tested at the Experimental Farm and which I have ob- 
served growing elsewhere, I will mention a few, some of which are decidedly promising, 
and others which need further trial before a correct estimate of their value can be arrived at. 




round, brightj red, 
Although hardyjt 



Tho?npson's Early, Ripe the second week in June; medium size, 
fairly firm, attractive. Its earliness seems to be its principal good point, 
has not been productive. 

Columbia. T have not fruited this at Ottawa, and speak of it as seen growing at 
the N. Y. Experiment Station at Geneva, where I was very mu"h impressed with the 
vigor of the plant, quality and size of the fruit. It has also received favorable commen- 
dation at the hands of the able editor of the Rural New Yorker. It is believed to be a 
cross between the Cuthbert and Gregg, and is intermediate in many characteristics, the 
fruit being purple and striking root from the tips.* It therefore is of the Shaffer type, 



* Many crosses of this kind have fruited at the Experimental Farm, 
has been purple in color. J. C. 



In nearly every instance the fruit 



119 



but the berry is firmer and of better quality, and I am told is a great bearer. This variety 
originated with Mr. J. T. Thompson, of Oneida, N. Y., who controls the stock at present 
I believe. 

Heebner. Is a large red berry of the Clark and Hornet type. In quality it is Al, 
but not firm enough for distant shipment. It has been on trial at Ottawa for the past 
four years, having been introduced by Mr. Hilborn, (now of Leamington), in 18S8. The 
cane is not quite as hardy as Cuthbert, but the fine quality of the fruit should give it a 
place in amateur collections: It is fairly productive. 

Herstine. Is another variety which can be recommended for home culture, but is not 
sufficiently vigorous and productive for market. It is also deficient in pollen and incom- 
plete fertilization is occasionally noticed. 

Hansell. As an early market variety I am inclined to think that this variety has 
been underrated. It ripens with or before the earliest, and continues giving fair pickings 
throughout the raspberry season. The berry is of medium size, firm and attractive, bright 
color and of fair quality. The past two years it has yielded better than Turner, which, 
it equals in hardiness. It needs high culture. 

Recommended for the Market. 

( Hansell. — Very early. 
Red < Marlboro'. — Hardy, attractive, poor quality. 

( Cuthbert. — Fairly hardy, productive, firm, late, good quality. 
Purple. — Shaffer. Specially valuable for canning. 

( Mammoth Cluster. — Eirly. 
Black Caps «| Hilborn. — Medium early , productive. 
( Gregg. — Late. 

Yellow. — Golden Queen. Good quality. 

Recommended for Home Use. 

( Turner. — Early, hardy, good quality. 
P , ) Heebner. — Medium, needs protection, fine quality. 
116(1 \ Hornet.— Late, 

\ Cuthbert. — Good quality, fairly productive. 

Purple : Columbia. — New, promising. 

J" Doolittle. 
Black Cap I Hilborn. 
( Gregg. 

Yellow : Brinckles Orange, or Golden Queen. Must be protected in winter, succeeds 
in the north. 



NOTES RESPECTING NEW VARIETIES OF FRUIT. 

By Thos. Beall, Lindsay, Ont. 

For many years p.ist the business of introducing new fruits or varieties of fruits has 
been pursued by many persons and by different methods. Every kind of fruit has been 
the subject of investigation, and great results have followed. 

Grapes, perhaps, stand first in order. Fifty years ago the Isabella, the Clinton, and 
two or three others, now less known, were about all that were then grown in this Pro- 
vince. Now, a hundred or more varieties are successfully grown in Central Ontario, most 
of which are better in quality and many of them ripens their fruit from twenty to forty 
days earlier in the season. 



120 

t 

The varieties of strawberries have increased to a wonderful extent within the pas, 
ten or fifteen years. Almost any number of varieties may now be obtained and all o 
good quality. 

With currants, the recent introductions, are few in number, most of which are 
larger in size, and therefore, are better market varieties, although the quality is generally 
inferior. 

There are many varieties of raspberries of recent introduction, most of which are 
wanting in one or more of the essential points necessary to establish a lasting reputation, 
viz., color, size, quality, and hardiness. 

The number of pears introduced within the past few years is large, but it is doubtful 
if a half-dozen of the newer varieties can be named having the necessary qualities which 
will procure for them favorable recognition ten or fifteen years hence. 

Apples — our staple fruit — extraordinary efforts have been made during the last few 
years to improve this kind of fruit, but with less encouraging results than with other 
kinds. Perhaps if we enquire carefully into the cause of this comparative failure to 
improve winter apples some useful lessons may be gained. 

New varieties are the results of cross-breeding and this is accomplished in two ways, 
"naturally " and "artificially." Tt is said to be "natural" when done without human 
assistance, and " artificial " when the operation is controlled by human skill. 

Russia and other parts of Northern Europe seem to present the best field for those 
who hope to find better winter apples, and apples better suited to this climate from the 
results of natural cross-fertilization. Yet, notwithstanding the enormous expenditure of 
time and money in this pursuit during the last twenty or thirty years, but little has been 
added to our stock of winter varieties. Nothing, in fact, superior or even equal to those 
we already have has been found. 

The comparatively few workers in the field of artificial cross-breeding — persons who 
are working only for the furtherance of science and for the general welfare of our people 
(and without governmental aid) are meeting with much greater promise of success. 
Indeed, it is quite probable the time will soon arrive when artificial impregnation will be 
resorted to altogether for the improvement of most of our fruits. The artificial process, 
when conducted with intelligence and with a fair knowledge of the philological peculiar- 
ities of vegetable life has many advantages over the natural process, inasmuch as it enables 
us to bring to the aid of nature all the advantages of modern science. 

If we look for a moment at the life history of the winter apples in the list reco** 
mended by the Fruit. Growers' Association, for profit in the several Districts of Ontario) 
it seems evident that improvement in varieties of apples (and all other fruits) can be 
accomplished by artificial cross breeding with almost absolute certainty ; while searching 
for chance seedlings, superior in quality to our own winter fruit, in Russia or any other 
Northern European country is a very uncertain and exceedingly expensive business. 

The list of winter apples referred to contains only fifteen varieties. Two of these, 
La Rue and Cranberry Pippin, are natives of the State of New York ; one — Pewaukee, 
of ^Wisconsin ; three — Golden Russet, Blenheim and Ribston, of England; one — Ben 
Davis, of Kentucky ; two — Tolman Sweet and R. I. Greening, of Rhode Island ; 
one — Edgar's Red Streak, of Illinois ; one — Red Canada, of one of the Eastern 
States' one — Scott's Winter — (?); two — Baldwin and Hubbardstone^s Nonsuch, of Massa- 
chusetts; one — Ontario, of this Province. All of these, I believe with one exception, 
the "Ontario," were chance seedlings, and were "discovered in the localities named. Not 
one of them is from Russia or any other country further north than England. 

The " Ontario " was produced by the late Chas. Arnold, of Paris, Out., and was the 
result of artificial fertilization while endeavoring to establish his theory, " that any 
desired quality can be obtained in any kind of fruit by judicious cross-breeding. 

To test this theory, Mr. Arnold undertook to produce a variety of apple, combining 
the color, the quality and the fruitfulness of the Northern Spy (a chance seedling found 
in New York State) with the early bearing peculiarity of the Wagener (another York 
chance seedling.) The result — the production of the " Ontario p — was one of the greatest 






121 



triumphs of modern horticultural research, and establishes the fact beyond doubt that the 
true road to success in the improvement of our fruits is in artificial cross-breeding, aided 
by a thorough knowledge of the principles of vegetable philology. 

It may, therefore, be seen that it is unwise to search for varieties of winter apples 
superior to those we have, in the Northern countries of Europe. But, summer apples of 
better quality may be looked for with greater prospect of success in the North than in 
the South. Our three best summer apples — varieties that are successfully grown in every 
district in Ontario — Duchess of Oldenburgh, Yellow Transparent and Red Astrachan 
are each of northern origin. The first two from Russia and the last from Sweden, from 
whence it was imported into England in 1816. 

All things seem to point to the fact that real improvement in the quality and in the 
•commercial value of our fruit, mast be accomplished by artificial hybridization and cross- 
breeding. The few persons who have been engaged in this pursuit have, in most cases, 
given the most valuable portion of their life-time to this most attractive branch of horti- 
cultural science almost without a hope of pecuniary reward. Simply a labor of love. 

Would it not, therefore, be well to take some steps for placing scientific cross-fertiliz- 
ation more prominently before our people by sowing the necessity for its pursuit? And 
at the same time to devise means whereby some substantial remuneration could be obtained 
by or for those who succeed in producing new varieties of acknowledged superior 
excellence ? 

Successful results in cross-breeding are rare, because the conditions of success are not 
sufficiently known, and also because of the length of time often required for development. 
Sometimes, indeed, an average lifetime is not enough to test the results of operation's 
performed in early life. Mr. Arnold lived long enough to know that the " Ontario ' 
apple would eventually take first place in public estimation, but not long enough to see it 
reach that point. The late Mr. P. 0. Dempsey gave the greater portion of his valuable 
lifetime to this subject, but, unfortunately for the interests of pomology he, too, has been 
cut off in the midst of his work and before the public could have an opportunity of pro- 
nouncing on the vale of his very extensive operations in hybridization and cross-breeding. 
A few persons only know anything of the extent of his operations or who can have any 
conception of the vast gain to our horticultural wealth which will almost certainly result 
from his life work. 

Under existing circumstances, therefore, we can scarcely hope for that development 
of the science of cross-breeding which its importance to pomology demanls. But if 
students in this branch of science were assured that extraordinary success would meet with 
corresponding reward, men in early life having the necessary educational training would 
engage in this pursuit, and pomology and horticulture would soon be elevated to that 
position in the scale of natural science to which its importance deserves. 

The present system is marked neither by justice to the operators or by common hon- 
esty on the part of the people. The work of a man's lifetime is now appropriated by the 
commonwealth greatly to its advantage, while the producer of this source of wealth is 
treated with utter neglect. Any person producing a new machine, instrument or process, 
although it may not have cost one hour's thought, can secure a fair share of the profit 
arising from its use for his own benefit, while the producer of a new variety of fruit 
which may greatly enrich a nation cannot legally secure for himself or his family and 
financial benefit whatever. 

Many costly tributes have been presented, or pensions given by the State as 
tokens of gratitude in recognition of meritorious deeds much less deserving of public 
gratitude than those rendered by Arnold or Dempsey. 

If a respectable gratuity were now presented to the family of the late Mr. Arnold 
for his successful efforts in hybridizing and cross-breeding and provision made for 
recognition of similar service to others when the super-excellence of their products 
may be established beyond doubt, it would, in my opinion, be a satisfactory answer to 
the question so often asked, " How may our young men be induced to take a greater 
nterest in fruit-growing for profit 1 " 



122 

MY GARDEN. 

By Rev. W. II. Porter, M.A., Brantford. 

It is small ; but it is wonderful what a little spot will produce by good cultivation. 
Indeed, the very idea of a garden is, ordinary land under special cultivation. A youngf 
friend in Nova Scotia wrote me once, that he had just got where he experienced a joy 
and luxury in farming, by having a few acres so well cultivated as to produce more than 
large farms around him. 

Rev. Dr. Goodspeed's garden in Toronto, is a wonderful illustration of what, by 
proper cultivation, a little plot can be made to do. 

And so it is with some denominations of Christians, such as the Moravians, who 
remind one of the description of Joseph, a vine hanging over the wall. A small denom- 
ination, but sending out more missionaries into the world than any other. 

So with some churches, like the little Plattsville Baptist Church, that does more a 
great deal for the support and spread of the gospel than many large, and even wealthy 
churches. 

So, too, with institutions of learning. Some comparatively small and obscure ones, 
like Acadia College in Nova Scotia send out more strongly developed men intellectually 
and morally than many large and well endowed universities. 

And so, too, with individuals. As the old ladv said of her garden, " Yes, its small, 
but it's deep — even to the heart of the earth. And it's high, as the very zenith of 
heaven." 

And thus some lives, hemmed in to narrow spheres, it may be, rooting deep, grow 
high, and like Bunyan in Bedford jail, John, on the Isle of Patmos, or, the mothers of 
Augustine, Wesley and Spurgeon, send out their boughs and fruits to earth's and time's 
utmost limits. Such may be the case even with poor soil to begin with. 

A merchant in St. John, N.B , took up a piece of rocky wooded swamp, and by 
underdraining, manuring and cultivating it well, he not only out-did, but astounded all 
the surrounding farmers. How true has this been in the intellectual, moral and spiritual 
world. By proper cultivation, some of the lowest castes in India are becoming superior 
to the high castes, and cannibal races are ranking with civilized nations. 

Take an individual case, one of the most hopeless, such as Laura Bridgman. Blind, 
deaf and dumb, shut out seemingly from any possible enlightenment. And yet by per- 
sistent and skilful effort anu cultivation, she became a very intelligent and useful woman. 

The garden is my garden, and being mine gives me a great deal more interest in 
it, interest in properly cultivating and fencing it. I find that leaving my garden un- 
protected may cause more ruin in one hour, than could be repaired in a whole season. 
"Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines, for our vines ate tender, and 
have tender grapes." Often the more small and unnoticeable the enemy to the garden, the 
more dangerous. Such as the insect gnawing at the root or heart of the plant, unnoticed, 
or those that assume the very color or form of the plant, in order to feed upon it unde- 
tected. Plausible errors and virtuous sins, so to speak, are often the most fatal destroy- 
ers. 

I notice too, that however rich the soil in my garden, the flowers, fruits and vege- 
tables have to be sown, or planted, and cultivated, but the weeds need no such labor or 
attention. They grow unsolicited and uncared for, and even when eradicated, again and 
again, will reappear, of the self-same character. The cultivation of good and the opposi- 
tion to evil, seem to be necessarily constant and continuous. 

One thing more, among many that I shall not take time further to notice, in tho 
cultivation of my garden, is, that the time to eradicate the weeds by pulling them out by 
the roots, is, after a good moistening, mellowing shower. Evils that seem ineradicable,, 
or only to be broken off, immediately to spring up again, like tobacco using, or drinking. 
or other unconquerable habits, are often easily overcome, when the heart has been soft- 
ened by God's grace and Spirit. After all, God and man are the two great factors in 
gardening. 



123 



THE PROBLEM OF OUR TIME-ITS DISCOVERY AND ITS SOLUTION. 

By B. Gott, Arkona. 

Young men who attempt to enter upon life's arduous duties without any well set 
carefully marked and thoroughly thought-out plans, or ai*rs or objects of their life are 
scarcely ever a pronounced success. In order to have the satisfaction, the solidity and 
the growth in their work that is so desirable and that will help to make them good and 
efficient workers in their calling it is necessary that their course should be well and 
definitely marked out for them or by them before hand, and then that they aim steadily, con- 
stantly and persistently towards that high and honorable purpose. In short, they must 
have a well devised plan in their life, and then hoard all their varied energies and 
efforts to the working out that plan to the very end. In order to effect this kind 
of brilliant success, it is further necessary that their efforts should be properly con- 
centrated upon and in the direction of the one idea, and the one great purpose that 
they have set up as a mark to aim at. This quality will give them steadiness of 
effort and solidity of purpose and will help to produce in them that one great want 
of the present time, viz., " accomplished specialists." 

Negatively we notice that not so much a lack of energy is the great fault of 
our time and people as is a shameful and deplorable wasting of energy, and that to 
a fearful extent. I need not attempt to particularize, for you know that there is 
amongst our young men especially a most lamentable amount of hap-hazard, loose, dis- 
connected or evaporated effort that never tells anything on the pages of history or in 
helping on the individual resources. It is simply life that is the most precious of all 
bestowments frittered away and to all good purposes lost for ever. No object, no aim, no 
high and honorable ambition in life ; nothing definite or substantial attained ! What a 
contemplation ! And yet it is most certainly true in our time of many a young man 
and many an older one too. Especially is this contemplation sad in view of the amount 
of work to be done on every side, the number of open avenues temptingly inviting us in, 
and the number of callings and businesses beckoning us to follow and succeed. Amongst 
the many great problems of life and the numerous questions that so deeply agitate mm 
we think we have one here in the peaceful, lovely fields of horticulture, on^ that offers the 
most brilliant prospects, the sweetest and most alluding labors and the most tempting 
substantial rewards to satisfy the desires, the purpose and the aims of any young life 
that we know of in our time. To discover this problem and to effectually solve it is an 
object worthy of the most exalted and the most cultivated ideal. 

Practically we will now first attempt the'statement of the problem and. lastly, as 
briefly as possible, set ourselves to the solving it. It is : To produce the greatest possible 
amount of the best and highest excellence cf growth from the least possible surface of soil 
is the greatest problem of our time. The surest way to discover this question is by hard, 
persistent study, aided and assisted by life's most potent forces. It is in this line of 
work of ours that the discovery must be made and cannot be attained by mere listless 
squandering of our time or abilities or the criminally wasting the precious opportunities 
that more or less come to us all. Its solution consists in the realizition to the fullest 
possible extent of this grand idea in connection with our business as " Fruit-Growers " in 
this country. To help to do this it will be necessary to proceed to some calculations 
bearing upon the question built partly upon actually experienced results. To help further 
to do this in something like a definite form it will be necessary to take a plot of ground of 
not one hundred acres or of ten acres, but of only five acres, as a foundation upon which to 
work, and one will see what can or could be done with this fertile plot of five acres o 
Canadian soil. Could the much quoted author of " Ten acres enough" be now induced to 
revisit our common earth how greatly would he find this whole programme changed as 
he would be led to exclaim, " Truly , this is another era." In laying out our plot which 
must be supposed to be well and properly fenced by post and wire, but not by live hed j«a 
or live trees on the inside, to draw anything from the supporting forces of the soil of the 
plot itself and the who'e must be in the best of " tilth " and thoroughly in order. 



124 



In the first place then we will advise one acre, viz., 43,560 sqaare feet, to be planted 
to strawberries, four feet by one, or 10,890 plants in the spring of the young year, and 
by the next fall the growth will be most surprising to all and fit on the next season to 
bear a full crop of the most beautiful and delicious of fruits. About this space after the 
most slipshod and careless method of management has produced to our knowledge the 
past season 2,000 quarts at an average of 5 cents, or $100, and by little effort in good 
culture and proper fertilization it might very easily be doubled or even better and then 
not thought to be npticeably large or surprising. 

It must, however, at the outset be presumed that good and even high fertilization 
is applied to this whole system of this sort of advanced Horticulture in order to realize 
the results here indicated, otherwise the whole matter in the highest and best sense will 
be little less than failure. With high culture and high scientific fertilization what do we 
know about the possible products of our almost inexhaustible Canadian soils'? As yet 
scarcely anything whatever. The whole secret being as it were locked up and never has 
been inspected by rude and vulgar ken. Only bring the profound and accurate knowledge 
of our modern scientists to bear upon this question of soil production and properly apply 
the results of their mature investigations in thoughtful attentive practice, and who can 
tell what mysteries may yet be revealed along this line 1 It may be things to astonish 
us and our children and almost upset our ordinary credence. Is it practical 1 Can it be 
done 1 you ask. We fully believe it is, and can be done by any ordinary workman fit 
for the calling and who is intent on the purpose. Perhaps some of you have already 
seen " Henderson's Market Gardening " and other works of his of great value and that 
give in full some of the modes, processes and results of tillage in the market gardens in 
and around the city of New York and other large cities of th 3 neighboring Union ? These 
popular books of this author have done much to open our eyes to the great problems of 
soil, production and its permanent results. Let something of this sort be applied to one 
acre of our strawberries of almost any variety and who amongst us can now say defin- 
itely what the product would amount to 1 Not that we would here and now advocate 
the popular fallacy of unlimited product or that of over-fertilization ; not at all. We 
believe fully that there is a limit to all forms of production in all climes, but we also 
believe that as yet very few of us properly know what it is. With us and in our experi- 
ences the whole matter is yet in its infancy and absolutely undeveloped to the eyes of 
men. Could we only become acquainted with the modes of culture and systems adopted 
in older and more thickly populated lands of the " Eastern World," as for instance China 
and Japan it would most likely do much in helping us forward in the realization of 
this very important practical idea. It may be so even amongst us shortly, but hardly 
in our day. 

But to our plot again. We will further plant one acre of pears, 16 by 16 ft., or 170 
trees and the whole filled in with gooseberries and currants in about equal quantities that 
is about half an acre of each fruit. These will be planted 4 by 3 ft. or 3,630 plants, as 
the pears will not for some years take all the ground to themselves, and the whole kept 
well pruned and cultivated. Next we would plant one acre of peaches and plums in 
equal quantities, 10 by 15 ft, or say 300 trees, where these fruits are sure to do well > 
and the whole of this space planted ag^in with raspberries, 4 by 3 ft. =3, 630 plants. The 
products of these two acres cannot now be properly approached, but with the culture and 
fertilization we have assumed they would doubtless give a good account on the day of 
reckoning up the profits. We will next have an acre of apples, 30 by 30 ft., say 50 
trets, and the whole of this acre planted with blackberries, 4 by 3 ft., or 3,030 plants. 
Perhaps some ot you here may think that this is rather close planting to be profitable 
and so object ? But the great idea is not to gorge and crowd the land by over thick plant- 
ing but to attain the largest and best production from a given space. It is the largest 
possible quantity of the most perfect samples of their kind that we must rely upon for our 
final results, but at the same time it must be constantly borne in mind that this cannot 
be done unless the plants are not only on the ground but proparly supported and develop- 
ed. The question of how many plants a piece of ground will properly carry must be 
decided by actual trial. This whole consideration is the great problem of the age, and 
must be carefully and accurately worked out on these lines, and we believe it can and 



125 



will be done after this design and accorlin* to this plan. Bat on oar remaining acre as 
the most promising of all fruits we would most decidedly wish to be planted with grape 
vines, 12 by 8 ft., or say 460 plants, and these after a few years good growth and in full 
bearing will at a very moderate calculation yield 20 pounds of fruit per plant, or 9,200 
pounds. But 9,200 pounds of grapes at 2 Jc. per pound are worth $230. But our plot of 
one acre contains 43,560 square ft., the square root of which is 2 08 \ ft. and this measured 
by 12 ft. the distance apart of the trellises givfs 17 trellises. But between these 17 trell- 
ises may be planted 17 rows of Red Currants, 4 ft. apart=900 currant bushes. These at 
an average of 5 quarts per bush, mean 4,500 quarts at 3c. each=$135. But $135 plus $230 
for grapes makes $365 as the whole amount of product of one acre of our rich and fertile 
soil. 

Now I will not attempt to sum up the entire product of every acre thus of our five acre 
plot. I am sure you will gladly and carefully work this out, every man for yourselves in 
your own individual experiences, but I am persuaded and can testify if required that here is 
a line of work that can be made adequate to occupy the attention and employ the best energy 
of the men of our age both young and old. Aside from this there is scarcely any problem 
of our time that is so important in its practical bearing upon this age and upon the ages yet 
to come for all time. 

May the appreciated and timely labors of this Association of Canadian Fruit 
Growers as it has in the past, yet much more in the near future, more sensibly and materi- 
ally help to work out a problem so very influential and so deeply concerning the whole pop- 
ulation of this young and growing country and through them the whole race of sensitive 
living men. 



FERTILIZERS FOR THE ORCHARD AND GARDEN. 
By T. G. Raynor, Rosehall. 

This is a very important subject to both the orchardist and gardener, for it has to 
do with the home end of his business. The wise application of fertilizers may often lower 
the cost of production to an extent as will greatly increase the profits, or at least make 
a margin on some products which have not paid the producer very well in the past. We 
all want to make a profit on what we grow, and the larger it is the more gratifying. 

From a practical standpoint many of you know much more about this subject than 
I do. It is not then with a view of telling you something new that I have prepaied 
this paper, but my object is more to excite discussion which may be of profit to all. 

In discussing fertilizers every one should form an acquaintance with three simple 
elements, called in agricultural science, nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash, which are 
found in all fertile soils. 

Of these three elements nitrogen is most expensive and most likely to escape from 
our grasp, both in its management and application. It occurs in all vegetable and 
animal composition, and in many of the salts occurring in nature, as nitrate of soda, 
etc. Phosphoric acid is found to a considerable extent in the bones of animals and as a 
mineral in the form of apatite. Potash, the least expensive of the three, is found largely 
in the composition of wood ashes. 

The productiveness of our soils depends upon the quantity of these three elements 
present in them. If any one of the three be absent or not present in sufficient quantities 
for the development of any particular crop, by so much is that soil said to be unpro- 
ductive. 

There are two things to guide us in the use of fertilizers, (1) the nature and condi- 
tions of the soil and (2) the kind of crop grown. Soils vary much in composition, from 
light leachy ones to very heavy ones. Thus it is evident that we should understand 
their powers for retaining these three elements, to some extent at least, in applying 



126 



fertiliz rs. A knowledge also of the composition of the crop grown is indispensable with 
regard to its behaviour towards them in oider that there may be no great waste in the appli- 
cation of the fertilizer. For example, the potato takes from the soil a considerable 
quantity, then by applying a potash fertilizer we may greatly increase the yield of 
potatoes. Now if we had applied large quantities of phosphoric acid we might not 
realize any increase in the quantity of potatoes produced and we would naturally con- 
clude that we had made a mistake as well as sustained a loss. 

There are three classes of fertilizers at our disposal. I refer to (1) green manures, 
(2) genera.1 manures, and (3) special fertilizers. For light and heavy soils green manures 
are very valuable, as they increase the power of a light soil to hold manurial ingredients, 
which might otherwise leach away, and they greatly improve the texture of a heavy 
soil, making it open and friable. Green manures are useful in orchards, to keep down 
weeds, to keep the soil, if heavy, open, and at the same time add to its fertility. They 
may be pastured and thus become a double source of profit. Any large leafed plant 
which will grow quickly and draws most of its nutriment from the atmosphere or sub- 
soil, as red clover, buckwheat, etc., are suitable for green manuring. 

By general manures, 1 mean those which contain the three elements referred to 
above. They contain other elements of plant food as well. Farmyard manure and 
compost come under this head. If we could produce, or even buy enough of this class of 
manure, we would have no difficulty in making and keeping our soils very productive. 

Most of us realize the value of a compost heap, but how few, comparatively speaking, 
make them. By throwing in a heap all the vegetable and animal waste products, 
occurring around. our homes, together with some farmyard manure, which, when well 
mixed makes for us a cheap and rich manure, especially for the garden. In gather- 
ing up the refuse vegetable matter, etc., we remove a suitable hiding place for many 
injurious insects as well as destroy many which have already taken refuge there. 

The third class of manures, of which we spoke, are exiled special or artificial ferti- 
lizers, that is, they contain some one or two of the three elements to which I referred. 
There are very many of this class of fertilizers manufactured and us 3d at thi present 
time. 

Where we require more fertilizing material than we have at hind, there the special 
fertilizer comes readily in play. They are invaluable to the market gardener. In some 
cases, however, they should be used with caution, if we are to realize a profit from their 
use. By experimenting with our soil we may learn of which of the three elements it 
has the most need, and this will guide us in the kind of fertilizer to apply. A know- 
ledge of what the crop to be grown requires will also be a help. Just here a word of 
caution may be necessary for some. Certain classes of fertilizers should be purchased 
subject to a chemical analysis by a competent and disinterested person. S3 many have 
have been defrauded in the past that this step is almost necessary. On the other hand 
it may also prevent a fertilizer from being unjustly condemned. 

In a paper of this kind it would be folly to give the composition and value of the 
many special fertilizers now offered for sale. I can only suggest general principles and 
leave the particulars to be brought out in the discussion. 

Generally speaking I would apply nitrogenous manures or fertilizers containing 
nitrogen, as sulphate of ammonia, nitrate of soda, or guano, to crops or trees where 
vigorous growth is the object ; phosphoric acid in the form of superphosphates, bone ash, 
bone meal, or apatite, etc., where fruit or fully developed seed is required ; and potash 
fertilizers, as wood ashes, or kainit, are very useful in growing crops which store up 
considerable starch in their growth. It is needless to remind the fruit grower these 
days of the value of wood ashes as a fertilizer and insecticide for the orchard and 
garden. It pays to use all the wood ashes made at our own homes and frequently to 
buy from our neighbors, who offer them for sale. If we expect to grow paying crops of 
fruit and vegetables we must supply the elements of growth and development to those 
soils which are being repeatedly cropped. 



127 



REPORT OF THE FRUIT CROP FOR 1892— THE COUNTY OF LAMBTON. 

By B. Gott, Arkona. 

r ' r Believing that a report of our fruit crop may be both profitable and interesting to 
•others, I attempt, as briefly as possible, to offer ours for 1892. In the first place I may- 
say that we have had a very peculiar season in three or four particulars. (1) Contrary 
to what we expect usually to take place, we had this year little or no frosts late in May 
or again early in September, and the consequence is we have had a far longer season 
than usual. (2) The great extremes in the rainfalls, it being very heavy in June and 
July and scarcely any for many weeks after. (3) The early and very severe attack 
of fungus *jpon the leaves and fruits of our trees and other damaging influences caus- 
ing us severe injury and great loss. In consequence of this attack our pears and 
apples in many cases were almost a total ruin, the damage falling on pears the heaviest 
upon Flemish Beauty ; and upon apples, the heaviest upon Early Harvest, Snow and 
Northern Spy. (4) It has been noted for one of the most beautiful, charming and enjoy- 
able Octobers ii our remembrance. We are thankful for all favors. 

Strawberries and raspberries of almost all sorts were this year the finest and 
most abundant ever seen in this county. They were the most admirable in quality and 
beautiful in form and color, and to the grower or buyer all that could be desired. The 
sorts of the first fruit mostly used here this season were Crescent Seedling, Wilson, 
Captain Jack, Daniel Boone, Manchester, Bubach No. 5, Jessie, Sharpless, James Vick 
and Eureka. All were good, but the three or four last named were extra fine and 
beautiful. 

Of raspberries, Cuthbert is the one sort having the most good qualities and conse- 
quently most to be depended upon for a good satisfactory and splendid crop. Besides 
which, however, we use Turner, Highland Hardy, Shaffer, Marlboro, Golden Q leen, 
Hilborn, Souhegan and Gregg and some others not so noted. 

Never was any sable queen decked out in her most beautiful gems so gorgeous as 
were our blackberry bushes this season, for whole acre3 of plantation the sight was 
the most astonishing of the kind, of anything ever seen here. The fruit in the greatest 
abundance was without a fault, and grandly filled an empty niche just at the proper 
time. The one sDrt standing high above all others here for market planting is the 
Snyder, which has. more good qualities than any other so far tried. 

Currants of all colors were good and very plentiful, but it is surprising what a 
quantity of these fruits the markets can be induced to take and use. For some purposes 
nothing can be substituted, and therefore we must seek by the best means to perfect 
our currants for these purposes. The sorts used are for Red : Raby Castle, Red Dutch, 
Cherry and Fay's. For White : White Grape and White Dutch ; and for Black : 
Black Euglish and Black Naples. Nothing new appears in these lines to merit special 
mention. 

Mulberries and Dewberries, although much lauded and much written about, are as 
yet amongst the doubtful investments. Neither Russian mulberries or the most approved 
dewberries have ever returned in this county the interest of the outlay. 

With gooseberries it is quite different, and the crop this year was very large and 
varied. The quality was fine, and the market good. The sorts mostly used are 
Houghton, American Seedling and Downing, with some Smith's Improved. But if we 
we could grow the Pearl, as I saw it growing this summer in the eastern counties, it would 
at once be generally adopted. 

Apricots are another doubtful investment. The Russian sorts have been extensively 
planted here and for some time, but I have yet to hear of the production of a single 
sample of their much and eagerly desired fruit. If we could only get them what would 
we care about the loss of the peach or plum either. But it appears it is not at the 
present at any rate so to be. Climatic conditions utterly and totally forbid it and who 
can strive against fate 1 Not one. 

The old Kentish Red cherry, so old and familiarly used for so many years, is now 



128 



almost extinct in the county. How 1 By the fearful spread and ravages of " black- 
knot " in every part of this whole country. 

English, Russian and other sorts have been tried, but to no satisfaction or practical 
results. This is to be much regretted. 

The plum crop in the county wherever the trees were properly cared for and 
healthy was good, and the fruit was very fine indeed, but this condition was very scarce 
and hard to be found. But we have not yet given up all hope in plum raising, and 
many of our people are seen now planting out largely wherever good and favorable 
places are found and can be procured, and some are planting the Western sorts. The 
ever popular Lombard is now mostly relied upon with the Green Gages, but besides 
these not many others. 

Not many quinces are grown, but the sample this season was extra fine indeed. 
As, however, people in general do not know their proper place in our economies not 
many are called for. The Orange quince is about the only sort. 

No improved nuts are attempted. Our reliance being solely upon the products of 
our forests, and this year not many of thf se. 

Pears were a most disappointing and abundant crop as not many were expected 
early in the season. But on account of the early blight many of them, especially 
Flemish Beauty and Seckel, were malformed and disfigured by an unnaturally rus- 
setty skin that they were scarcely recognizable and almost worthless. Some sorts on 
the contrary were very fair and even good, as mostly Clapp's Favorite and Bartlett. 
Other sorts used are Onondaga, Louise, Howell and Angouleme and some others. 

The apple crop was small and sample ill- formed. It was one of the most despicable 
apple crops ever had in the county, and of the least value. The cause of this was the 
fungus blight falling early. The sorts used include almost everything on the lists, 
but for real valuable continued satisfaction and results nothing has yet superseded 
the old standard sorts, viz, Baldwin, Rhode Island Greening, Northern Spy, Ben 
Davis, and King of Tompkins. 

The grape is a fruit in which we are deeply interested. The crop this year was 
one of the finest and most beautiful ever seen in the county. The sample was fine, 
the berry and bunch large and good and the ripening perfect, while the quality was 
all that could be desired. This fruit is receiving increasing attention and is really 
very popular, and it returns well for all labor, time and skill bestowed upon it. Con- 
cord is popular everywhere and everybody knows it. The other sorts used are Hart- 
ford, Moore's Early, Worden, Pocklington, Niagara, Prentiss, Brighton, Delaware, 
Salem, Wilder, Agawam, Lady, Jessica, Champion, Herbert, Iona and others. 

I would like to add a word in conclusion that will bear upon this whole question of 
successful fruit production in this county. I am becoming more and more thoroughly 
convinced that amid our climatic conditions and our soil adaptedness we must resort to 
practical artificial means for protection, and that protection must come to us as fruit 
growers in the form of fine spray containing a solution of some arsenic compound held 
and finely applied entirely over the mass of our fruit trees and bushes and even our 
vineyards as well. This is felt to be a very unfortunate conclusion that we deeply regret, 
but it is a result that is becoming more and more apparent, and to ensure safety and 
satisfaction is a necessity, as our climate is changing rapidly, more and more to the 
severe. Whatever troubles after generations may have in this matter we do not at 
present know, but we are sufficiently alive to our own troubles and we can think of 
nothing by which we can defend ourselves but something m this line. 



LETTUCE GROWING UNDER GLASS. 

It may be news to many that the conditions are so unlike in the east and west that 
the business of forcing vegetables in greenhouses, although quite profitable in the first 
named section, has not been found to pay in the latter. 

The large cities of the east afford a better market than western states, and southern 
competition is more keenly felt in the latter. Near large eastern cities head lettuce is 



129 



grown exclusively, tomatoes and cucumbers are forced in midwinter, but to follow the 
same course here would be to court failure. Head lettuce cannot be grown so cheaply as 
varieties that do not form heads, but there is no better demand in western cities for the 
former than for the latter. Tomatoes and cucumbers are difficult to force in midwinter, 
and the prices that may be obtained for them here at that season of the year, are not 
sufficient to pay the cost of production. 

In spite of these drawbacks recent developments show that the business may be 
carried on profitably in the Western States. 

The introduction of the Grand Rapids lettuce may be said to mark the commence- 
ment of new era in lettuce growing. It is less subject to disease and can be grown more 
cheaply than any of the heading sorts, which are looked upon as standards in the East, 
The difference between it and the varieties is so marked that by its cultivation the profits 
may be nearly or quite doubled. This alone is a great advance, but after three years 
experimenting with sub-irrigation the Ohio station has found that the lettuce crop may 
by this means be nearly doubled. 

This places the lettuce grower in a much better position than before; in fact, lettuce 
forcing in greenhouses is now a profitable business, whereas it was in danger of being 
abandoned in many parts of the country. 

This is a matter about which tariff reformers will not have much to say, as tariff 
has nothing to do with the matter. Over production in one section nearly destroyed a 
growing industry in another, but the discovery of a variety and the application of an 
old device in a new manner, has saved a business which is likely to become one of great 
importance. 

There is no reason why vegetable culture under glass should not now become of 
equal importance with floriculture, and this means many thousands of dollars annually 
added to our productive resources. 

Sub-irrigation was first used with lettuce in order to avoid watering the foliage, thus 
preventing the much dreaded lettuce rot. It was found that the lettuce grew much 
better by this method of watering than when water was applied to the surface of the 
soil. Operations were then enlarged, until entire houses are now supplied with water in 
this manner. In order to operate the plan successfully water tight benches are erected. 
These may be made in various ways, but matched flooring laid in white lead answers very 
well. Drain tile are laid on these benches 2J feet apart and covered with soil. Water- 
ing is accomplished by pouring into the ends of the tile, where a T joint is laid, for con- 
venience. 

Some later experiments show that the same principle may be extended successfully, 
beginning as soon as the seed is sown. The seed is sown in shallow boxes with slatted 
bottoms. A convenience size is 16x24 inches and two inches deep. Lath is used for the 
bottoms, and is laid close together, which allows the water to pass through, but prevents 
the soil falling out. These boxes, or flats are filled with soil and the seed sown in very 
shallow marks made on the surface of the soil. Covering may be done with the fingers 
or a board, aud the whole surface pressed down firmly with a block. No water is applied 
to the surface of the soil, but the boxes are placed in a shallow vat in which is a small 
quantity of water. These seed boxes are allowed to remain in the vat until the soil is 
quite well soaked, then taken ouc and placed in a warm part of the house. The seed 
germinates very quickly and certainly by this method, hence should not be sown so thickly 
as when surface watering is practiced. When large enough the young plants are trans- 
planted into flats of the same size as above named, and watering is done in the same 
manner. Labor is saved by following this method, although the contrary may seem to be 
true. That is because watering need be done less frequently than by the old method, 
but even if such were not the case the results justify the adoption of the new method. 
Both radishes and cucumbers flourish under the same treatment, although they are 
not benefitted to such an extent as lettuce. Tomatoes respond less than any other crop, 
but they show sufficient gain to pay for fitting up the house for sub-irrigation. 

Experience has shown that a sub irrigation plant pays for itself in one season, or 
one hundred per cent, on the investment. The estimate is for green-house crop in gen* 
eral, but for lettuce alone the profit is greater. 

9 (F.G.) 



130 



In a previous bulletin tomato- culture after lettuce was given in detail, but there 
are other crops which may be grown with profit, such as radishes, cucumbers and parsley. 
Under the benches the space may be used for mushrooms, dandelion, pie plant and 
asparagus. The mushroom crop is about as profitable as any that can be grown, and yet 
it requires no light. It has the advantage, also, of not being produced so largely in the 
South as other crops, hence competition is not to be feared. 

In view of the facts that have been stated it is evident that an important industry 
may now be built up. If such a thing is not done it will be because gardeners do not 
take advantage of the situation. The business ought to be encouraged, for whatever is 
done in this line means just that much added to our productive capacity. — Ohio Experi- 
ment Station. 

TOMATOES AS A GREENHOUSE CROP. 

In the eastern states tomatoes are often forced in midwinter, at which time they 
bring fancy prices in the large cities. A higher temperature is required to force toma- 
toes than most other crops, artificial pollenization must be practiced, and great care taken 
to keep the plants free from disease. These items reduce the profits very materially, and 
renders this business quite uncertain except near large cities. 

The Ohio Experiment Station has found that there is more profit in keeping the 
houses filled with lettuce during the greater part of the winter and holding back toma 
toes for a spring and early summer greenhouse crop. 

Lettuce is not a profitable greenhouse crop later than April, but tomatoes nourish in the 
houses during the spring and early summer months much better than in winter. The crop is 
mostly gathered during May and June, at which time 16 to 20 cents per pound is realized. 

This is less than half the price paid in winter, but owing to decreased cost of pro- 
duction and greater demand, there is more profit in a spring than a winter crop. 

In order to have plants ready to fill the houses as soon as the last crop of lettuce 
is out, tomato seed is sown about the last week in December. Seed is sown in shallow 
boxes, not having more than two inches depth of soil. As tomatoes require considerable 
heat, these seed boxes should be kept in a warm part of the greenhouse. 

Soon after the plants have formed the second leaves they should be transplanted. 
For this purpose the same kind of shallow boxes are used as before, and in these the 
young plants are set about two inches apart each way. If kept growing nicely the 
plants will begin to crowd each other in three or four weeks, when they should be again 
transplanted. This time they are to be set about four inches apart each way. The 
same kind of boxes may be used as before, but greater care must be taken to keep the 
plants watered than when younger, as more water is required because of the greater 
amount of foliage. During all stages of growth in which the plants are kept in boxes 
or fiats, a good method of watering is to place the boxes of plants in a shallow vat, 
holding a small quantity of water. If these plant boxes have slatted bottoms as they 
should have, the water soaks up evenly through the soil, and in a more thorough and 
satisfactory manner than when surface watering is practiced. The only precautions 
that need be observed in following this method is not to water until the plants require 
it, and not to keep them soaking after the soil is fairly wet. If desired, the plants may 
be set in four inch pots or in large beds at the second transplanting, instead of into 
boxes, but the latter plan has some advantages over the others. 

Early in March the plants ought to be a foot or more in height, and just coming 
into bloom. They are then ready to set in permanent beds for fruiting. 

These beds should contain about six inches of soil. The plants are set about 20 
inches apart each way, and in order to occupy the ground fully lettuce plant are set 
between. As soon as the lettuce is cut the tomato plants are given the whole 
space. The soil should be stirred frequently, and it is advisable to mulch the surface with 
half -rotted manure. An important part of the care of the crop consists in pruning and 
training. The plants must be tied to some support and the tying must be repeated as 
often as required, as the plants increase in height. Stakes may be used for support, or 
strings may be tied to the rafters, and the lower and fastened to short stakes driven near 
the plants and the plants tied to these strings. The side shoots near the base of the 



131 



plants must be removed as they appear and the plants kept trained to single stalks, or 
if preferred two shoots may be allowed to start from each plant, but in any case the 
surplus suckers must be removed as they appear. This pruning hastens maturity and 
makes it possible to grow the plants within the narrow limits named. It is not neces- 
sary to remove any foliage, unless it becomes diseased, in which case it is better off than 
on, as it does no good, besides it is unsightly and serves to spread the disease. 

As before stated tomato plants are less subject to disease late in the season than 
early, but the best preventive of disease is good care so as to keep the plants growing 
thriftily. A fair crop when grown in this manner is about five pounds per plant. 

This cannot be rated as a highly profitable greenhouse crop, but when it is con- 
sidered that it is grown at a time when the houses would otherwise remain idle the 
reason for growing it is apparent. 

Concerning varieties but little need be said. Almost any smooth-fruited sort is 
suitable for the purpose. The extra early varieties are too rough and irregular for the 
purpose, as their close pruning seems to make the defect still more prominent. Acme, 
Favorite and Beauty are very satisfactory. Dwarf Champion does very well, but is less 
fruitful than the above, and is more difficult to prune, its earliness is its chief merit. 
A method of growing early tomatoes out of doors to succeed the greenhouse crop 
will be given at another time. — Ohio Experiment Station. 



HEDGES. 
By D. Nicol, Cataraqui, Ont. 

Having lately seen many scrub brush skeletons of what had at some time been 
intended for hedges, I feel inclined to speak on this subject. I have seen hundreds of 
rods of privet, buckthorn, honey locust, and other hedges, so-called, which served no 
purpose except to mar the natural beauty of the grounds on which they were eking out a 
miserable existence. A thrifty, well-kept hedge is an object of beauty, which may be 
useful as well as ornamental. There are, however, few of such to be seen. They can be 
grown only under favorable conditions. 

I would not be understood as recommending the general adoption of hedge fences, 
because I am sure they would not give general satisfaction. To keep them in good 
order, the annual amount of labor necessary at a busy time of the year is greater than 
most farmers could afford ; consequently they are very likely to be neglected, but there 
are places in which hedges are more desirable than any other kind of fence. 

Between villa lots, I have seen stone walls erected and crowned with sharp cutting 
glass of broken ale bottles, while a formidable hedge would have served the purpose 
better, at less expense, without giving the gaol-yard appearance. 

Back yards are enclosed with high board fences which need to be removed every 
tenth year, while a good hedge would screen the view of everything objectionable to 
sight — be more healthful, and would last more than a man's lifetime, besides adding to, 
instead of detracting from, the beauty of a homestead. 

I cannot here enter into details, but with a view of assisting enquirers, would men- 
tion some essentials. In the first place, the hedge plant must be adapted to the climate 
soil and locality in which it is to be grown. I do not know of any kind of tree or shrub 
which will ever form a good hedge under the shade of large trees. Some kinds may do 
fairly well where only partially shaded, but there can be no dense foliage hedges with- 
out the free access of sunlight and air from morning till night. 

Sometimes hedges are planted close to a board fence, with a view of having the 
fence taken away, but in every instance this scheme has proved a failure, because the 
sun and air were partially excluded from one side of the hedge. 

It is quite possible to have a fairly good hedge grow along side of a wire fence, and, 
in the country south of us, the Osage orange is now commonly used for that purpose • 
but it is too tender for the greater part of Canada. 

A question very often asked is : What kind of tree or shrub makes the best hedge ? 
No one who has had much experience with hedges would say that any one kind is the 
best under all circumstances. 



132 



For an ornamental hedge, I would unhesitatingly recommend the American Arbor 
vitas. It endures close trimming well, and can be kept in neat and tidy dimensions for a 
greater length of time than any tree that I know of. I know of some hedges of it which 
are in good condition twenty eight years after planting, and they are less than three feet 
high. It is never infested with injurious insects; intense frost does not hurt it ; and dry, hot 
weather seems to be congenial to it. In this respect, it is perhaps the hardiest tree 
which grows in Canada or elsewhere. That may be the reason why it was given the 
name " Tree of life." In its native state it is found growing on dry, rocky hills, and 
also in water-soaked muck swamps. It thrives on almost any kind of soil, and lives to a 
great age, yet it is not suitable for any formidable hedge fence. It will not endure bruising 
or crushing by animals rubbing against it, especially when it is in a frozen state, and 
cattle seem to have a singular fondness for doing that very thing. 

The common barberry being very prickly, is given a wide berth by animals of all 
kinds. The most enduring hedge-fence I have seen was of this shrub. It thrives well on 
any soil which is not of a poor, cold, or wet nature. It grows closely, and by annual 
trimming it is easily kept in any desirable size or shape, soon forming a hog-proof fence that 
will last for generations. The common barberry is easily propagated, sold cheaply by 
nurserymen, and has few insect enemies. The purple-leaved barberry, although less 
robust, is quite as hardy and more ornamental. It is said that barberry hedges breed 
rust on wheat. I have never seen any satisfactory evidence to that effect, and think the 
evil is wholly imaginary. 

The hawthorn, which is commonly used for hedge fences on the British Isles, does 
not thrive well here ; several kinds of aphides attack and generally destroy it. Our 
native thorn is of too slow growth. The Buckthorn, which is no relation of any of the 
other thorns, is quite as hardy, makes a compact hedge when skilfully trimmed. No 
insects infest its leaves, and mice will not girdle its bark. 

Where rapid growth of a shelter hedge is desired the Norway spruce is particularly 
well adapted. It is quite as hardy as our native white spruce, and is of much more 
robust growth, and can be successfully transplanted when of large size. The hemlock 
spruce makes a beautiful hedge while ycung, but its lower branches soon die, leaving the 
hedge bare at the bottom, and much trimming shortens its life, hence it is not well 
adapted for the purpose. 

The honey locust is sometimes planted for shelter hedges, but on account of its 
excessive tendency to send out suckers a great distance from its trunk, I would discour- 
age its use ; yet, it is not as objectionable in this respect as the Chinese abele, which 
should never be planted where any other tree will grow. 

There is no lack of variety of plants suitable for ornamental hedges. The Japan 
quince (three varieties), makes an excellent hedge where the climate is not too severe. 

The Tartarian honeysuckle (of four varieties), is quite hardy. It makes a superb 
hedge, and so does the Persian lilac, and seveial varieties of shrubby spirse ; also, mock 
orange and viburnum. The privet is not quite hardy enough for all parts of Ontario, 
but where the climate is favorable it makes a compact, neat hedge. The mulberry is also 
now planted for hedges in favorable climates. 

If I were to speak of tree shelters on prairie and other rich flat lands, where quick 
growth is especially desirable, I would recommend the poplars and several varieties of 
the willow, but for making formidable hedge fences they have not proved satisfactory. 
About twenty years ago many thousands of dollars was extracted from the Ontario farm- 
ers through the white willow swindle. A company of scamps from Michigan recom- 
mended it as being the grandest thing for hedges ever discovered. It was purchased and 
planted extensively throughout the country, and now all that remains to be seen of it is 
some rows of widespreading clusters of very ugly trees. Yet, I dare say some credulous 
farmers will again be humbugged in the same way by the yellow or black willow, 
both of which are nearly as worthless for hedge purposes as the so-called white 
willow. I will not, however, occupy your time discussing hedge frauds on the farming 
community, but would merely remark that intending hedge planters should in some 
measure be guided by the experience of others. 



APPENDIX II. 

REPORTS FROM AFFILIATED ASSOCIATIONS, 1892. 






BURLINGTON HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION. 

We have to report a fairly satisfactory year for the Society. Several new members 
have been added, the interest is sustained, and our work is having a decidedly beneficial 
effect upon the members. Instead of working at random as is largely the case when an 
individual relies entirely upon his own resources, the collective information of the entire 
society becomes his property with useful and practical results. We find that personal in- 
quiry is stimulated, new zest given to our efforts in growing fruit, we are enabled to work 
more intelligently and methodically, and are better able to explain the reason of a given 
line of action. It is difficult to place a money value on the benefits derived from such an 
association, but there is a financial gain which more than amply repays our time and 
efforts. 

At the instance of the Superintendent of Fruit for Ontario, Mr. A. H Pettit of 
Grimsby, several members of the Association shipped to him baskets and kegs of choice 
fruit for the Columbian Exposition at Chicago. It might also be mentioned that this 
Association was awarded first prize on the best display of fruits at the Toronto Ex- 
hibition. 

For the past three years the members of the Association have made a practice of 
taking an annual outing, early in the month of September. The fruit plantations in the 
neighborhood of Burlington were the first visited, then those of the Grimsby district, and 
this year, the orchards of Oakville and Lockport, N. Y. We find these outings interest- 
ing, exhilarating, instructive and certainly useful. 

The following is a brief synopsis of some of the papers and addresses delivered at 
the meetings of the Association : "Soils and situations for the larger fruits," by the 
Secretary, Mr. A. W. Peart. He is of the opinion that deep loams of clay or sand, with 
a clay or shale sub-soil are the best adapted for fruits. Light, sandy soils, as well as 
heavy clay are not suitable, the former are too porous, while the latter are too adhesive. 
Shallow soils resting on rock are also unsuitable, as well as alluvial deposits, which give 
a rank but tender growth of wood. Soils for fruit purposes should be well drained, if 
not naturally, by artificial means. Trees, vines and plants on wet soils do not thrive, 
the former are stunted, immature, and soon die, while the latter are continually cut down 
by late spring frosts. This district is highly favoured, the lake modifies our climate, 
while the mountain on the west and north-west sides is a valuable protection. In pears 
id grapes, especially, we should produce an article superfine in quality. 

A supplement to this paper was given by Mr. Jos. Lindley, " Soils and situations 
for small fruits." For gooseberries and red currants he prefers a sandy loam, but con- 
siders alluvial deposits or clay loams also good. For strawberries heavy sandy loam, in- 
clined to be damp, but not wet ; blackberries, also, require a similar soil. 

Mr. W. V. Hopkins gave a paper on " Soil Fertilizers." He thinks that stable 
manure well decomposed is the best, it being a perfect manure. He has tried land plas- 
ter on manure heaps and found that it prevented the escape of ammonia. Phosphoric 
acid and potash are very necessary for fruits and may be applied, either in the form of 
mleached hard wood ashes or phosphates. One of the very best fertilizers, however, lies 
thoroughly cultivating plants, vines and trees, and thus make use of the food elements 
bhat nature has placed in the soil. 



134 



The following are a few of the questions asked : 

What is the cheapest and best way of protecting trees from mice 1 A. The practice 
of banking trees is not only expensive but ineffectual, as the mice will run up the bank 
and girdle the trees. Clean cultivation is the best preventive, but is not always practic- 
able. Where a man has a great many acres of young fruit trees, it is impossible to grow 
hoed crops on all the ground, summer fallowing would be a waste of land, and grain or 
grass must necessarily be grown in some measure. Tar paper sometimes blisters the 
trees, thereby stunting their growth, but we believe this is due to its fitting the trunk 
too tightly. It should be tied on loosely and removed early in the spring, and, in spite 
of its blistering tendencies, is the cheapest and best preventitive. A new tar paper, 
that is tar sandwiched between papers, is being tried here this winter for the first time. 
It is thought that it cannot blister the tree, the only question being whether there is 
sufficient tar in it to deter the mice. 

A question as to when native plum trees, planted in a standard plum orchard with 
the object of top grafting them, should be so treated, was answered by the Vice-President, 
Mr. J. S. Freeman, who thought they should be grafted as early as possible after the 
first season. 

Officers. 

The following are the officers of the Association for the year 1893 : 

President : Geo. E. Fisher, Freeman P.O. 

Vice-President : J. S. Freeman, Freeman P.O. 

Sec retary- Treasurer : A. W. Peart, Freeman P.O. 

Assistant- Secretary : Geo. N. Peer, Freeman P.O. 

Directors: Apples, E. Peart; Grapes, C. N. Dynes ; Small Fruits, W.V.Hopkins; Pears and 
Peaches, Dr. Zimmerman : Plums, W. F. W. Fisher ; Vegetables, H. Williams ; Shipping, Jos. 
Lindley. 

Entertainment Committee: President, Vice-PresideDt, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Auditors: C. N. Dynes and Geo. N. Peer. 

Report of Fruits. 

While in our locality, this has been sugood season for the growth of wood, which is 
going into winter well matured, it has been generally unfavorable for fruit, the wet 
weather of May and June causing undue development of fungoid growth, thereby seriously 
impairing the quality of pears and apples, of which the yields were large. There were 
scarcely any plums, due probably to the heavy crop of last year. The peach crop was 
nil, the buds being frozen during winter. Cherries were few, owing, it is thought, to 
imperfect fertilization, the weather being wet and cold during the blossoming season. 
Grapes were a light crop. A few of the more tender varieties were frozen in the winter, 
while many were so late in ripening as to be practically useless. Some vineyards on 
thoroughly drained soil gave a heavy crop of fine quality. Raspberries and blackberries 
were a light crop. Some of the varieties, notably the Cuthbert, suffered seriously from 
frost during winter. The strawberry crop was fair, but of inferior quality, small and 
sour, due, we think, to imperfect fertilization and protracted wet weather. Red currants 
were a light crop ; black currants a heavy crop, the quality of both being good. Goose- 
berries were a fine crop and were unusually free from mildew. Quinces, a full crop, 
although relatively few are grown in this locality. The acreage of fruit plantations has 
been largely increased during the past year, especially in the direction of pears and plums. 
Generally speaking, the crop of vegetables was fair, tomatoes heavy, radishes, table car- 
rots and beets unusually good, onions and cauliflower good, ca'bbage and celery light. 
Melons were a good crop but poor in quality, potatoes a light crop and badly effected by 
the rot. — Geo. E. Fisher, President. 



135 



BRANT COUNTY FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 

This Society was formed in 1890. The fruit growers of Brant county were desirous 
of uniting for two principal reasons, first, that we might discuss subjects of general in- 
terest to the fruit grower, and thereby benefit by each others experience, and, second, to 
send one of our members to the northern markets to open up places that we might safely 
send our surplus fruit and thereby save money. In former years each man went himself 
and the expense was much heavier than the expense of one man. 

During the two years of our existence we have held three and four open meetings, 
during the winter season, and as many more society meetings, which have been very 
helpful to successful fruit growing. We have averaged a membership of over fifty. Mr. 
Thos. A. Ivey was President for two years, and was a very able president. 

Officers. 
The present year, at the annual meeting, we elected the following officers : 

President : J. R. Howell. 

Vice-President : A. Dawson. 

Secretary -Treasurer : CM. Lee. 

Directors : David Greig, Cainsville, John Carnie, Paris, Simon Chapin, Brantford, H. J. 
Bryan, Mohawk, A. B. Lee, Northfield Centre, Jas. Miller, Paris, Thos. A. Ivey, Brantford, D. West-' 
brooke, Cainsviile, Charles Grantham, Cainsville. 

The Treasurer's report showed the Society to be in good position, with a small bal- 
ance on hand. As the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association have held their winter meet- 
ing for 1892 in our county, we have received a new impetus for the year. Should the 
papers given during the next year be as good as the last year, we will preserve and send 
to the Ontario Association, to the Horticulturist for publication, or hold over for the 
annual report, as may be thought advisable by our superiors. 

The county of Brant is noted for its large apple orchards, and the Equality not sur- 
passed in the Province. Pears and plums are not so largely grown, but can be grown 
very successfully, especially in the northern portion of the county. Strawberries and 
raspberries are very largely grown in all parts of the county, and also tomatoes. But 
the surplus of tomatoes, as well as strawberries and raspberries, is so heavy that, unless 
some one should start a canning factory, in a few years many will be compelled to drop 
out of these kinds of fruit. 

D. M. Lee, 

Secretary. 



PETERBOROUGH FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 
The annual meeting was held on the 3rd of February, 1892. 

Officers Elected for 1892. 

President: George Hilliard." 

Secretary : E. B. Edwards. 

Committee : James Middleton, J. Giles, Fred. Stenson, James McKibbon and G. M. Roger, in 
addition to the President and Secretary. 

The Treasurer's statement showed receipts for the year $53, and a balance on hand 
at the close of the year of $160. 

Mr. Craig, Horticulturist of the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, was present 
and addressed the meeting on the work of the Experimental Farm, giving the results of 
his experience in testing new varieties of fruit trees, etc. A long discussion followed, in 

* Since deceased. 



136 



which several members took part, and Mr. Craig answered many questions put to him 
with regard to the varied difficulties and doubts that the members had experienced. At 
the afternoon session Mr. A. M. Smith, of St. Catharines, addressed the meeting on the 
subject of " The Culture of Small Fruits," and this as well was followed by an interesting 
and useful discussion. 

Mr. Gilbert, of the Central Experimental Farm, gave an address on the question of 
raising poultry in connection with fruit growing, pointing out the advantage to be derived 
from the manure and the removal of the insect enemies. 

Mr. Craig delivered a further address on the subject of " Producing Fruit of the 
Finest Quality," pointing out amongst other thing3 the necessity of thinning apples and 
of careful grading. 



137 



APPENDIX III. 



CATALOGUE OF FRUITS— APPLES. 



FOR USE OF JUDGES AT EXHIBITIONS. 

Explanatory Note.— In the plan of rating, all varieties are supposed to be perfect specimens ; then 
the best varieties under each of three or four heads are rated at ten, and all the more or less inferior 
varieties by some figure less than ten. It frequently happens, however, even with the best varieties, that 
imperfect samples are exhibited. In such cases all values given in the Catalogue must be i educed one or 
more points each, for (1) lack of color, (2) undersize, (3) uneveness of size on plate, (4) wormy, scabby or 
illshapen specimens, (5) lack of stem or calyx, (6) polished fruits, i.e., having bloom wiped off, or for any 
other thing which tends to change the natural appearance of the fruit. 

The column " Total Value " is for use when prizes are offered for fruits without designating the pur- 
pose for which such fruits may be required. 



Name. 



Alexander 

American Golden Russet. 
American Summer Pearmain. 

Arnold's Beauty 

American Pippin 

Adam's Pearmain 

Autumn Strawberry 

Bailey Sweet 

Baldwin 

Beauty of Kent 

Ben Davis 

Benoni 

Belmont 

Blenheim Pippin 

Blue Pearmain , 

Bottle Greening 

Bourassa 

Cabashea 

Canada Baldwin 

Canada Reinette 

Cayuga Red Streak 

Chenango Strawberry 

Colvert 

Cornish Gilliflower 

Cox's Orange Pippin 

Cranberry Pippin , 

Cellini. .... 

Domine 

Drap d'Or 

Detroit Black 

Duchess of Oldenburgh 

Dyer 

Early Harvest 

Early Joe , 

Early Strawberry 

Edgar's Red Streak 

Ella 

Esopus Spitzenburg 

Fallawater 

Fall Jenetting 

Fall Orange , 

Fall Pippin 

Flushing Spitzenburg 

Fameuse 



Season. 



A 

W 

S 

w 
w 
w 

A 
W 
W 
A 
W 

s 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 

A 
A 
A 

w 

A 
W 
W 
W 
A 
A 
S 
A 
S 
S 
S 

w 
w 
w 
w 

A 
A 
A 
W 
A 



Quality. 



Dessert. 



Cooking. 



Commercial value. 



Home 
market. 



Foreign 
market. 



Total 
Value. 



28 
34 

6 
12 
21 
30 
13 
14 
22 
23 
19 
11 
19 
32 
28 
19 
18 
26 
31 
24 
25 
18 
25 

4 
29 
31 
23 
25 
16 
10 
32 



Note. — In the first column the letter S denotes summer, A autumn and W winter. 



138 



CATALOGUE OF FRUITS.— APPLES.— Continued. 





Season. 


Quality. 


Commercial value. 


Total 


Name. 


Dessert. 


Cooking. 


Home 
market. 


Foreign, 
market. 


Value. 


Fall Queen {Sec Haas) 


M 












Gloria Mundi 


w 
w 

A 
A 
A 
W 
W 
A 
S 
A 
A 
W 
W 
S 
A 
A 
W 
A 
A 
W 
W 
A 
W 
A 
A 
W 
A 
A 
W 
A 
W 
W 
W 

w 

A 
W 
A 
A 
A 
W 
W 
W 
W 
W 
W 
A 
W 
W 
W 
A 
W 

s 

A 
W 
A 
A 


.... „... 

2 
2 
9 
9 
9 
5 
6 
2 
6 
7 
5 


8 
7 
4 
7 
9 
4 
2 
7 
5 
8 
8 
8 
5 


6 

8 
1 
7 
10 
6 
6 
7 
5 
7 
7 
8 
4 


8 
9 

' io" 

8 
7 
6 
.... ... 

7 
8 
6 


22 


Golden Russet (English) . . 


32 

7 






Gravenstein 

Green Newton Pippin 

Grimes' Golden 

Haas {See Fall Queen) 

Hawley 

Hawthornden , 


38 
27 
24 
25 
1& 
24 
28 


Hubbardston Nonsuch 


31 


Hurlbut , 

Irish Peach 


20 


Jeffries 


7 
1 
9 

i "" 

8 
9 
7 
5 
3 
2 


6 
3 

7 

8 

9 

10 


6 
1 
7 
8 
6 
10 
1 
5 
4 
6 
7 


7 


26 




5 




8 
8 
7 

9 

7 
5 
7 
6 


31 


Kentish Fillbasket 


24 


Keswick Codlin 


23 


King of Tompkins County 

Lady 


19 


5 

7 
8 
9 
8 
7 
9 
9 
7 
7 
7 
7 


24 


Lawver , 


21 


Lord Suffield 


24 


Lord Duncan 


24 








5 
2 
1 
3 
4 
3 
6 


4 

5 

10 
7 
6 
5 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
2 
6 

10 
7 
10 
6 
7 
8 








*5"" 

8 
8 
7 
8 
8 
5 
7 
6 


16 




25 


Mann 

Magog Red Streak 


25 

25 
22 


Mcintosh Red 


28 


Melon 


8 8 


31 


Minister 


4 
6 

8 
1 
7 
8 
9 
9 
7 
5 
4 


6 

8 
7 
3 
8 

10 
9 

10 
7 
7 
8 


21 


Monmouth Pippin 

Mother 


27 

27 




6 


Newtown Spitzenburg 


7 

10 

10 

10 

8 

8 

8 


28 




38 


Newton Pippin 

Ontario 


35 
39 

28 


Pennock 


27 
28 






4 
9 

10 
5 
4 
7 
9 

10 


7 


7 
5 
6 
5 
6 
6 
5 
8 
1 
.4 


8 
7 
8 
3 
7 
„... 

8 


26 




21 






24 




4 
5 
6 
9 
7 
4 
6 


17 


Priestly 


22 

19 




28 




33 


Pumpkin Sweet 


5 


1 


5 


16 


Pomme Royale {See Dyer) 




A 
W 

S 

' A 

W 

A 
W 

A 
W 


5 
4 
5 
2 
6 
G 
5 


1 
5 
7 
4 
6 
8 
6 


2 
3 

8 
2 
7 
7 
7 


5 
5 


13 




17 


Red Astrachan 

~Ror\ Rpllp-flpnr 


20 




8 




8 

7 
7 

*'"8 


27 




28 




25 








8 


10 


8 


34 



139 



CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. -APPLES.— Continued. 








Season. 


Quality. 


Commercial value. 


Total 


Name. 


Dessert. 


Cooking. 


Home 
market. 

8 
8 
5 
6 


Foreign 
market. 


Value. 


Ribston Pippin 


W 
W 
A 
A 
W 
A 
S 
A 
A 
S 

w 


10 
6 

5 
7 
1 
3 
2 
7 
5 
6 
7 


8 
8 
6 
6 
4 
6 
5 
8 
6 
6 
2 


1 
10 
9 
6 


36 


Roxbury Russet 


31 
22 


Shiawassee Beauty 


19 


1 
6 


6 


Smokehouse 


4 
2 

8 
5 
4 

1 


19 
9 




8 


31 


Stamp 


16 




16 


Swaar 

Swazie Pomme Grise {See Pomme Grise 
d'Or) 


4 


14 


Stark * 


w 


2 


2 


7 


8 


19 






Talman Sweet 

Tetofsky .- 


'"'w'" 

s 

A 
A 
W 


2 

1 
10 


7 
5 
5 


5 
1 
9 


6 


20 

7 


Trenton 

Twenty Ounce {See Cayuga. Red Streak. . 
Vadevere 


9 


33 


6 

8 


5 

7 


4 

6 


6 

7 


21 

28 


Wallbridge {See Edgar's Red Streak 




Wealthy , 


W 
W 

s 
w 

w 
w 
w 

s 


8 
7 
1 
5 
7 
7 
8 
6 


6 

7 
2 

7 


9 

7 
1 
5 
1 
8 
5 
6 


9 

8 

6*" 

3 

8 
5 


32 


Westfield Seek-no-Further 


29 
4 




23 




11 




7 
7 
7 


30 




25 




v 19 






1 



GRAPES. 

(This list is subject to revision each year.) 



Varieti 



Agawam (Rog. 15) 
Allen's Hybrid . . 
Amber Queen .... 

Amber 

Aminia (Rog. 39) 

Ann Arbor 

August Giant 

Augusta 

Barry (Rog. 43)... 

Brighton 

Black Eagle 

Black Pearl 

Burnett 

Canada 

Catawba 

Champion 



Color. 


Season. 


R 


L 


W 


M 


R 


M 


R 


L 


B 


M 


W 


E 


B 


M 


B 


M 


B 


M 


R 


E 


B 


L 


B 


L 


B 


M 


B 


M 


R 


L 


B 


E 



Quality 
for table. 



Ship'g 
value. 



Market 
value. 



Total. 



20 

23 
6 
6 

14 
6 

25 

12 



List of Abbeeviations :— R red, W white, B black, L late, E early, and M Medium. 



140 



CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. -GRAPES.- Con tinned. 



Varieties. 


Color. 


Season. 


Quality 
for table. 


Ship'g 
value. 


Market 
value. 


Total. 


Clinton 


B 
B 
B 
B 
W 
B 
B 
R 
R 
W 
R 
B 
B 
W 
W 
B 
B 
W 
W 
B 
B 
W 
B 
R 
R 
B 
B 
B 
W 
B 
R 
B 
B 
B 
B 
W 
R 
B 
W 
W 
R 
R 
W 
B 
B 
R 
B 
W 
B 
W 
W 
B 
R 
R 
B 
B 
R 
W 
W 
W 
R 
W 
R 
B 
B 
B 
R 


L 
M 
E 
E 
E 
L 
E 
E 
L 
L 
E 
M 
M 
L 
L 
E 
E 
M 
L 
E 
L 
E 
E 
L 
M 
E 
M 
L 
M 
L 
L 
L 
E 
L 
E 
E 
L 
M 
E 
L 
E 
E 
M 
L 
E 
E 
M 
E 
L 
M 
L 
L 
M 
M 
M 
L 
E 
M 
L 
E 
L 
M 
M 
M 
M 
M 
L 




5 
6 
5 
6 
3 
2 
5 
7 
8 
6 
6 
5 
4 
2 
4 
6 
5 
5 

•4 
4 
7 
2 
2 
5 
6 
5 
8 
4 
2 
2 
7 
7 
5 
6 
3 
5 
4 
4 
3 
5 
9 
4 
5 
9 
6 
7 
7 
7 
4 
5 
5 
5 
6 
2 
4 
3 
6 
6 
7 
6 
2 
4 
8 
2 
6 
6 
7 


2 

8 
4 
3 
3 
1 
5 
9 
7 
7 
7 
3 
4 
1 
4 
5 
4 
2 
3 
3 
6 
3 
3 
5 
6 
6 
7 
2 
3 
3 
b 
6 
5 
4 
3 
5 
5 
2 
5 
3 
9 
5 
3 
6 
9 
9 
3 
7 
2 
9 

2 
6 
4 

4 
2 

6 
6 
4 

7 
1 
4 
7 
2 
8 
6 
6 


7 


Concord 

Cottage 

Creveling . 

Croton , 


7 
5 
6 
4 
1 
2 

10 
6 
1 
1 
7 
6 
1 
3 
3 
6 
7 
2 
5 
3 
2 
2 
8 
8 
3 
6 
3 
5 
1 
8 
3 
2 
3 
2 
5 
6 
4 
7 
3 

10 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
6 
7 
1 
8 
1 
1 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
6 
5 
6 
1 
8 
7 
1 
7 
6 
3 


21 
14 
15 
10 


Cynthiana , . . . . , 


4 


Courtland 

Delaware ... 

Diana 

Duchess 

Dracut Amber 


12 
26 
21 
14 
14 


Eaton 

Early Dawn 

Elvira 


15 
14 

4 


Empire State 


11 


Early hio 


14 


Eumelan 

Eldorado 


15 
14 


Etta 

Early Victor 


9 
12 


Essex (Rog. 41) 


16 


Faith 


7 


Florence 


7 


Goethe (Rog. 1) 


18 


Gaertner (Rog. 14) 


20 




14 


Herbert (Rog. 14) 


21 


Hayes 


9 
10 




6 


Iona 

Ives 


21 
16 
12 




13 


Janesville 


8 
15 


Jefferson 

Jewell 

Lady 

Lindley (Rog. 9) 


15 
10 
15 
11 

28 


Martha 


15 
14 
22 


Moore's Early 

Mills 


22 
23 
16 
21 

7 


Noah 

Northern Muscadine 

Oneida 

Ontario 

Othello (Arnold's No. 1) 

Perkins 


22 

9 

8 
14 

9 
10 

7 
14 
18 


Prentiss 

Pearl 

Rebecca 

Requa (Rog. 28) 


16 
19 
4 
16 
22 
25 
21 




18 


Roger No. 32 


16 



141 



CATALOGUE OF FRUITS. -GR APES. -Continued, 



Varieties. 



Roger No. 33 

Roger No. 11 

Salem (Rog. 22) 

Sanasqua 

Secretary 

Telegraph 

Transparent 

Triumph 

Taylor 

Ulster Prolific 

Union Village (See Ontario) 

Vergennes 

Victor (See Early Victor) . . . 

Walter 

Worden 

"White Ann Arbor 

Wilder (Rog. 4) 

Wyoming Red 

Woodruff Red 



Color. 



B 
B 
R 
B 
B 
B 
W 
W 
W 
R 



R 
B 
W 
B 
R 
R 



Season. 



M 
M 
M 
L 
M 
M 
L 
L 
L 
M 



M 
E 
E 
M 
E 
M 



Quality 
for table. 



Ship'g 
value. 



10 



Market 
value. 



Total. 



18 

22 

24 

15 

10 

11 

6 

7 

7 

11 



21 



20 
21 
12 
25 

18 
15 



PEARS. 



Varieties. 



Ananas d'Ete" 

Bartlett 

Beurre Giff ard 

Brandywine 

Clapp's Favorite 

Dearborn 

Doyenne d'Ete 

Kirkland 

Manning's Elizabeth. 
Osband's Summer . . . 
Petite Marguerite. . . . 
Souvenir des Congres 
Tyson 



Summer. 



Autumn. 



Belle Lucrative . 

Beurre Bosc 

Beurre Hardy . . . 
Beurre Superfine. 
Buffam 



Doyenne Bonssock 

Doyenne Grey 

Doyenne White 

Duchess d'Angouleme. 

Flemish Beauty 

Frederick Clapp 

Howell 

Kieffer 

Louise Bonne 

Seckel ...... 



Sheldon 

Swan's Orange 

Triumphe de Vienne . 
Doyenne de Cornice . 



Dessert. 



Home 
market. 



Total. 



12 
18 
15 
17 
15 
10 
12 
12 
13 
14 
14 
11 
IS 



10 
8 
11 
10 
18 
10 
10 
14 



142 



CATALOGUE OF FRUITS.— PEARS. -Continued. 



Varieties. 



Winter. 



Anjou 

Beurre Gris d'Hiver . 

Clairgeau 

Dempsey 

Dana's Hovey 

Diel 

Olout Morceau 

Goodale 

Jones 

Josephine de Malines 

Lawrence 

Mount Vernon 

Reeder 

Vicar 

Winter Nelis 

Doyenne 

Prest Druard 



Dessert. 



Home 
market. 



Total. 



DISTRICT FRUIT LIST.— APPLES. 

Showing the varieties considered most desirable for planting in the various Agricultural Districts in 

Ontario. 



District No. 1. — Stormont, Dundas, Glengarry, Prescott and Cornwall. 

Summer. — Yellow Transparent, Duchess of Oldenburgh. 

Autumn. — Alexander, Fameuse, Gideon, St. Lawrence 

Winter. — LaRue, Pewaukee, Golden Russet, Ben Davis, Talman Sweet. 

District No. 2. — Lanark, Renfrew, City of Ottawa, Carleton and Russell, 
Summer. — Yellow Transparent, Duchess of Oldenburgh. 
Autumn. — Alexander, Montreal Peach, Wealthy and Haas. 
Winter. — Pewaukee, Golden Russet, Scott's Winter, Talman Sweet and Edgar's Eed Streak. 

District No. 3. — Frontenac, City of Kingston, Leeds, Grenville and Brockville. * 

Summer. — Yellow Transparent, Duchess of Oldenburgh and Red Astrachan. 
Autumn. — Alexander, Wealthy and St. Lawrence. 
Winter. — Golden Russett, Pewaukee, LaRue, Ben Davis and Red Canada. 

District No. 4. — Hastings, Prince Edward, Lennox and Addington. 
Summer. — Yellow Transparent and Duchess of Oldenburgh. 
A utumn.— Alexander, Trenton, Gravenstein and Wealthy. 
Winter. — Ontario, Hubbardson's Nonsuch, Pewaukee, Ben Davis and Cranberry Pippin. 

District No. 5. — Durham, Northumberland, Peterboro', Victoria and Haliburton. 
Summer. — Yellow Transparent and Duchess of Oldenburgh. 
Autumn. — Alexander, Colvert, St. Lawrence and Gravenstein. 
Winter. — Ontario, Hubbardson's Nonsuch, Pewaukee, Ben Davis and Blenheim Pippin. 

District No. 6. — York, Ontario, Peel, Card well and City of Toronto 
Summer. — Yellow Transparent and Duchess of Oldenburgh. 
Autumn. — Alexander, Gravenstein. Red Beitigheimer and Wealthy. 
Winter. Golden Russet, Pewaukee, Ontario, Ben Davis and Hubbardson's Nonsuch. 



143 



District No. 7. — Wellington, Waterloo, Wentworth, Halton, Dufferin and City of Hamilton. 

Summer. — Yellow Transparent, Red Astrachan and Duchess of Oldenburgh. 

Autumn. — Gravenstein, Colvert and Wealthy. 

Winter. — Golden Russet, Ontario, Blenheim Pippin, Baldwin and Cranberry Pippin. 

District No. 8. — Lincoln, Welland, Haldimand and Monck. 

Summer. — Duchess of Oldenburgh and Hed Astrachan. 

Autumn. — Gravenstein, Ribston Pippin and Wealthy. 

Winter. — Blenheim Pippin, Ontario, Princess Louise, Golden Russet and Cranberry Pippin. 

District No. 9. — Elgin, Essex, Oxford and Norfolk. 

Summer. — Duchess of Oldenburgh and Red Astrachan. 

Autumn. — Gravenstein, Twenty Ounce and Fall Pippin. 

Winter. — B.enheim, Pippin, Ontario, Baldwin, R. I. Greening and Golden Russet. 

District No. 10. — Huron, Bruce and Grey. 

Summer. — Yellow Transparent and Duchess of Oldenburgh. 

Autumn. — Gravenstein, Wealthy and Colvert. 

Winter. — Pewaukee, Ontario, Baldwin, Hubbardston's Nonsuch and Cranberry Pippin. 

District No. 11. — Middlesex- Perth and City of London. 

Summer. — Duchess of Oldenburgh and Yellow Transparent. 
Autumn. — Gravenstein, Colvert, Alexander and Fali Pippin. 

Winter. — Golden Russet, Ribston Pippin, Ontario, Hubbardston's Nonsuch and Cranberry 
Pippin. 

" District No. 12. — Essex, Kent and Lambton. 

Summer. — Yellow Transparent and Duchess of Oldenburgh. 

Autumn. — Gravenstein, Chenango, Strawberry, Wealthy and Lowell. 

Winter. — Ontario, Blenheim Tippin, Baldwin, R. I. Greening and Golden Russet. 

District No. 13. — Algoma, Simcoe, Muskoka and Parry Sound. 

Summer. — Duchess of Oldenburgh and Yellow Transparent. 
Autumn. — Alexander, Colvert, Red Beitigheimer and St. Lawrence. 
Winter. — Pewaukee, Golden Russet, Scott's Winter, LaRue and Wealthy. 



DISTRICT FRUIT LIST.— GRAPES. 

District No. 1 : 

Blah. — Champion, Worden, Early Victor, Moore's Early. 
Red. — Delaware, Lindley Moyer, Wyoming Red. 
White. — Eldorado, Magara, Jessica, Vergennes. 

District No. 2 : 

Black. — Barry, Hog. 17, Herbert, Moore's Early, Worden. 
Red. — Delaware, Gartner, Norwood, Yergennes, Lindle^y. 
White. — Duchess Kensington, Moore's Diamond, Lady. 

District No. 3 : 

Black. — Champion, Moore's Early, Worden, Hartford. 

Red. — Lindley, Brighton, Delaware. 

White. — Moore's Diamond, Jessica, Eldorado. 

District No. 4 : 

Black.— Worden, Moore's Early, Early Victor. 
Red. — V> yoming Red, Delaware, Moyer. 
White. — Jessica, Moore's .Diamond, Niagara. 



144 



District No, 5 : 

Black. — Champion, Worden, Wilder. 

Red. — Brighton, Delaware, Salem, Lindley, Agawairu 

White. — Niagara. 

District No. 6 : 

Black. — Worden, Moore's Early, Champion. 

Red. — Brighton, Lindley, Delaware, Wyoming Red. 

White. — Jessica, Niagara. 

District No. 7 : 

Black. — Concord, Worden, Hog. 4 — 44, Moore's Early. 
Red. — Hog. 9 — 15, Vergennes, Delaware, Brighton. 
White. — Niagara, Moore's Diamond. 

North Lake District : 

Black. — Champion, Worden, Rog. 4, Moore's Early. 

Red. — Wyoming Red, Salem, Rog. 9, Delaware, Brighton. 

White. — Jessica, Lady, Niagara. 

District No. 8 : 

Black. — Concord, Worden, Rog. 44, Moore's Early. 
Red. — Rog. 9 — 15, Vergennes, Delaware, Brighton. 
White. — Niagara, Moore's Diamond, Focklington. 

District No. 9 : 

Black. — Worden, Concord, Rog. 4— 44, Moore's Early. 
Red. — Delaware, Lindley, Agawam, Brighton. 
WJiite. — Niagara, Pocklington. 

District No. 10 : 

Black. — Concord, Moore's Early, Worden. 
Red. — Brighton, Delaware, Lindley. 
White. — Niagara, Lady. 

Lake Shore Division : 

Black. — Concord, Worden, Moore's Early, Barry. 
Red, — Agawam, Brighton, Lindley. 
White. — Niagara, Lady. 

District No. 11 : 

Black. — Concord, Worden, Rog. 19, Rog. 4. 
Red. — Rog. 9 — 15, Brighton, Delaware. 
White. — Niagara, Moore's Diamond, Jessica. 

District No. 12 : 

Black. — Concord, Worden, Moore's Early, Hartford. 
Red. — Delaware, Walter, Rog. 15—22, Brighton. 
White. — Niagara, Prentiss, Lady. 

District No. 13 : • 

Black. — Worden, Moore's Early, Champion. 
Red. — Delaware, Lindley, Wyoming Red. 
White. — Jessica, Moore's Diamond, Lady. 

In compiling the foregoing Grape Lists we have consulted the Directors, as well as the lead- 
ing fruit growers throughout the several Districts. We have also tried to frame the lists so as 
to advise the planting of such varieties as bear the highest general points for each District for 
hardiness, productiveness, etc., shipping quality of fruit, and commercial values. 

G. W. Cline, Chairman of Committee. 



TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



ONTARIO 



1892- 



P RINT ED BY ORDER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 




TORONTO: 
PRINTED BYjWARWIOK & SONS, 68 & 70 FRONT STREET JWEST. 

1893. 



I3STID EX 



Page. 

Agricultural Entomology, Text-book of 83 

Agrotis herilis 8 

" jaculifera 8 

1 ' tricosa 8 

" ypsilon 8 

Amblycorypha oblongifolia 68 

" rotundifolia 68 

" scudderoe 68 

Amblyscirtes samoset 31 

Anaxypha exigua 67 

Anisopteryx vernata 7 

Annual Address of President 7 

" Meeting, Association of Economic 

Entomologists 39 

Annual Meeting Entomological Society of 

Ontario 3 

Anthomyia brassicae 9 

Apple, Insects affecting the 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 

Arcyptera gracilis 76 

Argynnis Atlantis 32 

Freya 30 

1 ' Montinus 32 

Arphia sulphurea 76 

Arsenites in the orchard 82 

Aspidisea splendoriferella 47 

Bean weevil 39 

Bermuda, Insects of 21 

Bethune. Rev. C. J. S , Articles by . .5, 7, 83, 86, 87 

Book notices 83 

Bootettix argentatus 76 

Botanical Section, Report of 16 

Bucculatrix pomifoliella 48 

Butterflies, Manual of North American 87 

of Compton, P.Q 28 

" of the Province of Quebec 29 

Cabbage butterfly 8 

" root maggot 9 

Cacaecia cerasivorana 45 

" rosaceana 45 

Canadian Naturalist, The 22 

Canarsia Hammondi 45 

Canker worni3 7 

Carpocapsa pomonella 43 

Carterocephalus Mandan 20, 31 

Caulfield, F. B., Death of 13 

Chimarocephala viiidi fasciata 76 

Chionobas jutta 30, 31 

' ' semidea 32 

Chloealtis conspersa 75 

Chrysophanus epixanthe 31 

Circotettix carlingianus 78 

lapidicolus 78 

" maculatus 78 

" verruculatus 78 

Clothes moths 53 

Clo er hay moth 44 



Page. 

Clover root-borer . . 11 

Coleophora malivorella 47 

Colias interior 20, 29, 33 

Conocephalus ensiger 72 

" exiliscanorus 73 

" nebrascensis 72 

" robustus 72 

Council, Report of 14 

Cowdry , Dr. , Death of 7 

Crickets, Songs of „.■ 62 

Cut-worms 8 

Cyrtophyllus concavus 70 

Darapsa myron 10, 13 

Debis Portlandia . 30 

Diagrams of insects 87 

Dictyophorus reticulatus 75 

Dissosteira Carolina 77 

Doran, E. W., Article by 61 

Drasteria erechtea 39' 

Dried-fruit moth 45 

Economic Entomologists, Association of . . . 39 

Eh ction of Officers J 5, 20, 42 

Electricity vs. Caterpillars 81 

Encoptolophus sordidus 76 

Entomological Club, A. A. A. S 43 

Epilachna borealis 79 

Eudemis botrana 46 

Eye-spotted bud-moth 7 

Fall web- worm 9 } 58 

Fletcher, J., Articles by 49, 53, 59 

Forest and Shade Trees, Insects Injurious to 86 

Fyles, Rev. T. W., Articles by 22, 29 

Gelechia pinifoliella 43 

Geological Section, Report of 17 

Gomphocerus, Song of 76. 

Gooseberry fruit-worm 44 

Gosse, the late P. H., Visit to Canadian 

Haunts of 22 

Grain pests, Remedy for 80 

Grape-berry moth 46 

• ' vine flea-beetle 10 

11 sphinx 10, 13 

Grapta gracilis 30, 32 

Graptodera chaly bea ] 

Grasshoppers, Damage from H 

1 ' Songs of 62 

Gryllus neglectus 64 

Gryllotalpa borealis % 61, 63 

Gypsy-moth, Report on the 86. 

Hadena devastator 8 

" sputatrix 8 

Haematobia serrata 12, 42, 49 

Harrington, W. H., Article by 88 

Hopper-dozer, Description of 11 

Horn fly 12, 42, 49, 53 

Howard, L. O., Article ry 40, 



IV. 



Page. 

Hylesinus trifolii 11 

Hy phantria textor 9, 58 

Insecticides and fungicides , . 82 

Insects, Notes on Killing, Preserving and 

Relaxing 59 

Katydids, Song of 68 

Lactista gibbosus 77 

Leaf -hoppers 11 

" rollers 45 

Librarian, Report of 4 

Liparocephalus brevipennis 21 

Lycsena Couperi 31 

Lyman, H. H., Article by 32 

Mamestra picta 8, 13 

Maynard's North American Butterflies 87 

Melanoplus femur-rubrum 11, 75 

Meromyza Americana 11 

Microcentrum laurifolium 70 

" retinervis 69, 70 

Micro-lepidoptera, Some injurious 43 

Microscopical Section, Report of 17 

Mineola indiginella 44 

Moffatt, J. A., Articles by 35, 43 

Mole cricket 61, 63 

Montreal Branch, Report of 19 

Mosquitoes, Experiment against 40 

Moths of Compton, P.Q 28 

Mud-daubers 4 

Murtfeldt, Miss, Article by 58 

Nemobius f asciatus 65 

' ' vittatus 64 

Nepigon, Insects collected at 20 

Obituary 88 

Ocneria dispar 86 

(Ecauthus augustipennis 67 

" fasciatus 66 

" latipennis 67 

" niveus 65 

Onion-fly 14 

Orchelimum nigripes 73 

" sylvaticum 73 

' ' volantum 73 

vulgare 73 

Ormerod, Miss'E. A., Text-book of Agricul- 
tural Entomology 83 

Ormerod, Miss G. E., Diagrams of Insects. 87 

Ornithological Section, Report of 18 

Orocharis saltatrix 67 

Packard's Forest-tree insects 86 

Pamphila egeremet 31 

" Manitoba 31 

" Metacomet * 31 

Pear-leaf blister 9 

" tree blister-mite 9,40 

" " Psylla 40 

Pelopams cementarius 4 

' ' cceruleus 4 

Phoxopteris comptana 47 

" nubeculana 46 

Phytoptus pyri 9, 40 



Page. 

Pieris rapae 8 

Pine-trees, Insects affecting 45, 48 

Plochionus timidus 58 

Plodia interpunctella 45 

Plum curculio, Exploded Remedy for 80 

Power of Insects to resist action of frost .... 35 

Provancher, Death of the Abbe 13, 88 

Psylla pyricola 40 

Pyralis costalis 44 

Report of Botanical Section 16 

" Council 14 

" Delegate to Royal Society 5 

' ' Geological Section 17 

" Librarian and Curator . . 4 

" Microscopical Section 17 

" Montreal Branch 19 

" Ornithological Section 18 

" Treasurer 3 

Retinia Comstockiana 

Riley's Directions for Collecting and Pre- 
serving Insects 13 

Scale, The Fluted 82 

Scudderia angustifolia 67 

" curvicauda 68 

" furcata 56 

Scudder, S. H., Articles by 62, 78 

Silver-top 10 

Songs of our Grasshoppers and Crickets . . 

Spharagemon aequale 77 

Bolli 77 

Squash-vines, An insect destructive to ... . 78 

Stenobothrus curtipennis 76 

Strawberry leaf-roller 47 

Thecla laeta 31 

" Titus 31 

Tinea pellionella 55 

" tapetzella 54 

Tineola biselliella 54 

Tmetocera ocellana 7 

Toads, Usefulness of 83 

Treasurer, Report of 3 

Trimerotropis citrina 77 

" Columbia 77 

" perplexa 77 

" vinculata 77 

Trip to Mount Washington 32 

Tropidolophus formosus 76 

Vedalia cardinalis 82 

" Success of, in Egypt n 80 

Virginia-creeper sphinx caterpillar 10 

Warble-fly of ox 84 

Web-worm tiger 58 

Wheat midge 83 

" stem maggot 11 

Wire-worms, Remedies for 81 

Xiphidium fasciatum 

nemorale 75 

Zaraea Americana 4 

Zebra caterpillar 8, 13 

Zophodia grossularite . 44 



TWENTY-THIED ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO 



To the Honorable the Minister of Agriculture ; 

Sir, — I have the honor to present herewith the annual report of our Society for its 
twenty-third year under the auspices of the department of Agriculture of Ontario. 

The report contains an account of the proceedings at our annual meeting, which was 
held in London on the 31st of August and the 1st of September, 1892 — including the 
election of officers for the ensuing year, the reports of the Council, the Treasurer, the 
Librarian and Curator, the Montreal branch and the various Sections of the Society, the 
President's aonual address aiad the various papers read at the meeting. 

The President's address will be found to contain references to all the principal insect 
attacks of the year. Most of these were, happily, not very formidable, but we regard 
the arrival from the United States of the Horn-fly pest, during the past season, as a very 
serious matter. In addition, therefore, to the President's remarks upon it, an illustrated 
account of its life-history and the best methods of dealing with it has been specially pre- 
pared for the report by Mr. Fletcher. Other papers of a practical and more or less 
popular character are also presented herewith, and will, it is trusted, be found interesting 
and useful to the general reader. 

Our monthly magazine, the Canadian Entomologist, has been regularly issued during 
the past year, and has now almost completed its twenty-fourth volume, A larger number 
of writers than ever before have contributed to its pages, and its high scientific character 
has been ably maintained. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. E. SAUNDERS, 

Secretary. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY. 



The thirtieth annual meeting of the Entomological Society of Ontario was held in its 
rooms in Victoria Hall, London, on Wednesday, August 31st, and Thursday, September 
1st, 1892, the President, Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Port Hope, occupying the chair. 

A Council meeting was held on Wednesday morning at 10 o'clock, at which their 
annual report was drawn up, and various matters of business pertaining to the society 
were transacted. 

At 3 p.m. a general meeting of the Society was held. Letters of regret for their in- 
ability to attend were read from Messrs. H. H. Lyman, Montreal ; A. H. Kilman, 
Ridgeway ; J. D. Evans, Sudbury ; Gamble Greddes, Toronto. A letter was read by Mr. 
Moffat from Mr. F. G. Buckell. of London, England, upon the expansion of the wings of 
Lepidoptera with reference to Mr. Moffat's paper upon this subject in the annual report 
for 1891, p. 32. A letter was also submitted by Mr. Harrington from the Rev. G. W. 
Taylor, of Victoria, Vancouver Island, stating that Aphides of all kinds had been 
♦extremely abundant during the present season, but that they had been very much 
parasitized by Hymenoptera. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 



The Treasurer, Mr. J . M. Denton, presented his annual statement of the finances of 
the Society and explained the various items of receipts and expenditure. He stated that 
the balance on hand, 1319.13, was somewhat larger than # usual, but it would all be 
required to meet the expenses of the remaining four months of the year, during which 
there was very little income to be expected. 






RECEIPTS, 1891-92. 

Balance from last year $ 239 93 

Membership fees 335 22 

Sales of Canadian Entomologist 99 44 

Pins, Cork, etc 47 18 

Government grant 1,000 00 

Interest on current account 3 55 



$1,725 32 



Audited and found correct, 

London, Ontario, 
August 30th, 1892. 



(Signed.) 



EXPENDITURE, 1891-92. 

Printing Canadian Entomologist, etc $ 509 77 

Report and meeting expenses 226 12 

Library 44 25 

Purchase of collection 50 00 

Expense account (postage, stationery, etc. ) 107 54 

Rent and fuel 116 00 

Insurance 35 00 

Pins, cork, etc 17 51 

Salaries of officers 300 00 

Balance 319 13 



$1,725 32 



W. E. Saunders 
Jas. H. Bowman 



v, 



Auditors. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN AND CURATOR. 

Mr. J. A. Moffat presented and read his report as follows : 

The number of volumes added to the library during the year is 46, made up thus : Periodicals and 
reports of Societies received in exchange, which have been bound since last report, 37. Bound volumee 
which have been received as gifts from various public institutions, 8. By purchase, 1. The whole number 
on the register is now 1,214. 

The number of volumes issued to local members during the year was 55. 

The Society's collection of native Lepidoptera has received several valuable additions by gift, exchange 
and capture. This department now numbers 935 species and varieties, mostly taken in Ontario. 

The Toronto list of 1883 contained 930 names, many of which were not then, and some of them not 
yet represented in the Society's drawers. Six or seven years ago when I first turned my attention to the 
micros there were not a hundred names of these in all our lists, now there are representatives of two 
hundred and twenty-four species in the Society's drawers, and a quautity of unnamed material on hand 
besides. It is quite evident that our field in Ontario is not half worked, whilst some of those that are 
engaged in it fail to make their success known. 

The arrangement of the European beetles has been completed, and they occupy fourteen drawers,, 
numbering 952 species. There is a large number of duplicates for disposal ; some of them are very attractive 
specimens. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed.) J. Alston Moffat, 

Librarian and Curator. 



REPORT FROM THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO TO THE 
ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

By the Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, D.C.L., Delegate. 

On behalf of the Entomological Society of* Ontario I have the honor to report that 
it continues to prosper and to perform much useful work. During the past year the 
ordinary membership was well maintained, while the number of associate members (who 
are not resident in Canada) was largely increased. 

The Canadian Entomologist, the monthly publication of the Society, continues to 
attract contributions from all the leading Entomologists of North America, and to main- 
tain its well established reputation. The 23rd volume was completed in December last, 
and consisted of 292 pages, instead of the usual 240. Its contributors numbered fifty- 
one, of whom fourteen were residents of Canada * thirty-five, of the United States ; one, 
of England ; and one, of Germany. No less than sixty-one new species of insects were 
described in its pages, and the life histories of twenty-one species were recounted. Among 
the more important papers, besides those of a descriptive character, may be mentioned, 
" Notes on Canadian Rhyncophora," by W. H. Harrington ; " The Position of Liraenitis 
Proserpina," by W. H. Edwards ; "Notes on Coleoptera," by Dr. J. Hamilton ; "Silver- 
top in Grass and the Insects which may produce it," by H. Osborn ; " Some Indiana 
Acrididse," by W. S. Blatchley ; " North American Ohernetidse," and " The Dysderidse of 
the United States," by Nathan Banks ; " Some Destructive Locusts of North America," 
by Lawrence Bruner ; " A Catalogue of the Thysanoura of North America," by A. D. 
Macgillivray ; and the official report of the meeting in Washington of the Entomologi- 
cal Club of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Five numbers of the 24th volume have been issued during the current year, each of 
them with an increased number of pages ; fifty-nine new species of insects have already 
been described, and several papers of more than ordinary value and interest have been 
published. 



In addition to the monthly magazine, the Society presents an annual report to the 
Legislature of Ontario. The 22nd was published by the Department of Agriculture in 
January last. This report for 1891 contains an account of the proceedings at the annual 
meeting of the Society, the President's annual address and the reports of the officers, the 
Montreal Branch and the Sections, and the papers read on the occasion. 

The President in his address drew the attention of the Society to the most serious 
insect attacks of the year, and gave an account of the ravages of " the Eye spotted bud 
10th" (Tmelocera ocellana), "the Lesser Apple- Leaf Folder" (leras minuia), "the 
Oblique-banded Leaf-roller" (Caceesia rosaceana), " the Canker-worms " (Anisopteryx 
vernata and pometaria), " Cut- worms," the " Pea-weevil " {Bruchus pisi), " the turnip flea- 
beetle," "the Striped Cucumber Beetle" {Diabrotica vittata), and other more or less 
injurious insects. Among the papers published in the annual report may be mentioned 
the following : " Can Insects Survive Freezing 1 " and " Pamphila Manitoba and its 
Varieties," by Mr. H. H. Lyman; " Nematus Erichsonii," the Larch Saw-fly, whose de- 
structive ravages among the tamarac swamps of the Province of Quebec are fully related 
by the Rev. T. W. Fyles ; " a Microscopical Examination of an Unexpanded Wing of 
Callosamia promethea" by Mr. J. A. Moffatt ; "an Account of some of the Collections of 
Insects in England and Germany," by Cnpt. Gamble Geddes ; "the Northern Mole 
Cricket," by Mr. J. Fletcher ; "Notes on Japanese Insects," by Mr. W. H. Harrington ; 
" The Moose Fly," by Prof. W. A. Snow. 

The various Sections of the Society, which were organized about two years ago, report 
very satisfactory progress. The Ornithological Section state that their " membership 
while not large is enthusiastic ; " they have prepared a list, which is published in the 
annual report, of 97 birds known to breed in the county of Middlesex, Ontario, and of 20 
other species observed in the same neighborhood and which will probably be found breed- 
ing there. The species are distinguished into those which are decidedly beneficial on 
account of their feeding habits, those which are neutral, and those which are open to 
doubt as being possibly injurious. 

The Microscopical Section have held numerous regular meetings and several popular 
exhibitions ; the subjects to which their attention was chiefly devoted were the manipu- 
lation of the microscope and the preparation of objects, and the examination of algce, fungi, 
including the destructive Black-knot on fruit trees, ferns, etc. 

The Botanical Section held weekly meetings throughout the greater part of the year, 
and have begun the formation of a collection of native plants, which is deposited in the 
rooms of the Society ; a floral calendar has been kept ; two mosses new to Canada have 
been discovered, and seventy species of fungi have been added to the North American 
list. 

The members of the Geological Section have held evening meetings every week, at 
which they applied themselves to the serious and methodical study of the science, and 
when the season admitted, frequent field-excursions were made for practical work, During 
these they covered a large area of country and gathered many rare and valuable speci- 
mens of fossils. 

The formation of these Sections of the Entomological Society for th e encouragement 
of work in other departments of science, has thus been amply justified. The results have 
been most satisfactory, and the cheerful assistance given by the members of one section 
to those of another has been most useful. While occupying widely different fields of 
study they are constantly brought into contact with one another and find the benefit of 
co-operation as members of one Society, as well as the advantage to be derived from its 
library and rooms, and complete organization. The result is to make London, the head- 
quarters of the Society, a centre of scientific work for the peninsula of Ontario, and to 
attract its residents, especially the young, into the delight giving paths of Natural 
Science. 

The annual report of the Society contains also a full record of the very important 
meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists held in Washington in August last 
under the presidency of our colleague, Mr. James Fletcher, of Ottawa. This Society was 



first organized in Toronto in 1889, and has already become a very influential body, 
including amongst its members all the leading scientists in North America who are 
engaged in the study of practical Entomology. Its proceedings are accordingly of great 
scientific value as well as of immense practical value to farmers, gardeners and fruit- 
growers everywhere. The President, in his opening address, drew special attention to 
the want of reliable statistics concerning the ravages of destructive insects and the conse- 
quent financial loss to the community ; a committee was accordingly appointed to prepare 
a report upon the subject. During the meeting, which occupied two days, a large number 
of papers on injurious insects were read and discussed, and much useful information was 
thus brought forward and made public. 

While technical investigations in Entomology are by no means neglected, it is evident 
that our Society is becoming increasingly devoted to practical work, and is thus confer- 
ring very great benefits upon the agricultural interests of the country. Every fruit- 
grower and gardener is obliged to wage unceasing war against the infinite variety of 
injurious insects, and he can only do so with any hope of success when he has been taught 
by experienced scientists what methods to adopt and what means to employ. The publi- 
cations of the Society from'year to year set forth the best methods, and furnish instruction 
as to the best means for carrying on this warfare. The good work thus done will, we 
trust, be continued with unflagging zeal in the future. 



The President gave an account of the meetings held at Rochester, N. Y., during the 
third week of August, of the Association of Economic Entomologists of North America 
and the Entomological Club of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
which he and Mr. Fletcher had attended as representatives of the Society. 

The Rev. T. W. Fyles read a paper on Zarcea Americana which he found feeding on 
the Buck Bean, Menyanthes tri/oliata. He also read an interesting account of some of the 
rarer butterflies found in the Province of Quebec. Mr. Fletcher remarked upon the 
paper and gave some further information regarding the life-history of some of the species 
referred to. 

Mr. Fletcher then gave an account of a parasite of the Currant-worm. This, he 
described, as an exceedingly small insect which lives inside the egg of the Siw-fiV, from 
which the Currant-worms hatch. He also mentioned that two species of Mud daubers 
(Pelopoeus cementarius and cceruleus) had been bred by him from the same mud nest. 

The Rev. T. W. Fyles gave a most interesting account of a visit which he had paid 
to the home of the late Philip H. Gosse, author of the " Canadian Naturalist," who re- 
sided many years ago near Compton, in the Eastern Townships, P.Q. 

The meeting adjourned at 5.45 p.m. 



EVENING SESSION. 

In the evening the Society held a public meeting in its rooms in Victoria Hall which 
was largely attended by members and other friends from London and the neighborhood, 
amongst whom the following were noticed: Mr. W. H. Harrington (Vice-President) 
and Mr. James Fletcher, of Ottawa ; Rev. T. W. Fyles, South Quebec ; Messrs. J. M. 
Denton, W. E. Saunders, J. Alston Moffat, J. A. Balkwill, R. W. Rennie, F. \V. Hod- 
son, John Weld, W. Stevenson, H. Stevenson, J. H. Bowman, J. Dearness, Dr. Gardiner, 
Rev. W. M. Rogers, Dr. Woolverton, C. B. Edwards, W. Foot, of London and others. 



THE PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

The Rev. Dr. Bethune, Warden of Trinity College School, Port Hope, President of the 
Society, took the chair at 8 o'clock, and proceeded to deliver his annual address, as follows : 

Gentlemen : The pleasant duty once more devolves upon me of welcoming you all 
to our annual meeting. It is with great gratification that I do so, inasmuch as all goes 
well with our Society, and the reports of the council and officers, and also of the sections, 
record a steady progress and a continued prosperity. It is now thirty years since Mr. 
Saunders and I issued a circular to the collectors of insects in Canada, who were at that 
time very few indeed in number, and by this means obtained the names and addresses of 
all who were interested in Entomology. After some correspondence had taken place, it 
was decided to call a meeting at Toronto for the purpose of forming a Canadian Entomo- 
logical Club. A meeting was accordingly held in the rooms of the Canadian Institute in 
Toronto, on the 16th day of April, 1863, at which nine gentlemen were present, and 
resolutions were drawn up for the formation of " The Entomological Society of Canada." 
It will interest you, no doubt, to hear the names of these pioneers of the science in this 
country. They were the Rev. Prof. Hincks and Prof. Croft, of the University of Toronto ; 
Mr. J. H. Sangster, Dr. Beverley R. Morris and James Hubbart, of Toronto ; Dr. Thos. 
Cowdry * and his son, Mr. H. Cowdry, of York Mills ; Mr. Saunders, of London, and 
myself. We had also letters of sympathy with the project from Mr. E. Billings, of the 
Geological Survey, Montreal ; Mr. R. V. Rogers, Kingston ; Mr. F, Reynolds, Hamilton ; 
Mr. B. Billings, Prescott ; Rev. V. Clementi, Peterborough ; and Mr. E. Baynes Reed, 
of London. These gentlemen all co-operated very heartily in the work of the Society 
and largely contributed to its success. From this beginning of fifteen members the 
Society has gone on, grown and prospered, and it has now become a large and influential 
body, with a well-established reputation and a recognized scientific status. It becomes 
us all then, and especially the younger members, to keep up the good work and to do all 
in our power, both individually and collectively, for the well-being and prosperity of our 
beloved Entomological Society of Ontario. There is an unlimited field for work in this 
country, both in practical and scientific entomology. The life-histories of countless insects 
remain to be investigated, large areas of our country have never been explored, and in 
some orders of insects almost nothing has been done. In some departmf nt or other, each of 
us may do some good work even though our opportunities may be few and our time limited. 
In accordance with our long established custom it now devolves 
g ^V^ ^ upon me to bring before you some account of the chief insect 
^kwftfS? attacks of the year in this province. Among those that I referred 
to last year, "the Eye-spotted bud-moth" (Tmetocera ocettana, Schiff) 
Fig. 1, continues to be very injurious to apple-trees in many parts of the 
country. Canker-worms have been very abundant and destructive in 
various places. (Fig. 2 repre- 
lg ' ' sents the male and wingless 

female of Anisopteryx Ver- 
nata.) At Ottawa, on the first of June, I ob- 
served them in vast numbers upon forest trees 
in the neighborhood of the city, and have since 
been informed that they stripped them of their 
foliage ; they especially attacked the elm, bass- 
wood and ash, but were rarely seen upon the Fig. 2. 
apple, which is the usual food of the insect. At 

Winnipeg also, as no steps were taken to check their ravages last year, they have con- 
tinued the work of destruction upon the shade trees of the city. It is much to be 
deplored that the municipal authorities have not taken the trouble to protect their trees 
and keep the insect within due bounds. 




We regret to have to record that Dr. Thomas Cowdry died on the 16th of October, 1892, at the resi- 
dence of his son, Mr. E. Cowdry, Simcoe, Ont., in the 80th year of his age. Dr. Cowdry had been in poor 
health for some time and resided of late years in Bermuda for the sake of the genial climate. He returned^ 
to Canada in the spring and died at a good old age, much beloved and respected by all who knew him. 




Fig. 



Cut worms have, upon the whole, been less abundant this year. Mr. Moffat tells 

me that they were very injurious in gardens about Lon- 
don this spring, but owing to the long continued wet 
weather most of them had failed to mature, and con- 
sequently there were very few of the moths to be seen. 
Early in the season they were reported to have been 
very abundant in Alberta, but I have heard no par- 
ticulars since. At Port Hope they were troublesome 
as usual when the young plants were first set out in the 
spring. Lately the moths of several species, especially 
Hadena devastator and sputatrix Agrotis jaculifera 
ypsilon (Fig. 3) herilis and tricosa, have been very 
abundant, and will probably produce a large crop of 
worms for next year. 

The Zebra caterpillar (Mamestra pieta, Harris) 
Fig. 4, has been unusally abundant this year. Its 
favourite food is cabbage, but I have found it injurious 

to salsify, beets, spinach, lettuce and other vegetables, and common also upon many 

weeds. The caterpillar (Fig. 4, a) is easily recognized, being more than ordinarily hand- 
some. When fully grown it is about two 

inches long, of a velvety black colour, with 

the head and legs red, and two bright 

yellow stripes along each side; between 

these stripes there are numerous cross 

bars of yellow, which are so striking that 

they have caused the worm to be known 

as the Zebra caterpillar. The moth (Fig. 

4 b.) does not compare with it in beauty, 

being dull and inconspicuous in colour ; its 

fore-wings are deep brown, shaded with 

purple and marked with paler spots in the 

middle ; the hind wings are white, faintly 

edged with brown on the outer margin. It 

is apparently double-brooded, as we have 

found the caterpillars in July and August 

and also in October. When young the cater- 
pillars are gregarious and feed all together 

on the underside of a leaf. In the case 

of the cabbage they thus make a con- 
spicuous white spot, and the whole brood can easily be picked off and crushed under foot, 

but when they are older they scatter over the leaves and are much more difficult to deal with. 
The Cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapes, Linn) Fig. 5 represents the male and Fig. 6 the 

female, has been remarkably abundant about Port Hope this year, and very common in 




Fig. 4. 





g.5. 



Fig. 6. 



the various parts of the province that I have chanced to visit. Its injuries must be very 
considerable, judging from what I have observed myself. The most satisfactory method 



of dealing with it is the application of Persian Insect Powder (Pyrethrum.) This may 
be used in its pure state or mixed with four times its weight of common flour. The 
powder should be puffed with a small bellows into the heads of the infested cabbages as 
soon as the caterpillars are observed, and at different times during the season. A few 
applications usually suffice to destroy the insect. 

Another serious enemy to the cabbage is the Root Maggot (Anthomyia brassicm 
Bouche) which is reported as being specially injurious this year in the neighbourhood of 
Ottawa. In 1885 Mr. Saunders stated that the cabbage crop had been materially in- 
jured by it, and in 1890 Mr. Fletcher gave an account of it in his annual report, and 
mentioned that " in most parts of Canada it was the insect which gave the greatest 
trouble to the cabbage grower." Like most of our pests it has been imported into this 
country from Europe, but has long been naturalized amongst us. The perfect insect is a 
small two-winged fly, of a grayish colour. It lays its eggs in the spring upon the young 
plants, depositing them beneath the surface of the ground as far down as it can reach its 
ovipositor, or creep in some convenient crevice. In a few days the young maggots hatch 
out, feeding at first upon the outside, and subsequently as they grow larger boring into 
the stem. When there are many about the same plant, as is commonly the case, only 
a few of them penetrate the root, while the remainder live in the soil upon the exuding 
juices of the injured plant. The effect of the attack is the death of the plant as soon as 
dry weather sets in. Mr. Fletcher has found that the maggots can be destroyed by the 
application of a decoction of white hellebore. He used two ounces to three gallons of 
water, and after drawing away some of the surface soil forced the liquid about the roots of 
the plant with a garden syringe and then replaced the soil. The results of this treatment 
have, so far, been very satisfactory. Nitrate of soda as a surface dressing and watering 
with lime water have also been recommended as effective remedies. 

The Pear- leaf blister (Phytoptus pyri, Sheuten) has been spreading over Ontario and 
the Maritime Provinces during the present season. It is a tiny mite which forms a gall 
on the leaf, and from the parent gall the young mites spread and form new ones, which 
soon give a blistered appearance to the leaf. In the autumn they remove to the leaf 
buds at the ends of the twigs and pass the winter beneath the leafy scales. Spraying with 
kerosene emulsion in the spring when the buds first open is recommended as a remedy, 
feat nothing has as yet been found to exterminate the creature. It should be watched 
by our fruit growers and experiments made for its destruction. 

The Fall Web-worm (Hyphantria textor, Harris) Fig. 7, to which I find it necessary 

to make an annual allusion, is this year more 
abundant and wide-spread than ever. Though 
so conspicuous and so easily dealt with, I find 



\ / that few people will take the trouble to destroy 

< -~ P it, and consequently it is rapidly becoming a 

'^ most serious pest. It attacks deciduous trees 

c of every description and also shrubs and herba- 

ih ceous plants. It is especially injurious to 

nhntimj \Ijum////s Wm young trees, which it soon strips of every 

Hi; {Wy x~l vestige of foliage. Several young elm trees 

W planted along the streets of Port Hope were 

3p|; w v rendered quite bare a few weeks ago by this 

caterpillar, whose work was done in a few days 
Fig. 7. and thus escaped notice at first. These trees 

have put out a fresh crop of leaves, but I fear 
that they will be seriously exhausted of their strength, if not finally killed. Mr. Fletcher 
drew attention recently in the Ottawa Field Naturalist to the ravages of this insect, with 
very good results, as many people were led by his remarks to destroy the webs and their 
inmates wherever they found them. It is to be hoped that all the members of this Society 
will use their influence in the same way in any part of the country where they may be. 




10 



Among insects noticeable for their abundance this year, though not especially 
injurious. I may mention the Green grape-vine Sphinx (Darapta myron, Cramer) 




Fig. 




which is very numerous on the foliage of 
the "Virginia creeper. Fig. 8 represents 
the i^oth and Fig. 9 the caterpillar. 
Many of the caterpillars, however, are 
attacked by its well known parasite, Fig. 10, and it is not 
likely that the insect will gain too much headway. tJt^^CL KW^SflB} s?' 

Another grape insect is much more injurious both to the 
vine and the Virginia creeper. I refer to the grape vine Flea- 
beetle (Graptodera chaJybea y TUig) which is a serious pest in 
many parts of the country. This insect passes the winter in Fig. 10. 

the perfect state, and in the spring the beetle attacks the buds 

of the vine as soon as they begin to swell, thus destroying the future foliage and fruit in 
their embryo condition. It is a small, polished steel-blue beetle, varying in colour to- 
green and purple, about three-twentieths of an inch in 
length, dark green beneath, with brownish-black antennae and 
feet. It is called a " flea-beetle " from its immensely developed 
thighs (Fig. 11) which enable it to jump long distances in 
the same manner as the familiar insect from which it takes 
its name. After a few weeks the first crop of beetles dis- 
appears, and is soon followed by colonies of little worms (Fig. 
12, much magnified) dark-brown or blackish in colour, which 
speedily make their presence known by riddling the leaves 
with small holes. (Fig. 13.) These attain their full growth 
in July, descend to the earth to assume the pupa state, and 
after a week or two come out as perfect beetles. They do the 
greatest amount of injury in early spring, but in the summer 
also they are frequently very injurious by entirely stripping 
I am informed by the Rev. W. J. Mackenzie that the vines in 
the neighbourhood of Milton have been so seriously injured by this insect, especially in 
the spring, that they have produced very little fruit during the last three years. The 
most effective remedies, so far as known, are, first, to remove and burn all fallen leaves 
and other rubbish about the vines in the autumn, and secondly, to syringe the canes and 
young foliage with a weak mixture of Paris green and water in early spring. Strong 
soap suds or powdered hellebore might be employed against the larvae in the summer 
time, when the use of Paris green would be dangerous. 

Turning from the garden to the field, I find that " Silver-top " is still very common 
in meadows. At the recent meeting of Economic Entomologists in Rochester, N. Y., 
Mr. H. Osborn, of the Iowa Experiment Stations, gave an account of his method of dealing 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 11. 



the vine of its foliage. 



11 



with this injury. It is mainly caused by small leaf-hoppers (Jassidce). These are 
collected and destroyed by the use of a " hopper-dozer." This is a thin sheet-iron pan, 
about three feet in width, and of any length that may be found convenient ; the back 
and sides of the pan are turned up about five or six inches, and the front is bent over 
about half an inch in order to form a smooth edge ; the pan is mounted upon low wooden 
runners, about two inches in height, and is drawn by means of a rope attached to either 
end. When ready for use the pan is smeared over with coal-tar to the depth of quarter 
of an inch or more, and is then dragged over the infested fields. The front of the pan, 
as it strikes the grass, causes the hoppers to spring into the air when most of them alight 
on the pan and are caught in the tar. A large area can be gone over very quickly and 
myriads of the insects thus destroyed. A field treated in this way before the grass has 




Fig. 13. 

become too long, and again when it has begun to grow after cutting, will be easily kept 
cWr of this pest. Mr. Osborn found it advantageous to keep the infested meadow 
closely cropped by enclosing a larger number of cows upon it than usual. This simple 
machine — " the hopper-dozer" — can also be used with great advantage for the destruction 
of grass-hoppers or locusts. 

The Clover-root borer, (Hylesinus trifolii, Miiller) is reported by Mr. Kilman to be 
troublesome in the neighbourhood of Ridgeway, Ont. He says that " it literally honey- 
combs the clover roots in all fields here during the second season of the plant's growth, 
and the weakened plant rarely survives the winter following. The farmers then say that 
their clover is 'winter-killed.'" Mr. Fletcher in his last year's report (1891) drew 
attention to the occurrence of this insect in Canada, and recommended as a remedy the 
plowing under of the clover when it is found to be infested. 

The Common red-legged Grass-hopper (Melanoplus femur-rubrum, Burm), is very 
abundant just now in many parts of the Province and is doing a considerable amount of 
damage. It is especially injurious to oats, as it has a habit of climbing up the stalk and 
biting off the ear. 1 have been informed that a field of ten acres in the neighbourhood 
of Port Hope was severely damaged in this way. It would be quite worth the farmers' 
while to use "hopper-dozers" for these insects, as already described. By making the 
coating of tar about half an inch thick it would securely hold the grass-hoppers. 

The Wheat-stem maggot (Meromyza Americana, Fitch), which is also known as " the 
Wheat bulb worm " when it infests the roots of the plant, has been reported as injurious 
in some localities. Early in the spring the pupae of this insect are found in the roots of 
wheat and grasses ; these are the pupae of the last brood of the previous year and have 
passed the winter in this state. The flies emerge from these at the end of May and pro- 
ceed to lay their eggs on the leaves of many kinds of grass, and also upon the leaves of 
the forming stems of wheat, which has been sown in May and is well up by the first of 
June. These eggs produce a small glassy green maggot which eats into the base of the 
top joint of wheat, barley and grasses, and causes the ear to turn prematurely white 
before the rest of the crop is ripe. This is the " silver-top" of wheat and barley which 



12 



is frequently to be seen about the first of July. From these maggots there comes a 
second brood of the flies in August which deposit their eggs on grasses and on any 
volunteer wheat that there may be, and finally a third brood is matured in September in 
time to attack the fall wheat before the cold weather sets in. The remedies which Mr. 
Fletcher proposes (Bulletin No. 11) are "(1) late sowing of winter wheat ; (2) harrowing 
of stubble soon after the crop is carried, so as to start the volunteer crop quickly, this 
latter to be plowed in early in September ; (3) the application of a special fertilizer as 
a top dressing when winter wheat is known to be affected, this will help the injured 
plants to overcome the injury." 

The last insect attack to which I desire to draw your attention is, perhaps, the most 
formidable of all. I refer to the recent occurrence of the " Horn-fly " (Hcematobia serrata, 
Rob.) in various parts of this Province. At the beginning of August it was first reported 
to Mr. Fletcher as attacking cattle at Oshawa, and soon after its appearance was 
announced at Toronto and London ; during the last few days I have been informed of 
its presence at Bowmanville, Port Hope, Kingston, Ottawa and at Boucherville near 
Montreal. • It has, no doubt, come to us from the neighbouring States where it has pre- 
vailed for some time. The insect is of European origin and has evidently been brought 
into the United States with imported cattle. It was first observed in New Jersey in 
1887, and has now spread over the Atlantic States to Florida, as far west as Indiana and 
northward to Canada. The adult is a small gray fly, closely resembling the common 
house-fly in appearance, but a little smaller. It derives its name of Horn-fly from its 
singular habit of clustering, when at rest, upon the base of the horns of cows ; it is by 
no means confined to this situation, however, but swarms upon the back between the 
head and foreshoulders. and on any parts which cannot be reached by the tongue or tail 
of the animal. When feeding it ranges over the back, flanks and legs. The injury done 
by this fly is by biting with its mouth-organs the skin of the animal and sucking its 
blood ; as it occurs in great swarms, it seriously irritates the cattle and causes them, by 
loss of blood, to fall off in condition and diminish the yield of milk. The eggs are laid 
on the fresh droppings of the cattle and the insect passes its maggot stage in these ; it 
subsequently goes down to the earth to form its pupa from vhich the winged fly in due 
time emerges. Dr. Piley and his assistants at Washington have carefully studied the 
life history of the insect, and state that " from ten to seventeen days, say two weeks, is 
about the average time from the laying of the egg to the appearance of the flies, and with 
four active breeding months, from May 15th to September 15th, there will be eight 
generations." We cannot then wonder at the sudden and enormous multiplication of the 
insect. The remedies that have been found most effective are the smearing of the horns 
and all the affected parts of the animal with any greasy substance to which a little carbolic 
acid has been added for the sake of its healing effect ; train oil has been found especially 
useful as it keeps the flies away for five or six days after an application ; common axle- 
grease and tallow have also been employed with good effect. In order to destroy the 
broods of the insect, the best plan is to throw a spadeful of lime over the fresh droppings, 
or if the weather is dry and sunny, to rake the fresh cowdung over the surface of the 
ground so that it may at once dry up and prevent the maggots from maturing ; boys 
could easily perform this work, as there is always some place in the pasture field where 
the cattle gather during the heat of the day and where the dung can therefore be dealt 
with without much trouble. These methods should be especially employed in the early 
part of the year, wherever the insect is noticed, in order to prevent, or at any rate reduce, 
the subsequent bioods. 

Before leaving the subject of practical entomology I may allude for a moment to the 
splendid work that is being done all over North America by the Division of Entomology 
at Washington and the official entomologists at the various State experimental stations. 
The publication of Insect Life and the many bulletins that are issued both by the Federal 
and the State officials contain a vast fund of most useful and valuable information, the 
rcsuts of careful experiments in the field and the laboratory, and painstaking and 
conscientious studies of the life histories of insects. Similar good work is also being 
accomplished in this country by Mr. James Fletcher, the Dominion Entomologist at the 



13 



Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa. He and I had the pleasure recently of attending 
the meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists of North America, which was 
held at Rochester, N. Y. } on the 15th and 16th of August, and of meeting there a large 
number of the most eminent workers in this branch of science. In England Miss 
Ormerod has continued her useful work and published last winter her fifteenth " Report 
of Observations on Injurious Insects and Common Farm Pests," in which she gave a 
special account of the outbreak of caterpillars of the Diamond-back Moth (Plutella 
cruciferarum,) Zeller) over large areas in Great Britain, and devoted a chapter to the use 
of Paris Green as an insecticide. It is satisfactory to learn that this useful agent is 
gradually coming into use in England and that the prejudices against its employment are 
being removed. In India the Trustees of the Indian Museum at Calcutta are issuing a 
serial publication on Economical Entomology, entitled Indian Museum Notes, which is 
now in its second volume ; many of the parts are beautifully illustrated, among which we 
may specially mention an account of "The Wild Silk Insects of India," by Mr. Cotes, 
with fourteen very handsome plates. 

One of the most useful publications of the year is undoubtedly a work by Dr. C. V. 
Riley, " Directions for Collecting and Preserving Insects," published by the Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington. In consists of nearly 150 pages and is illustrated by nearly 
as many wood cuts, most of them specially prepared for the work. The directions and 
instructions are most complete and will be found invaluable by beginners, and full of 
useful hints and ideas for those who are experienced in collecting. Every entomologist 
is frequently appealed to by beginners to recommend them some book which will teach 
them how to collect and preserve specimens and how to make a start in the study of the 
science ; hitherto one has be3n at a loss for a manual which will meet such cases, but 
now the want is admirably filled. In time we may hope that this work will be followed 
by a manual of North American insects, which will perform the same service for 
Entomology that Dr. Gray's works have done for Botany. We are glad to learn that a 
step is being taken in this direction by Mr. S. H. Seudder, who is now preparing for 
publication a book on butterflies for boys. The author's name is a sufficient warrant 
that it will be all that one can desire. 

Since our last annual meeting we have had to deplore the loss of two of our members. 
On the 18th of March Mr. F. B. Caulfield died at Montreal. Since 1887 he has b^en a 
frequent contributor to the annual reports of the Society and also wrote occasional papers 
for the Canadian Entomologist ; he was also a very energetic member of the Montreal 
branch and did much to maintain its activity and usefulness. He was a careful and 
diligent collector and a keen observer. His loss is deeply felt by his associates as well as 
his family. We sincerely sympathize with his widow and children in their bereavement. 

On the 23rd of April one of our most noted Canadian entomologists departed this 
life. The Abbe Le'on Provancher died at Cap Rouge near Quebec, in the 72nd year of 
his age. His earliest publications were a treatise on Botany in 1858 and a Flora of Canada 
in 1862. He soon afterwards turned his attention to Entomology, and after publishing a 
list of the Coleoptera taken at Portneuf, he began in 1874 the publication of his 
Faune Entomologique du Canada, the third volume of which was not completed till 1890. 
For more than twenty years also he published his well known monthly magazine 
Le Naturaliste Canadien, which was only discontinued last year. He was a Fellow of 
the Royal Society of Canada and a member of many other scientific associations. His 
name will long stand out prominently in the records of science as one of the ablest and 
most diligent savants that our French compatriots of the Province of Quebec have 
produced. 

I feel that I have now sufficiently trespassed upon your time and attention and beg 
to thank you very heartily for the kind hearing that you have given me. 

Mr. Fletcher moved a vote of thanks to the President for his interesting and 
valuable address, and in doing so remarked upon the prevalence of the Zebra caterpillar 
(Mamestra picta), the destruction of the Tomato sphinx and the Green sphinx of the grape 
vine (Darapsa myron) by parasites, and the rapid spread of the Horn-fly in Ontario and 
Western Quebec. 



14 



The motion was seconded by the Rev. T. W. Fyles, who expressed the pleasure he 
had derived from listening to the address. In the course of his remarks he referred to the 
injuries caused by the Onion fly, and stated that it could be prevented by the use of soot, 
which drove away the fly, and the affected onion was then enabled to revive and complete 
its growth. 

* Mr. Denton gave an account of some experiences in England where a fly had caused 
the"death of a newly born calf and also attacked sheep. 

^J?Mr. Fletcher stated that soot was not always an available remedy in this country 
in consequence of the prevalent use of hard coal. He found nothing better than the 
application of a kerosene emulsion for the destruction of this and a great variety of other 
insects. He proceeded to describe the ease with which an emulsion could be made and 
the mode of its application, as well as its effectiveness as an insecticide. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

The following report was then read and adopted : 

The Council of the Entomological Society *of Ontario beg to present the following 
report of their proceedings during the past year. . 

The ordinary membership of the Society has been satisfactorily maintained, while 
the number of associate members has been considerably increased during the year. Con- 
tinued interest has been taken in the various departments of the Society, and much good 
work has been accomplished. 

The Twenty-second Annual Report on practical and general entomology was pre- 
sented to the Minister of Agriculture in December last, and was printed and distributed 
early in February. It consisted of one hundred pages and was illustrated with eighteen 
wood-cuts. The report contained, among other interesting matter, a full report of the 
proceedings at the annual meeting of the Association of Economic Entomologists, and a 
valuable list of the birds of Middlesex County. 

The Council are pleased to gratefully acknowledge the promptitude with which 
the report was printed and distributed by the Department, and also the advantage the 
Society has received from having the reports distributed from Toronto. 

The Canadian Entomologist has been regularly issued at the beginning of each month, 
and completed its twenty-third volume in December last. It consisted of 292 pages, an 
increase of fifty over the usual number. Of the current volume eight numbers have so 
far been published, and the ninth (for September) is almost ready for distribution, the 
numbers have averaged over twenty-four pages each, and will make the volume at the 
close of the year larger than any of its predecessors. There is still a steady demand for 
the back volumes, which involves the occasional reprinting of a number. 

Some valuable additions have been made to the Library during th« past year, among 
which may be mentioned a set of Miss Georgiana E. Ormerod's coloured diagrams of 
insects injurious to vegetation, which will be found most useful for illustrating popular 
lectures and addresses to farmers' meetings. The Society's collections of specimens have 
been carefully looked after by the Curator, Mr. Moffat, many additions have been made 
to the Lepidoptera, and good progress has been made in the arrangement of the European 
Coleoptera. The Council would here express their continued satisfa2tion with the careful 
and conscientious manner in which Mr. Moffat discharges his duties towards the Society. 

The Sections of the Society in the departments of Botany, Ceology, Microscopy 
and Ornithology have been in active operation during the past year. The reports of their 
proceedings are submitted herewith. It is earnestly to be hoped that the interest 
awakened in these branches of Natural Science will not be allowed to flag, and that the 
number of their adherents will steadily increase. 



15 



From the Treasurer's report it will be seen that there is at present a balance on hand 
of $319.13, which is a larger amount than usual. The greatest care has been taken to 
keep the expenditure within due limits, as hitherto the amount remaining at the time of 
the annual meeting has not proved sufficient to carry on the work of the Society till the 
close of the year, during which time little or no money is received by the Society. The 
amount now on hand will all be required for necessary expenses before the annual 
subscriptions begin to be paid in January. 

The Society was represented at the meeting of the Royal Society of Canada, which 
was held at Ottawa at the end of May, by your President, Dr. Bethune, who was subse- 
quently elected a Fellow of the Society. Daring the present month of August important 
meetings were held at Rochester, N. Y., at which the Society was represented by the 
President and Mr. Fletcher. It is gratifying to record that the former was elected first 
Vice-President of the Association of Economic Entomologists of North America, and 
President of the Entomological Club of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science for the ensuing year. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 



(Signed) Charles J. S. Bethune, President. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

The following were elected officers for the ensuing year : 

President — W. Hague Harrington, Ottawa. 

Vice-President — J. M. Denton, London. 

Secretary — W. E, Saunders, London. 

Treasurer— J. A. Balk will, London. 

Directors — Division 1, James Fletcher, F.L.S., F.R.S C, Ottawa. 
Division 2, Rev. Dr. Bethune, F.R.S.C, Port Hope. 
Division 3, Gamble Geddes, Toronto. 
Division 4, A. H. Kilman, Ridgeway. 
Division 5, J. Dearness, London. 

Librarian and Curator — J. Alston Moffat, London. 

Editor of the " Canadian Entomologist " — Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A., D C.L. 
Port Hope. 

Editing Committee — J. Fletcher, Ottawa ; H. H. Lyman, Montreal ; Rev. T. 
W. Fyles, South Quebec ; J. H. Bowman, London. 

Delegate to the Royal Society of Canada — The President. 

Auditors — J. H. Bowman and W. E. Saunders, London. 



The reports for the past year of the various sections of the Society were next read by 
their respective secretaries. 



16 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL ' SECTION OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY OF ONTAEIO. 

This Section was organized for 1892 on the 16th of April, with Mr. J. A. Balkwill as 
Chairman and Mr. J. Dearness as Vice-Chairman. 

The meetings were held regularly up to August, with considerable interest mani- 
fested. 

An outing to Komoka on the 24th of May, and one to the " Swamp of Death 
Oxford Co., were indulged in by some of the members. 

Messrs. Dearness, Bowman, Stevenson and Althouse were very energetic in field 
work. 

The following rare plants have been collected : 

Collector. Locality. 

Anagallis arvensis Mr. Moffatt Campbellville. 

Poterium sanguisorba " , " 

Valerianella olitoria Mr. Dearness Twenty Mile Creek. 

Viola rotundifolia " " 

Corydalis glauca , Messrs. Dearness and Bowman . .Pine Pond ^Swamp 

of Death). 

Dalibarda repens " " . . " 

Lepidium campestre m " " . . Twenty Mile Creek. 

Barbarea vulgaris l " " . . " 

Viola carnina var rupestrhs " " " 

Cassia Marilandica (3 ft. igh) Mr. Dearness Tp. of Howard. 

Symphoricarpus occidentalis " " 

Actinomeris squarrosa " 

Polygonatum giganteum (7 f t ) . . . . 

Silphium perfoliatum (7 ft.) 

Euphorbia preslii 

Lophanthns scrophulariaefolius . ... " 

Negundo aceroides (2 ft. diameter) . . " " 

Lythrum alatum " Walpole Island. 

Polygala sanguinea 

Baptisia tinctorial (fields) " " 

Silphium terebinth inaceum " " 

Tradescantia sp (?) " 

Galium verum Mr. Bond Port Stanley. 

Bidens beckii ....>.< Mr. Stephenson Port Frank. 



« (( 

(« (( 



huring the year a large number of plants have been carefully mounted, the total 
number now in the herbarium amounts to about 500. Mr. Balkwill has done much of 
the mounting. The Section intends continuing the work during the coming winter. 

Early in April a fine collection of plants was received from Mr. Wm. Scott, B.A.,. 
Mathematical Master of the Ottawa Normal School. The plants were in good condition 
and very acceptable, as they were collected in a district very different from that surround- 
ing London. 

The Section purposes continuing its explorations, and hopes to publish a list of the 
plants found in this district at some future time. 

C. B. EDWARDS, Sec. 



17 



EEPORT OF THE GEOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Regular meetings have been held by the members of the Geological Section through- 
out the year, and they have been, on the whole, well attended. Interest in geological 
work has not diminished, and the meetings have often been the scene of lively discussion. 

The course of study has been based on Professor Geikie's geological works, and 
articles in newspapers and magazines have received careful attention. The work has 
been agreeably helped forward by the fact that the fine collection of specimens belong- 
ing to our Chairman has always been open for the use of the Section, and they have 
proved invaluable for the purpose of illustrating the subjects before the section, 

The members have frequently been out on excursions and have secured many 
interesting specimens. One of the most interesting outings occurred a short time ago, 
when the members were accompanied by Professor Seaborne, of Hellmuth Ladies- 
College, who gave some interesting and valuable hints as to the best methods of working 
up the geology of the London district. Those of the members who spent their holidays 
away from home took the inevitable hammer with them, and secured many interesting 
examples of the life of former ages. The Chairman particularly worked up the Niagara 
Falls locality, and promises to furnish the Section with his observations. There are now 
few parts of the district immediately around London that have not been explored. 

London is in an interesting district from the fact that it appears to be directly in 
the line of the great stream of ice which swept the northern part of the continent in 
the Pliocene age, and the detritus from many different geological areas are scattered 
plentifully around. The age to which the rocks here belong is the Devonian, but they 
have been covered so deeply with the glacial drift that they reach the surface in but few 
places. Probably the finest specimens of the trilobite, Phacops bufo, found in Canada 
have been procured here, while the race of Orthoceratidas is well represented in this 
immediate vicinity. Corals are especially abundant and some fine specimens have been 
secured. 

One of our members contemplates the arrangement of a list of Devonian fossils found 
around London, and hopes to be able to present it to the Society at the next annual 
meeting. 

It is with pleasure that we learn that Mr. Johnson Pettit, to whom this Society is 
so much indebted, is now turning his attention to geology, and we hope to have his 
co-operation in the future. 

S. Woolverton, Chairman. J. L. Goodburne, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE MICROSCOPICAL SECTION. 

I have much pleasure in presenting the annual report of our Section for the year 
ending August 3Ut, 1892 : 

It is now two years since this Section was organized, and we can lookback with 
pleasure upon the work of the past. Although our membership has not increased to any 
great extent during the last year, yet great interest is still manifested by all the members, 
who are rapidly gaining experience in the manipulation of the microscope and the pre^ 
paration of objects. 

During the past year public interest in our Section has greatly increased, as the 
report of our outside meetings will show. On March 3rd the Section was privileged to 
give a microscopical demonstration at the annual meeting of the East Middlesex Teachers 

2 (EN.) 



18 



Association. The Section was again invited to the Hellmuth Ladies' College and was 
highly appreciated. Mr. Merchant, at the request of some of our members, very kindly 
granted us the use of the magnificent projecting microscope belonging to the Collegiate 
Institute. 

The Principal gave a very interesting lecture on projection, explaining and illustrat- 
ing the elementary laws of light and their application to projection. 

Thirteen meetings were held last season. Total membership is 1 2 • average attend- 
ance 9 ; visitors 8. 

The subjects of the various evenings during the season were as follows : 
Get. 30th : Fertilization and Growth of Ferns. — Mr. Foot. 
Nov. 13th : Examination of the results of an outing, all taking part. 
Nov. 27th : Examination of Fungi. Family Erysiphse. — Prof Dearness. 
Those studied were Erysipha Lamprocarpa on Hydrophylium. 

Uncinula clintonii on leaf of Basswood. 

Phallactinia on leaf of Dogwood. 
Dec. 11th: Examination of Fungi was continued on six other specimens. — Prof. 

Dearness. 
Dec. 26th : How to find and classify Diatoms. — Prof. Bowman. 
Jan. 15th : Life, History and Classification of Diatoms. — Prof. Bowman. 
Jan. 29th : Methods of mounting Diatoms. — Prof. Bowman. 
Feb. 5th : Fertilization and Growth of the Phanerogams. — Mr. Rennie. 
Feb. 19th: Mounting of Seeds and Pollen.— Mr. Rennie. 
Mar. 5th : Light and its application to the Microscope. — Prof. Dearness. 
April 1st : Microscopical Projection. — Principal Merchant. 
April 15th : Examination of Frog Spawn. — Prof. Bowman. 
April 29th : Fungi. — Prof. Dearness. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

William H. Foot, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE ORNITHOLOGICAL SECTION FOR THE YEAR 1892. 

Mr. President and Members of the Council : 

During the past year the Ornithological Section has held a number of meetings, at 
which many interesting facts have been noted and some new ones brought to light. 
During the spring months a combined record was kept of arrivals from the south, showing 
that 37 species were observed by the members in the first three months, 42 in April and 
58 in May, against 36, 38 and 40 respectively for the year previous. 

Several of the most interesting notes of the year I may perhaps be permitted to 
refer to briefly. First in order is the winter visitation of Crossbills. These were observed 
by all the members in March, April and May, the 30th of May being the last date of 
observation, when ten were seen. This influx included not only Red Crossbills, but also 
the rarer "Whitewings in quantity, and one lot was seen, and two taken, of a larger form, 
Loxia curvirostra, Bendirei, which is regarded as a variety intermediate between the 
Mexican and the Red Crossbills, and has not, we believe, been recorded for Ontario 
before. 

Another rare species which was noted in some quantity is the Bay-breasted Warbler, 
which is usually scarce, but this year appeared in good numbers, being first discovered by 
one of our most energetic members right in the city, and subsequently found on several 



19 



morning excursions. It is probable we should be able to report the breeding of the Least 
Bittern in our county had it not been for the rapacious boy, who captured the pair. 
They were observed June 4th, and captured a few days later, and on visiting the locality, 
a thorough search by one of our members showed a nearly finished nest, probably of this 
species. The take of the season, however, was the Cape May Warbler, hitherto unknown 
in Middlesex County, though eagerly sought for during many years. The first specimen 
was discovered in the High School grounds, by the energetic member previously referred 
to, who studied the bird with creditable zeal for many minutes, and subsequently selected 
the species from a series of unnamed skins, only to be the more sorry he could not secure 
it when he was informed of its identity. All doubts which might have been cast on this 
record were cleared up by the capture of a pair, male and female, by a boy with a slingshot 
the next day near the same place The members of section regard this as the most impor- 
tant record of the year, and are proportionately proud of it. Our Plover Mills represent- 
ative, with the assistance of Mr. Joseph Beck, secured a number of specimens of Lincoln's 
Sparrow, which had hitherto been claimed for the county on the strength of a single 
specimen taken years ago in the fall. Possibly it may prove, like the Fox colored Sparrow, 
to be not so very rare now that we are getting acquainted with it. 

Less interesting because somewhat out of the Section's range was the result of a visit 
of a member to Lake Wawanosh, near Sarnia, where he secured two specimens of the 
short billed Marsh Wren, of which probably ten or a dozen specimens were seen. They 
had not been previously reported in such numbers from anywhere in Ontario, although 
once erroneously reported near Ottawa. 

In nesting records, the only one of special interest is the finding of a nest of the 
Carolina Rail on the outskirts of the city, with seven eggs ; this being the only addition 
we have to make to the list of birds known to breed in Middlesex county, which was 
submitted with our last annual report. During the coming year we hope to open a large 
ledger for the birds of Middlesex in which all the notable occurrences with regard to each 
species shall be inscribed, thereby getting the result of our work into permanent form 
and making a good basis for any special investigations the Section may take up in the 
future. 

W. E. Saunders, Chairman. 



MONTREAL BRANCH OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

The following is the Nineteenth Annual Report of the Council of the Montreal Branch 
of the Entomological Society of Ontario : 

The Council beg to submit the following report of the Branch for the year 1891-92. 

During the past season nine meetings have been held, most of which were well 
attended, and the following papers have been read : 

1 . Notes on Nematus pallidiventris — Rev. T. W. Fyles. 

2. Some little known Canadian Coleoptera. — J. F. Hausen. 

3. Occurrence of Platynus rugiceps at Montreal. — J. F. Hausen. 

4. Hepialus thule. — H. H. Lyman. 

5. Notes on some species of Halisidota. — H. H. Lyman. 

6. Notes on the genus Lithophane. — A. F. Winn. 

7. Entomological Questions. — A. F. Winn. 

8. Pamphila Manitoba and its varieties. — H. H. Lyman. 

9. Danais Archippus. — A. F. Winn. 

10. Notes on rearing Pyrameis Atalanta. — H. H. Lyman. 

11. The genus Grapta. — H. H. Lyman. 

12. Notes on Hemiptera. — J. F. Hausen. 



20 



Two new members have been added to our roll, viz., Messrs. Lachlan Gibb and J. W. 
Cushing, but three of our old members have resigned owing to continued absence from 
the city, and the death of our esteemed vice-president, Mr. F. B. Caulfield, has caused a 
great gap in our ranks which it will be difficult to fill. He was one of the founders of 
this Branch, and has taken the greatest interest in its welfare through all its vicissitudes 
during the past nineteen years, At our meetings he has read over forty original papers, 
and being an enthusiastic and pains-taking entomologist, the loss to the Branch is a very 
heavy one. 

The Council would again urge the members to do all in their power to increase the 
interest in our meetings by getting as many new members as possible, and by bringing to 
the meetings specimens and notes on insects. 

A large amount of work might easily be done during the coming summer on the 
neglected orders, Neuroptera, Hemiptera and Diptera, and we would suggest that each 
member should study at least one order besides his specialty and thus aid in increasing 
our knowledge of some of the many very common species of which at present we know 
little or nothing. 

The report of the treasurer shews a balance on hand of $17.08. 

Submitted on behalf of the Council, 

H. H. Lyman, President. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : President, H. H. Lyman ; 
Vice-President, W. C. Adams ; Secretary-Treasurer, A. F. Winn ; Council, J. F. Hausen, 
Ohas. Jackson. 



After the reading of the foregoing reports was completed Mr. Harrington gave an 
interesting account of a visit which he and Mr. Fletcher had made to Sudbury this 
summer, and exhibited some rare and remarkable specimens that they had found in that 
locality. 

Mr. Fletcher gave an entertaining description of a trip to Nepigon, north of Lake 
Superior, ih quest of eggs of the butterfly, Chionobas Macounii. No eggs of that species 
were obtained, but many interesting observations were made. Eggs of Nemeopliila 
selwynii were secured, and the larvse bred from them were described. Grapta faunus 
was bred from larvse found on Alnus viridis, Salix discolor and Betula papyrifera, and an 
undescribed parasite was also reared. Grapta progne was also reared from larvae on 
Betula papyrifera. Colias interior was mentioned, and the food plant was stated to be 
willow (from the observations of Mr. T. E. Bean in the Rocky Mountains). Mr. 
Fletcher was of the opinion that it was also Vaccinium. Specimens of two western 
species of Argynnis, A. cipris and A. electa were taken at Nepigon, and the occurrence 
there commented on. Lycaina lucia was taken and an addition made to its food plants 
in the flowers and seeds of Acer spicatum. Carter ocephalus mandan is not uncommon at 
Nepigon in roadways running through low woodlands. Eggs had been secured on grasses 
and several larvse were being bred. Nisoniades icelus, common at Nepigon, was being 
bred from eggs laid on the upper side of the leaves of Salix cordata. The larvse were 
found to exhibit different temperaments, one particular specimen being described as " very 
bad tempered." Some beetles had been collected, and the oviposition oiMyodites zeschii 
in the unopened flowers of Solidago canadensis was described. An interesting Mordella 
had been taken on a white fungus growing on an old wharf, but the specio3 did not seem 
to answer to any of those in the available literature. Species of Donacia, Leptura and 
some Carabidse had been collected. Trirhabda convergens had been found abundantly on 
asters and solidagos. Of Hymenoptera many interesting species had been secured, Abia 
kennicottii amongst them, and several specimens of Trichiosoma triangulum. 

The meeting adjourned at 10 p.m. 



21 



THURSDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 1st. 

The meeting was called to order by the President at half-past 9 o'clock. 

The Rev. T. W. Fyles gave an account of a gall that he had found upon a White 
Aster (Diplopappus umbellatus). Mr. Fletcher in commenting upon it expressed the 
hope that Mr. Fyles would be able to work up its life history completely. 

A paper by Mr. H. H. Lyman, of Montreal, on a " Trip to Mount Washington in 
New Hampshire" was then read by the President (see p 32.) 

Mr. Fletcher described some of the many difficulties which beset the entomologist 
in his efforts to rear larvse from the egg to the imago state. An interesting discussion 
upon galls was then entered upon, in which most of the members present participated. 

The President, Dr. Bethune, gave an account of his observations of insect life in 
Bermuda during the month of March last. He stated that he was most struck by the 
remarkable absence of insects of all descriptions. Not a single butterfly was to be seen 
and only one or two moths ; after a diligent search under stones, etc., the only beetle that 
he found was the red and black Dung-beetle so common in Canada (Aphodius fimetarius), 
which he found in some cow droppings in a pasture field. Cockroaches (Blatta Ameri- 
cana), were abundant, having been brought, no doubt, in ships to the islands ; a much 
larger species, B. Maderensia. was also occasionally seen. The common wasp (Polistes 
Canadensis), was found making its comb, without any protecting nest, on the leaves or 
branches of trees ; honey bees were numerous and several species of ants, but no other 
Hymenoptera were observed. Mosquitoes and house-flies were common but not suffi- 
ciently numerous to be annoying, and several kinds of spiders. Great complaints were 
made of the difficulty of growing peaches on the islands owing to the attacks of an insect ; 
in " Insect Life," vol. iii, p. 6, this is stated to be the maggot of a Dipterous fly (Ceratitis 
capitata, Wied.) The fruit was observed in all stages of growth at the same time, but 
none were in perfection except a few that had been protected with gauze netting. The 
fly is said to attack oranges also, but this fruit has been virtually exterminated in the 
Bermudas by a Scale-insect (Chionaspis citri), which was accidentally introduced in a ship- 
load of oranges some years ago. Through the kindness of the Rev. W. G. Lane, Dr. 
Bethune had obtained three specimens of Sphinx moths, which he exhibited, viz. : 

(1) Chcerocampa tersa Drury, found also in the Southern States and West Indies ; 
this beautiful hawk-moth is distinguished by its graceful shape and long pointed body ; 
it is of a light-brownish yellow colour, the hind wings being black with a marginal row of 
wedge-shaped yellow spots. The larva is said to feed on Button-weed (Spermacoce glabra.) 

(2) Phlegethontius (Sphinx) cingulata, Fab., a large grey hawk-moth, with the hind 
wings shaded with rose colour and five spots of the same colour on each side of the 
abdomen. It is found in the West Indies and northwards. The larva feeds on the 
Sweet potato and Convolvulus. (3) A large White Sphinx, probably S. tetrio, which was 
taken by Mr. Douglas Hollis in his garden at Hamilton, Bermuda. One of the greatest 
pests to farmers and gardeners on the Islands is the " Broken-tail Snail " (Rumina 
decollata, Linn,) which has a singular eloogate spiral shell with the smaller end abruptly 
truncate. It seems to swarm everywhere and is very destructive to vegetation. 

Mr. Moffat presented a paper on " The power of insects to resist the action of 
frost" (see p. 35.) 

The following insects were exhibited by Mr. Fletcher : 

1. Liparocephalus brevipennis, several specimens. This is an extremely rare Staphy- 
linid, which had been received among other varieties from Rev. J. W. Keen, of Massett, 
Queen Charlotte Islands. The opinion was expressed that this and the other described 
species of the genus L. orbicollis were merely color varieties of one species. 
Specimens differing in color had been named under both names by Lieut. Casey, U.S.A., 
but he said he thought that thev were probably identical, and this opinion was also 
concurred in by Dr. John Hamilton, to whom some of Mr. Keen's specimens had also 
been sent. Previous to Mr. Keen's collection these two species were only represented by 
the unique types. 



22 



2. Sphcerites glabratus, Pelates latus, two Sylphids, also from Queen Charlotte 
Islands. 

3. Myodites Zeschii, from Nepigon. 

4. Gortyna immanis, the collar worm of the Hop, several specimens, male and 
female, of the moth together with pupae and larvae preserved in alcohol, were exhibited 
and a statement made of injuries dene to hop gardens in Prince Edward county. 

5. Cantharis NuttaUi, a beautiful blister-beetle from the North-West Territories, 
where it had been abundant and injurious in the perfect state during last summer, but 
probably did good service in the larval condition by feeding on locusts' eggs. 

After spending some time in the examination of specimens brought by members, 
and contained in the Society's cabinets, and in comparing notes on various matters of 
entomological interest, the meeting, which was greatly enjoyed throughout by those who 
were present, was brought to a close. 



A VISIT TO THE CANADIAN HAUNTS OF THE LATE PHILIP 

HENRY GOSSE. 

By Rev. Thomas W. Fyles, South Quebec. 

One stormy night in the winter of 1863 I was visiting at a friend's house in Laprairie 
when amongst the books on the table I found a copy of the Canadian Naturalist. I took 
it to my room and was fairly carried away with it I forgot the lateness of the hour ; 
I heard not the beating of the storm upon the roof and window ; I was transferred in 
imagination to the township of Compton, and wandered with Gosse along Bradley's 
Brook, and into the Brule*, and on the banks of the Coaticook. On my return to Montreal 
I acquired a copy of the work, which became, for a time, my constant companion. 

In the Canadian Naturalist are to be found, as might be expected, many mistakes 
and imperfections ; but it is, notwithstanding these, a charming work. The author seems 
to have thrown his life into it, and to awaken with a magic touch responsive feelings to 
his own in the reader's bosom ; and — to speak after a heathen fashion — the book is 
redolent with the worship of Pan. 

My interest in Gosse was increased during eleven years residence in Oowansville, in 
the Eastern Townships ; for, during the greater portion of that time, I had for my near 
neighbor, and intimate acquaintance, Mr. G. E. Jaques, with whom Gosse came from 
Newfoundland, and with whom he lived in the summer seasons of his stay in Canada. 

Of the persons who knew Gosse in his Canadian days but few survive, and the traces 
of his residence here are rapidly disappearing. It has been thought well, therefore, that 
I should place on record such reminiscences of him as I have been able to gather. 

I made my first visit to Compton in 1864. The building in which Gosse taught the 
"Winter-school" was then much as it was in Gosse's day ; and it is still substantially 
the same. It is a frame structure, in the ordinary village style, painted red, " picked 
out " with white. It stands at the outskirts of the village on the Hereford road. While 
I was examining it on the occasion referred to, I was joined by Mr. Logee — commonly 
called " Major Logee." We fell into conversation, and I asked him if he had known 
Gosse. " Why, yes,'' he said, " He boarded at my hotel. Come to the house !" The 
house was within sight, a fnw rods distant, and standing alone.* It was a commodious 
two-story building with a double verandah. 

Mr. Logee spoke of Gosse's quiet and studious habits, and evidently entertained a 
pleasant remembrance of his young boarder of long ago ; " but," said he, " the people 
here used to speak of him as that crazy Englishman who goes about picking up bugs." 
One sentence in the Canadian Naturalist shows that Gosse was quite at home in the 

* It still stands, but now in a street of cottages. The major has been dead for some years.— T. W. F. 



23 



major's hospitable dwelling. On page 45 we find him saying, " It is pleasant to think 
that we have a comfortable home and a cheerful fire to look forward to." In the long 
winter evenings he here recorded the observations made in the course of the day. We 
can fancy that we see him, in the retirement of his chamber, holding the candle at the 
window, and noticing the white flakes descending in the " darkness visible " (see Can. 
Nat. page 30), or musing over the " frosted flowers " on the panes (p. 29), or on the 
sudden formation of ice-needles, in the chilled water on the wash-stand, when agitated by 
the immersion of his hands (p. 351). 

A few days ago I went to see my friend Quartus Bliss, Esq., of Oompton, with the 
express purpose of gaining information concerning Gosse. We drove through the village 
of Compton but could then learn of only two persons who remembered him. One, a lady, 
was unfortunately from home ; the other, when I mentioned Gosse, said, " Oh, yes ! I 
remember him. I went to school to him. He couldn't teach school any, to suit this 
country." " Is that so ?" I said, " but why ?" " Why V he retorted. " Well, one day 
when it was snowing, he took a slate and caught the snow-flakes and made drawings of 
them." And youthful impressions were so strong in the man, and the act had appeared 
so ridiculous to him in his youth that, at the remembrance of it, he laughed — and laughed 
— and " laughed consumedly." And the ludicrousness of this man's laughing at Gosse 
made me laugh, and my friend Bliss laughed for sympathy. At length, by way of 
creating a diversion in Gosse's favor, I said, " I think I can show you a copy of the 
drawing he made that day." And I took the Canadian Naturalist from my pocket and 
shewed him the cut on page 27. He seemed somewhat taken aback that anything Gosse 
had done should be reproduced in a book, but he soon returned to the charge : " In his 
garden at Smith's Mills he planted poison-poke !" (p. 233). I was, of course, duly 
silenced. The character of a man who could plant poison-poke in his garden was beyond 
redemption. I might have told of gardeners setting out plants of the pickled-cabbage 
order for effect : but where would have been the use 1 

I had given Mr. Bliss a list of the places I wished to see. As we were driving 
through a stretch of lowland he said, " This that we are coming to is Spafford's Bridge 
(p. 103). Yonder was Robinson's farm (p. 188). On the hill facing us was the Pierre 
Barker place, (p. 298) : the house is still standing ; the farm was the best in the neigh- 
bourhood in Gosse's day. To the left, here on the flat, lived Adolphus Barker a brother 
of Pierre, and a notorious scoundrel. The foundations of his house can still be traced." 

Having ascended the hill, and passed the old Pierre Barker house, and the fine 
modern residence of Mr. Vernon to whom the surrounding properties now belong, we came 
to a turn in the road. " Here " said my friend, " was the Well's place, formerly owned 
by Mr. Jaques ; and yonder you can trace the old main road to Sherbrooke, which has long 
been abolished." It was all before me : The road we were on was the " village road" 
(p. 2), the road that the horseman in the vignette of Gosse's title page is pursuing. Look- 
ing down from that road, immediately to the right, in the corner unmarked in Gosse's 
sketch, I saw the shattered foundations (overgrown with moss and lichen,) of the house 
in which he livtd with Mr. and Mrs. Jaques. It had been a frame cottage, 30 by 24 ft. 
in size, and had stood five rods from the road. The barn, still standing, but much dilapi- 
dated, is eight rods from the site of the house. The foundations of Gosse's log barn can 
also be seen. Through " the marshy spot below the barn " (p. 116}, from which he heard 
the " Breke-kekex koax-koax " of the frogs, the Grand Trunk Railway now runs, cutting 
the farm in halves. The maple-grove (p 227) has been felled, but stumps of the trees 
remain. No traces of the orchard are left. The whole of the farm is now in pasture. 

The bridge over the Ooaticook at the bottom of the farm, which he speaks of as " our 
bridge," has quite disappeared. It is remembered in the neighborhood as the " Wyman 
Bridge." Its position can be told only from the break in the old road at the river banks. 
On the rising ground beyond the river, and to the left of the old road, may still be seen 
the house in which dwelt Mr. Bill, (p. 267). 

Pursuing our *vay we crossed Bradley's Brook (p. 297). To the left between the 
hills are the remains of the thicket through which Gosse forced a road to the Brule* beyond 
(p. 297). The hill (p. 303) which he ascended, and from which he saw Smith's mills and 



24 



Tilden's tavern, is now bare of trees, and is known as inlander's Hill. Tilden's out -build- 
ings may still be seen from it ; but the tavern itself was burned some years ago. Smith's 
mills are standing yet, dwarfed and hidden by more imposing structures. Hollis Smith, 
to whom these mills belonged, moved into Sherbrooke, and become the member of Parlia- 
ment for that city. He has been dead for some years. The village of Waterville with 
its churches, public schools, post office, railway station, manufactories, etc., has grown up 
since Gosse left the country. 

Only one man in Waterville, as far as I can learn, remembers Gosse. This is Captain 
Parker, (a descendant of the famous Admiral Parker), whose father owned the adjoining 
lot to that of Tilden's. The Captain when a boy, met Gosse in the Brule net in hand. 
He remembers two things concerning him : (1) that he was clad in rough frieze cloth ; 
(2) that he wore remarkably clean linen. " Biled shirts " were not common in that neigh- 
bourhood at that time. 

In Waterville I parted with my friend Mr. Bliss. 

Returning to the Gosse farm after a night spent at the village hotel, I found that 
there had been a hard frost in the night — one of those early frosts that Gosse complained 
of (p. 110). This had whitened the meadows and the foliage. The sun however rose 
bright and warm. On my way to the farm I came to a dip in the road (p. 180) with 
willows growing thick on either side. As I passed there was a constant pattering on the 
dead herbage beneath — the sun gaining strength was thawing the frost on the leaves, and 
drops fell 

" like the first of a thunder shower." 

A little runnel tinkled and bubbled over the stones by the road. side, hastening to join the 
Coaticook in the valley. Its banks were thick with moss. The slight sounds that arose 
seemed but to intensify the calm that boooded around. From the groves beyond the river 
were heard the whistle of the robin, and (softened by the distance) the cry of the blue jay. 
This spot in Gosse's day was prolific in insect life ; as, I dare say, it is still. It was here 
that he captured the Baltimore Fritillary (Melitcea Phaeton), pictured on page 227 of his 
work. 

When I reached the higher ground I turned; and what a glorious view was presented 
to me ! A lovely rolling country opened towards the north, its rounded hills tufted with 
maple woods. Columns of white steam and dun smoke, rising amidst hills of more moun- 
tain-like formation, showed where the mining works of Capelton were located. Between 
the spot on which I stood and those distant hills was the rise, forming the middle distance, 
on which Tilden's tavern formerly stood. Around the spot, as in the days of Gosse, but 
more restricted, and now of second growth, is a stretch of woodland, which in the many 
hues of autumn, and lit by the brilliant morning sun, was very beautiful. The poplars 
were clad in richest chrome ; the maples and beeches in various hues of ochre, sienna, 
Indian red, and crimson ; while here and there a tamarack (lonely survivors of the Nema- 
tus raid) stood pale yellow amid the more richly coloured trees. 

In the valley near me the placid Coaticook pursued its even way. The light green 
of the willows that fringed its banks formed the basis of a mass of foliage rising with the 
hill-side, in which was blended the brown-green of the white cedar, the sombre hues of 
the black spruce, and the brighter Brunswick green of the balsam. Here and there the 
boscage was broken by farm buildings and russet pastures, 

Near the railway, not many rods from Gosse's farm and at a bend in the stream, was 
a small neglected burial-ground in which the white rounded head-stones rose amidst a 
tangle of brambles, golden-rod and everlastings. I walked over to it and found it recorded 
on one of the stones that Henry Learned died August 13th 1837. (Gosse may have 
attended his funeral). He -was laid beside " Lovy " his wife, 

Returning I found the point of view on which Gosse stood when he drew the sketch 
of his farm. The property having been added to a larger one, and seemingly used for 
pasturage only, is probably very much in the condition in which Gosse left it. The land 
is not particularly good — in the division Jaques seems to have had the better share. 



25 



Along the road -side are a few fine maples, doubtless the same represented in the view, 
increased in bulk by their fifty-three years subsequent growth. A few small clumps of 
cedar and spruce somewhat relieve the dreariness of the stretch of pasture land ; but the 
farm to-day is not one that would be chosen either for beauty or fertility. 

Melancholy feelings come over one as he contemplates a ruined homestead, and thinks 
of the human interests that once centered therein. What aims and hopes actuated the 
builders of it ! Within its walls what scenes of homely mirth were witnessed, what 
hours of anxiety were spent, what plans for improvements were made, what disappoint- 
ments were experienced ! Everything around had its uses and its history ; and now all is 
gone. The owners ! Their place knows them no more. Their belongings ! They are 
dispersed or have perished. Their habitation ! Its moss-grown foundations are all that 
remain of it. 

With such feelings, tempered with the reflection that it was well for science that Gosse 
should have been disappointed, I looked upon the scene on which he entered full of high 
expectations. Here he toiled. Here he slowly learned the hard lesson that he had mis- 
taken his vocation. Hope of acquiring an independence through his farm left him ; and 
he was at length glad to sell out at any sacrifice. The reasons for his failure are not hard 
to find from his own statements. Instead of dividing his land into meadow and pasture, 
and purchasing young stock to raise and sell at a profit, keeping only small portions of 
land successively under the plow — just so much at a time as he could manure thoroughly 
and work with comfort ; he plowed up much unenriched soil, and laid out for himself 
much unprofitable labour. I have often wondered what he intended to do with his two 
acres of turnips (Life of P. H. Gosse, p. 92), without storage for the preservation of the 
produce, or stock to consume it, or any available market — for his neighbours would grow 
what they wanted of such like crops for themselves. The people immediately around him 
were generally of an unsatisfactory class, who would ridicule his mistakes, and endeavour 
to profit by his inexperience. They were u vulgar and sordid, sharp and mean." (Life of P. 
H. Gosse, p. 96). They were even worse than all this — they were criminal. A notorious 
band of desperadoes, counterfeiters and thieves, made the Tilden tavern their rendezvous. 
Dark hints of mysterious disappearances were whispered round. The dispersion of this gang 
was brought about in this way : Near Compton village resided a miserly old couple named 
Witcher, who had saved, what for those days was a large sum of money, $3,000. They 
had this secreted in a trunk, in an upper chamber of their house. The fact in some way 
became known to the gang ; and by means of a ladder access was gained to the room, and 
the spoil was secured. The old lady, hearing a noise which she imputed to the mice in 
the chamber, arose, opened the stair-case door, and thrust in the cat. She then retired 
contentedly to bed. The robbery caused a great commotion ; and one loose character, who 
left the neighbourhood during the stir, was followed up and induced to turn King's evi- 
dence. Several of the gang, having had timely warning, fled to the States ; but Adolphus 
Bvker was tried, convicted, and condemned to death. The sentence was commuted to 
imprisonment for life, and he was confined in the jail at Three Rivers. After his incar- 
ceration his wife told of his coming home one night on horseback with a dead body in front 
of him, which he took to the woods and buried ; but as she had become demented (which 
was not to be wondered at, poor thing !) no great heed was given to her statement. She 
soon afterwards died. Her story however was enough to cause the neighbours — the 
young especially — to regard the empty house with dread. One circumstance in regard to 
it is still narrated : I have said that the house stood back in the field. A person passing 
along the road one night noticed a pale unearthly light in one of the windows. He 
hurried away in fear. The light was seen by others on subsequent nights ; and at length 
a few ot the boldest of the neighbours resolved to investigate it. They came to the gate 
leading to the house. And certainly, there in the window was the light ! They brought 
their courage to the sticking point and made a rush to the building; but, as they drew 
near, the light vanished ! They could hear no sound, nor could they find next day any 
traces of visitors, earthly or unearthly. It was not till some time afterwards that they 
discovered that the mysterious light was only seen when a certain room in another house 
in the distance was lit up — that it was, in fact, a mere reflection. 



26 



After fourteen years' imprisonment Barker was released. About the same time was 
liberated a French-Canadian woman who had occupied an adjoining cell. This woman 
Barker sought out and married, and the pair crossed over into the States. It is said that 
by loosening the bolts which secured the ends of a large box stove built into the partition 
wall they had been able to keep up an acquaintance for some time previous to their 
liberation. The jail arrangements of those days were of a primitive order. I have been 
told that, in the States, Barker resumed his nefarious practices, and eventually paid the 
penalty of his crimes on the scaffold. 

In the Life of Gosse, page 103, we read, "During the autumn" (of 1837) "he was 
vexed and disturbed by having to appear in court to give evidence in a criminal case 
against one of his few neighbours." Could this have been the case I have been recording ? 
Gosse alludes, in the preface to the Canadian Naturalist, to the "stormy politics and 
martial alarms of the times." A few words will shew the condition of affairs in his 
neighborhood. It was the period of the rebellion, and as an inroad of American 
"sympathizers" was expected, the loyal inhabitants of the Townships felt called upon to 
adopt precautionary measures. At a meeting of militia officers held at Frost Village, at 
which Colonel Knowlton presided, it was resolved to send three of the leading men of 
that part of the country as a deputation to solicit supplies of arms and ammunition from 
the military authorities at Montreal. Accordingly Colonel Knowlton, Major Wood and 
Abijah Wood were sent, and their errand was completely successful. Large supplies 
were shipped (by way of the St. Lawrence and the Richelieu) to Philipsburg, on 
Missisquoi Bay. Here they were met by numerous teams driven by the yeomen farmers 
of the district. Good men and true from all the country round turned out to guard the 
valuable consignment. Night came on, and under cover of the darkness, an armed force 
of sympathizers from Swanton, Vermont, attacked the convoy at More's Corner. The 
enemy were, however, beaten off and dispersed Volunteer companies, equipped with the 
arms thus acquired, were soon formed in all that section of country. Captain Woo I, of 
Shefford, had under his command a body of cavalry numbering 85 men. Captain Savage, 
of the same place had 100 infantry. Captain Becket, of Sherbrooke, had a troop of 
horse and Captain Gil man, of Stanstead, another. In the quota of men sent from Compton 
Gosse's friend, Amos Merril (p. 40) was sergeant. It is rather to be wondered at that 
Gosse, amidst the general enthusiasm, did not take a more active interest in the military 
movements of the times. Perhaps it was with him as with that good bishop in the middle 
ages, against whom his knights and censitaires complained, that he was " a man of peace 
and not at all valiant." The action of the United States authorities at this crisis was" 
prompt and judicious. Troops from the Southern States were brought up and stationed 
along the American side of the border, and this doubtless prevented much harm. The 
troops stationed at North Troy, Vermont, were brought from Florida- 
Two retired English officers were sent to superintend operations and watch the line 
on the Canadian side. These men knew but little of the country, and amusing 
reminiscences of them are still told in our country houses. For instance : One of them 
was spending the night (a clear, cold winter ni»ht) at Hatley — the Charleston of Gosse 
(p. 95). He heard repeatedly that sound (familiar enough to Canadian ears,) which ac- 
companies the sudden loosening of a shingle-nail by the frost. The gallant colonel arose 
in consternation and dressed himself in haste, convinced that because of his august 
presence sympathizers were firing upon the house. 

One of the young men who drove a team at More's Corner, and who afterwards 
joined Captain Wood's troop of cavalry > was Mr. Calvin L. Hall, a son of one of the 
leading men of East Farnham. Mr. Hall being well mounted was chosen as a body guard 
for the English officer above mentioned, and in this capacity did some hard ri.ling. On 
one bleak day he, on horse-back, accompanied his superior, without stoppage, from 
East Hatley to Frost village, a distance of 36 miles. The Englishman, well wrapped up 
in buffalo robes, drove his team "at the jump," and viewed every piece of bush that he 
passed with suspicion. Mr. Hall is now Lt. -Colonel Hall, of the 52nd "Bronie** 
battalion of Light Infantry. 



27 



Of Compton people contemporary with Gosse, besides Major Logee, I saw on my first 
visit to the village, Colonel Pomeroy, magistrate ; A. V. Kendrick, merchant, and Nathan 
Merrill, hotel-keeper. All are now dead — as are all whom Gosse mentions in his book. 
Of these the last survivor was Mrs. Bill, who died at Waterville about six n ths ago. 
Ann Heap, widow of G. E. Jaques, died on December 30, 1891 in her 84th ye r. Her 
husband had died on the preceeding 12th of July, aged 84 years. The remains of this 
worthy couple rest in Mount Royal cemetery. 

I have said that in Gosse's work there are many mistakes. One of t-he most remark- 
able of these is his supposition that the piping of the tree-frogs in early spring was pro- 
duced by lizards (p. 94). He describes the frog (p. 266), but seems to have rejected the 
idea that this creature produced the sound, and many persons still, hiving re id his bx)k, 
have strong faith in the lizards. Good old Bishop Oxend^n once spoke to me of the 
11 whistling lizards." I begged to assure him that the " whistling " was produced by frogs 
— that T had kept the creatures and knew certainly that this was the case. I even 
showed him drawings I had made of the frog with its throat distended preparatory to the 
emission of the sound. But all was of no avail. Gosse had said that he believed the 
sound to be that of lizards. Gosse was once contradicted to his face by believers who did 
not know him personally.* That my statement should stand for a moment beside an 
expressed opinion of his was not to be thought of. And the good old bishop in his last 
work, the " History of my Life," page 142 (by a double error ; by a strange transposition 
of sight for sound) says, "There" (i.e. in Canada) "are few reptiles, excepting lizards, 
which seem to take pleasure in exhibiting their antics in public." 

Gosse must often have listened to the chorus from the swampy spot below hi3 barn ; 
the peep-peep of the tree-frog, the croak of the meadow-frog, the tr-r-r-r-r ill of the toad 
and the bompbomp of the bull-frog. A lady-friend of mine compares the reptile assembly 
to a noisy household, in which the little children are crying to be put to bed, and the 
elder ones scolding, while the mother endeavours to still their clamour with a hu-s s-s sh, 
and the father expostulates with a grumpy voice. 

From the Fauna of Compton County some of its most interesting forms have van- 
ished since 1838. The caribou (Cervus tarandus) and the Virginian deer ( Cervus 
Virginianus) have long disappeared, and with them their natural foes the wolf (Ganis 
lupus) and the puma (Fells concohr). The moose (Gervus Alces) approaches no nearer 
than the swampy portions of Megantic County, and the black bear (Ursus Americanus ) 
than Mount Orford and the neighboring hills of Sutton and Bolton. The cry of the lynx 
(J^elis Canadensis) is seldom heard. The last pair of beavers wf>re shot in the Brule" dfty 
years ago. That objectionable animal, the skunk, (Mephitis Americana), so admirably 
delineated on page 254 of the Canadian Naturalist is, however, still quite sufficiently 
abundant. Gosse evidently, was well acquainted with it. By way of affording a 
contrast to his distressful account, I may say that a year ago a clergyman from 
England came to see me. He was fond of natural history and was seeking information. 
In the evening, happening to go to the door, I found that a skunk had crossed the Uwn 
in front of my house. I called my friend and said, " Here is a perfume that you should 
know of." He sniffed and exclaimed eagerly, " What is that ? What is that ? Do you 
know I rather like that." The otter (Lutra Canadensis) and the salmon (Salmo salar) 
are gone from the St. Francis, the Coaticook and the Massawippi. The " Salmon River" 
no longer bears an appropriate name, but the bald eagle (Falco leucocephalus) still haunts 
the lakes, and the snowy owl (Strix nyctea) and the great horned owl are still occasionally 
heard. The cry of the former resembles Bompbomp, that of the latter is very accurately 
given by Gosse as Ho ! Oho ! Oho ! Waugh ho ! (p. 177). The sound — so mysterious to 
Gosse (p. 92) — of the saw-wher, owl (NyctaU acadica) still rises from the woods in the 
summer evenings. I have not seen the passenger pigeon (Columba migratoria) since 1864, 
and the scarlet tanager {Tanagra rubra) has become scarce. 

*On one occasion, I recollect, at Livermead, we came across a party of ladies who were cackling so 
joyously over a rarity they had secured, that curiosity overcame our shyness, and we asked them what they 
had found. They named a very scarce species, and held it up for us t » examine. My father, at once, 
civilly set them right; it was so-and-so, something much more common place. The ladies drew themselves 
up with dignity, and sarcastically remarked that they could only repeat that it was the rarity, and "Gosse 
is our authority."— Life of P. H. Gosse, p. 288. 



28 



None of the insects mentioned by Gosse, as far as I can identify them, would now 
be considered rarities, except the "Chequered Skipper" (p. 219), the " Pearly Eye " 
(p. 246), and the "Dragon Moth " (p. 248). 

From the index to the Canadian Naturalist we find that Gosse was acquainted 'with 
26 of our butterflies and 43 of our moths, besides a variety of beetles, bugs, flies, etc. 
The Lepidoptera are given below under the names used by Gosse and (as far as I have 
been able to identify them) the names in the "Toronto List." 



Names used by Gosse. 

Tiger Swallow-tail (Papilio Turnus.) 
Black Swallow-tail (P. Asterius.) 
Clouded Sulphur (Colias Philodice.) 
Grey-veined White (Pontia Oleracea.) 
Archippus Butterfly (Danais Archippus.) 
Pearl-border Fritillary (Melitoea Myrina.) 
Pearl-crescent Fritillary (Melitoea Tharos.) 
Silver-spot Fritillary (Argynnis Aphrodite.) 
Great Spangled Fritillary (Argynnis Cybele.) 
Green Comma (Grapta Progne.) 
Orange Comma (Grapta C. Album.) 
Grey Comma (Grapta C. Argenteum.) 
Violet Tip (Grapta C. Aureum.) 
Camberwell Beauty (Vanessa Antiopa.) 
Forked Butterfly (Vanessa Furcillata.) 
Compton Tortoise (Vanessa J-album.) 
Banded Purple (Limenitis Arthemis.) 
Eyed Brown (Hipparchia Transmontana.) 
Pearly Eye ^ Hipparchia Andromache.) 
Copper (Lycoena Phleas.) 
Spring Azure (Polyommatus Lucia.) 
Black Skipper (Thymele Brizo.) 
Chequered Skipper (Pamphila Paniscus.) 
Yellow-spotted Skipper (Hesperia Peckius.) 
Tawny-edged Skipper (Pamphila Cernes.) 



Names according to the Toronto List. 

Papilio Turnus, Linn. 

P. Asterias, Fab. 

Colias Philodice, Godt. 

Pieris Oleracea, Bd. var Frigida. 

Danais Archippus, Fab. 

Argynnis Myrina, Cram. 

Phyciodes Tharos, Drury. 

Argynnis Aphrodite, Fab. 

Argynnis Cybele. 

Grapta Faunus, Edw. 

Grapta Comma, Harr. 

Grapta Progne, Cram. 

Grapta Interrogationis. 

Vanessa Antiopa, Linn. 

Vanessa Milberti, Godt. 

Grapta J-album, Bd. 

Limenitis Arthemis, Drury. 

Satyrus Nephele, Kirby. 

Debis Portlandia, Fab. 

Chrysophanus Americana, D'Urban. 

Lycoena Lucia, Kirby. 

Thanaos Brizo, Bd. 

Carterocephalus Mandan, Edw. 

Pamphila Peckius, Kirby. 

Hesperia Taumas, Fab. 



Twin-eyed Hawk-moth (Smerinthus Geminatus.) Smerinthus Geminatus, Say. 
Zebra Hawk-moth (Sphinx Kalmise.) Sphinx Kalmiae, A & S. 

Grey Hawk-moth (Sphinx Oinerea.) Sphinx Chersis, Hubn. 

Six-spotted Blue Hawk-moth (Alypia Octomaculata.) Alypia Langtonii, Coup. 
Humble-bee Hawk-moth (Sesia Pelasgus.) Hemaris Thysbe, Fabr. 

Belted Hawk-moth (JEgeria ) 



Buff Leopard (Arctia Isabella.) 
Muff (Lophocampa Tesselaris.) 
Panther (Spilosoma Acria.) 
Brindled (Biston Hirtarius.) 
Streaked Hooptip (Platypteryx Erosa.) 
Lemon Beauty (Angerona Sospeta.) 
Pea Green (Chlorissa putataria.) 
Grandee (Geometra Olemataria.)* 

Rhinoceros (Herminia ) 

Belle (Spilosoma Virginica) 
Ruby Tiger (Pragmatobia Fuliginosa.) 
Rose-breasted (Dryocampa Rubicunda.) 
Snowy (Spilosoma ) 



Pyrrharctia Isabella Abb. & S. 
Halisidota tessellata, A. & S 
Leucarctia acraea, Drury. 
Eubyja cognataria, Guen. 
Platypteryx arcuata, Walk. 
Angerona crocaotaria, Fab. 

Procherodes clemitaria A. & S. 

Spilosoma virginica, Fab. 
Phragmatobia rubricosa, Harr. 
Dryocampa rubicunda, Fab. 
Hyphantria textor, Harr. 



*I have taken P. transvcrsata Drury, in the Townships but not P. clemitaria. — T. W. F. 



29 



Names used by Gosse. 
Angleshades (Phlogophora Meticulosa.) 

Orange Band (Pyralis ) 

Veneer (Crambus.) 

Silver-spotted Buff (Pyg?era Gibbosa.) 

Gamma (Plusia Gamma.) 

Royal Tiger (Arctia Virgo.) 

Dragon (Hepialus Argenteo maculatus.) 

Cerulean (Ctenucha Latreilliana.) 

Pink Arches (Thyatira Scripta ) 

Twin Goldspot (Plusia Iota.) 

Clifden Beauty (Xerene albicillata.) 

Spotted Lemon, or Lemon Beauty. 

Drab Plume (Pterophorus ) 

Vapourer (Orgyia Antiqua.) 
Gold and Silver (Plusia Festucce.) 
Green Gold (Plusia Chrysitis.) 

Spangled Orange ( ) 

Furbelow (Calyptra Libatrix.) 
Griseous (Oerura Hastulifera.) 

Apple Moth (Tethea ) 

Green Emperor (Saturnia Luna.) 
Eyed Emperor (Saturnia Polyphemus.) 

Crimson Underwing (Catocala ) 

Winter (Cheimatobia Vulgaris.) 



Names according to the Toronto List. 
Trigonophora periculosa, Guen. 
Crambus Girardellus, Clem. 
Crambus. 

Edema albifrons, A. & S. 
Plusia precationis, Guen. 
Arctia virgo, Linn. 
Hepialus argenteo-maculatus, Harr. 
Ctenucha virginica, Charp. 
Habrosyne scripta, Gosse. 
Plusia bimaculata, Steph. 
Rheumaptera ruficillata, Guen. 

(Pterophorus marginidactylus.) 
Orgyia nova, Fitch. 
Plusia Putnami, Gr. 
Plusia balluca, Gey. 
(Calopistria nionetif era. ) 
Scoliopteryx libatrix, Linn. 
Cerura cinerea, Walk. 
Caccecia rosaceana, Harr. 
Actias Luna, Linn. 
Telea Polyphemus, Cram. 
Catocala concumbens Walk. 
Operophtera borealis, Hubn. 



The Entomological portions of the Canadian Naturalist are the weakest. If Gosse 
had had a little more knowledge, had taken a little more pains, and had scrupulously 
pared away all such provoking passages as " I shook off a black Sawfly (Tenthredo), two 

green Waterflies (Perla Cydippe), two Cimbices (Pentatoma ), several Chrysomelidse 

with soft horn-colored elytra (Crioceris ), and another very little species of a 

metallic purple (Phyllodecta Kitellina)," (p. 184), which, while they have a show of 
knowledge, really betray the lack of it, men would have delighted to place the Canadian 
Naturalist with such classics as Kirby and Spence's Entomology, White's Natural 
History of Selbourne, etc. As it is, it is hardly likely that a re-print of the book will be 
called for ; though the copies of it that remain with us are highly valued. 



NOTES ON THE RARER BUTTERFLIES OF THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC. 

By Rev. Thomas W. Fyles, South Quebec. 

At the annual meeting of the Entomological Society of Ontario, held in October 
1885, I read a paper on such of the Butterflies of Quebec as were then known to me. 
Other species have since come under my observation, and I beg to offer a few remarks 
upon them. The first in order is : 

Colias interior, Scudder. I took this insect, in September, 1891, on the Heights 
of Levis. It seemed to be rather plentiful. I looked for it carefully in the spring of 
this year, but not a specimen was to be seen, nor have any since made their appearance. 
One would suppose that a chance irruption of the species had occurred — that prevailing 
winds had brought them southward. Interior differs from Philodice in that it lacks the 
row of reddish brown dots near the hind margins, on the underside of the wings. The 
black spot on the fore wings of Philodice is represented by a faint oval ring in Interior * 
and in the females of the latter the black border to the secondaries is wanting. \ I took 
one or two albinos of the species. 



30 



Argynnis Freya, Thunb. I captured, in the middle of the Gomin swamp, in Sep- 
tember 1887, one specimen of this rare insect. I am inclined to think that it was a 
straggler from some mountain swamp to the north of us. The only other specimen that 
I know to have been taken in Quebec Province was shewn to me, many years ago, by 
the late Mr. Caulfield. He received it, if I am not mistaken, from Mr. Bowles, who 
was then living in Quebec. My insect is in good condition, but is less bright than one 
of the same species from the North-west, shown to me by Mr. H. H. Lyman I have 
noticed that western insects generally are of somewhat more vivid colouring than those 
of the same species in the east. The markings on the under-side of the hind wings ot 
Freva are angulated and very intricate. The silvery embellishments are few and have 
a bluish tinge. One of them near the inner edge of the wing takes the form of an 
elongated X. 

Grapta gracilis, Gr. & Rob. In August, 1888, I saw a butterfly escaping from its 
chrysalis case which was attached to a branch of a currant bush. I captured the insect 
which proved to be G. gracilis. The chrysalis was four-fifths of an inch in length, one- 
fourth of an inch in width of thorax, and the same in depth where the wing-cases term- 
inated It had numerous pointed projections. The color was light brown, mottled with 
dark brown over the abdomen. The butterfly in colouring is very distinct from Progne. 
On the upper side it approaches more nearly to Faunus. Beneath, the basal portions ot 
wings are of a rich warm umber with some bluish-grey patches. Beyond in striking con- 
trast and extending through both primaries and secondaries is au irregular pearly grey 
band' shaded off into the dark umber of the hind margins. The arrow-heads seen so 
plainly near the lower portion of the hind margin in the primaries of Progne are almost 
deleted. The silvery curve in the hind wings is very conspicuous and forms the edge ot a 
scallop in the dark portion of the wing. 

Last year, on the 12th of June, I saw Gracilis ovipositing on Red Currant. I found 
the egg. It was cone-shaped, but slightly flattened at the t >p ; green-of the same shade 
as the leaf to which it was attached,-and it had divergent longitudinal ridges of a lighter 
hue. I cut the twig that I might have the egg under observation ; but it did not hatch, 
it seemed to dry up with the leaf. 

Debis Portlands, Fob. In a p.per entitled « A Day in the Wood. £ which 
appeared in the Society's 22nd Annual Report, I recorded mj 'first capture on the 6 th ot 
Anlnst 1890, of this beautiful ' butterfly. On July 3rd, 1391, I took a very Perfect 
spedmen of the species on Mount Royal. It fluttered down from a tree and lit in the 
fernafew yards from me. On July the 22nd of the present year I took a pair m covlu, 
at the spo/ on which I made my first capture. These also fluttered down .mmed.ately 
before me in the same heedless manner. Fortlandia may be readily dietingnished from 
our other •■ Browns " by the delicate purple blush on the unders.de. In size it comes 
between Nephele and Canlhus. 

Phionobas Jdtta, Buhner. In 1885 JI had not discovered the locality for Julia 
Of the meanTby which 1 found it and the successful eff.rts I made to rear the insect, 
^counts appeared in the Canadian Entomologist, Vol, XX., p 131 and Vol. XXL p. 
13 Mr Scudder i„ his important work on the Butteifl.es of the New England States 
id Canada mentions my success, but asks, « Does the pupa undergo its transformat.ons 
tnacentfi^ 0. semidel, or hanging like ordinary Nymphalidsf and he adds « Fyles 
Ips not teU us." He must have overlooked my second paper in which I said " The 
r o „Hd, were naked unattached, and lay on the surface of the sphagnum." Under the 
I T rf D^BATahe asks, « Where in a morass mostly under water can the half-grown 
Wvafin^rsukaWe Place to hibernate, and where in the still higher waters of Spring 
can the cateZlar securely pupate ?" These questions are easily answered as regards 
^7,, Swamp The sphagnum rises with the water and « never submerged. The 
vlitor sinks in ""to the ankles" in a dry season, and to the knees in a wet one ; and their 

are «^KK^^ * p-«*» p- d f wi r in t £: 

ine maiviuud r Farther expenmeuts have shown that 






31 



This was notably the case last winter which was a remarkably open one. It may be that 
the larvae have susceptibilities and powers of reservation which enable them to accommo- 
date themselves to seasonal variations. It remains to be shewn whether the remaining 
stages of the backward larvse are hastened in the Spring, that the imagros may present 
themselves at the usual period, or whether the larval condition of the insect is sometimes 
prolonged over a second season. Larvse that I have reared to their full growth this season 
became sluggish in the first week of October, and by the middle of the month were quite 
torpid. 

Thecla L^eta, Edw. A specimen of this pretty little butterfly was taken in May, a 
few years ago, by Mr. Winn, on Belceil Mountain. 

Thecla Titus, Fab. On the 22nd of July last I had a stroke of good fortune. 
During thirty years of close observation of the insect world in this Province, I had not 
seen half a dozen specimens all told of T. Titus ; but on this day, in a neglected meadow 
near St. David's, I came upon quite an assembly of tlie insects. They were fluttering 
about over the Hawkweed blossoms, and I captured a full series of very perfect specimens. 

Chfiysophanus Epixanthe, Bd. This is a swamp insect, and appears in the Gomin 
about the 23rd of July. I have not met with it in any other spot in Quebec Province. 
It appears in goodly numbers and lasts about a fortnight. It is not difficult to catch, for 
if the collector gets between it and the sun, the light shining upon the silvery under surface 
of the wings renders its flight very perceptible. 

Lyoena Couperi, Grote. On June 13th of last year I took on the Heights of Levis 
a lovely specimen of this charming insect. I had seen two of the kind the year before, 
but was unable to capture them. This year the insect has not come under my notice. 
On the upper side its wings are smalt blue with dark borders and white fringes. The 
underside, brownish grey set with white ringed, black dots, reminds one of the English 
P. Acis. 

Carterocephalus Mandan, Edw. Under the name of the " Chequered Skipper " 
[Pamphila Pansicus (?)], Gosse in the Canadian Naturalist records the capture at 
Conipton, P. Que., of this pretty butterfly. I have in my cabinet a specimen taken near 
Fort No. 2, Levis, in 1889 by Mr. Robert Maxwell, a promising young entomologist 
whose early death is to be lamented. On June 16th of this year Mr. Hanham took a 
specimen in good condition in a meadow near Bergerville. It was flitting low down 
amidst the stalks of herd's-grass. Mandan very closely resembles the European Pan- 
iscus in color and markings; but h is a smaller insect. Morris gives the expansion of 
wings of Pa?iiscus at "about an inch and a quarter." My specimen of Mandan has an 
expansion of one inch only. Its contour too is different — more trim and slender. 

Pamphila Manitoba, Scudder. As this pretty skipper was taken some years ago 
by Mr. Couper, at Riviere du Loup en bas, only 116 miles from South Quebec and on the 
same side of the river, I have been expecting its advance for some time. On the 9th of 
September I captured my first specimen near Fort No. 2, Levis. On the 16th of the 
same month 1 took another, and on the 19th a third. The insect appears after the other 
skippers have vanished. I netted my specimens as they were reposing on the blossoms of 
Gnaphalium. A few days afterwards the insect was found in abundance by Mr. Hanham 
at a spot on the other side of the river, nine miles north from Quebec. As this is the 
only skipper we have in Quebec Province having the under sides of the hind wings sage 
green with two irregidar rows of white patches, it can easily be distinguished. 

Pamphila Metacomet, liar. I have two female specimens of this (with us) rare 
insect. They were taken on the Heights of Levis. In color they are of a sober brown 
and the primaries have a dark transverse streak on the upper side. 

I have one specimen each of Pamphila Egeremet, Scud., and Amblyscirtes 
Samoset, Scud., tak n b) myself in the Eastern Townships, and one of the latter taken by 
Mr. R. Max wo 1 ' 

The butt< : 'i i r ith us are extremely " local," being confined, as far as I know, 

to one or two pieces only, are Chionobas Jutta, Hub., Thecla Augustus, Kirby, Thecla 



32 



Niphon, Hub., and Chrysophanus Epixauthe, Bd. and Lee. I have not found Eudamus 
Tityms, Fab., nor Lyccena Comyntas, Godt., east of Montreal. 

The Entomologist should work his own locality thoroughly, and unexpected prizes 
will be very sure to reward his diligence. Two years ago a pair of Melitcea Phaeton, 
Drury, were seen flitting along the banks of a ruisseau, right in the town of Levis. 

No doubt, as the numbers of our Entomologists increase, and new fields are brought 
under our observation, other haunts of our rarer species will be discovered, and names of 
new and advanced kinds added to our lists. 



A TRIP TO MOUNT WASHINGTON. 

By H. H. Lyman, Montreal. 

On July 18th, 1891, I left Montreal on a trip to Mount Washington for the purpose 
of securing, if possible, the eggs of Chionobas Semidea and a goodly supply of the imagos. 
I expected to reach the summit that same evening, but the train was late and missed 
connection with the mountain train. 

The next day was only partially fine, but a walk was taken along the carriage road 
which runs from Fabyan's to the base of the mountain, as far as the falls of the Ammon- 
oosuc and back by the railway track, but nothing of any special interest was seen, as it 
was too early for Grapta Gracilis, and the only butterflies seen were Argynnis Atlantis, 
Pieris Rapos, Neonympha Canthus, and a few common skippers. 

All day the mountain had been covered with clouds, but as I was prepared to spend 
a week up there if necessary, this did not deter me; so I went up by the train that 
afternoon, and on arrival at the summit received a kindly greeting from Mr. Scudder, 
who had been up two days and already had females caged. 

I, h >wever, was in luck, for though we had turned in with the fog as dense as ever, 
the ringing of a bell about four o'clock the next morning announced that a sunrise could 
be well observed from the platform in front of the hotel. As I had never seen a sunrise 
from a mountain, I got up and joined the shivering contingent, for it was horribly cold 
(only 49°), and with a keen wind. The day was fine, however, and promised well 
entomologically. 

As soon as possible after breakfast we sallied forth, and as Mr. Scudder was anxious 
to look for A. Montinus we started for the head of Tuckerman's Ravine. We had not gone 
very far down the rock strewn slope before I had netted my first specimen of Semidea, 
and as it was a female it was promptly boxed. We entered the ravine and descended 
almost to the bottom of the main slope without seeing any sign of Montinus, and as I was 
confident it was not on the wing, I concluded I was wasting my time, so we parted 
company, Mr. Scudder going on to the bottom where the snow arch forms, while I 
retraced my steps to the slope above the ravine, and then struck across to Bigelow's 
Lawn to hunt for Semidea. In a few minutes I found an excellent locality, where there 
was a narrow sedgy slope tolerably free from rocks and interspersed with clumps of the 
Mountain Sandwort (Alsine Grcenlandica) and other flowers, and somewhat sheltered 
from the wind then blowing. There I took up my position and collected a good many 
fine specimens, besides securing half a dozen or more living females for my cage. 

Here I may pause to make a short reply to Mr. Grote, and I would say that I think 
he is unnecessarily alarmed when he says, " What time, on ' Bigelow's Lawn,' I see the 
ill-advised collector, net in hand, swooping down on this devoted colony, of ancient lineage 
and more than Puritan affiliation, I wonder if, before it is too late, there will not be a 
law passed to protect the butterflies from the cupidity of their pursuers."* 

* "A Colony of Butterflies," by A. R. Grote. 



33 



This species is, as Mr. Scudder says, exceedingly abundant, and many thousands, 
must fly upon the mountain every season. Then the number of entomologists on this 
continent is so small, and so few are able to visit the mountain, and most of those who 
get there can only stay such a short time on account of the expense ; so few days are 
favorable for collecting, and so many are bad ; the rock strewn slopes are such difficult 
collecting grounds, and so few of the butterflies one starts up are secured, that there is 
really very little cause for alarm lest they should fail to maintain themselves in their 
mountain fastness. But when I attend an entomological meeting in a city of over half a 
million inhabitants, and find ten or a dozen men gathered around a table, while the great 
world outside cares for none of those things, I have more fear for the extermination of 
entomologists than for that of any but the rarest of the objects of their study. 

When I began catching this species I treated it with my usual care for fear of dam- 
aging the specimens ; but I soon found that, in contrast to such species as Macounii and 
Chryxus, such care was quite unnecessary, and that it was quite possible to take them by their 
closed wings between the thumb and 6 ngers and examine the genital organs before consigning 
them to the cyanide bottle or pill-box without causing any damage whatever. Returning 
to the summit with my catch, my first care was to prepare a cage, which I did by plant- 
ing a small sod of the carex upon which the species feeds in an empty tomato can. I 
made the mistake of using a couple of wires crossing each other to support the net, the 
disadvantage being that any eggs laid upon the wires were practically lost, as I found it 
impossible to remove them without destroying them ; whereas they could have easily 
been removed from sticks or twigs. In the afternoon another visit was made to Bigelow's 
Lawn, but with less success than in the morning. Mr. Scudder remained near the sum- 
mit and was so fortunate as to find a nearly mature larva in the last stage, and he also 
stocked two cages out of doors on growing sedge as mentioned in his paper on " Experi- 
ments with Alpine Butterflies." Psyche VI., 129. 

Next day, the 21st, Mr. Scudder being very anxious to find out whether A. Montinus 
was on the wing or not, we walked down the stage road to the fifth mile post where we 
separated, Mr. Scudder going down to the Lodge while I struck across the slope towards 
Huntington's Ravine, where I had seen and taken it in 1889. 

We were both unsuccessful in our search for this butterfly, but I took a specimen 
of Colias Interior and saw several other individuals which probably belonged to this 
species. 

In the afternoon we first examined Mr. Scudder's cages in the open air, three eggs 
being found in the one near the stables of the stage line but none in the other where the 
sedge was very long and rank in growth. The whole of the twelve females were then 
placed in the cage near the barn and handed over to my care, and then we went on down 
to the Alpine Garden but met with little success, though Mr. Scuddpr had found Semidea 
swarming there the day before. We looked for eggs to learn, if possible, how they were 
laid under natural conditions but none were found. 

Next morning, the 22nd, Mr. Scudder went down by the early train, carrying his 
small flower-pot cage with him, and I took charge of the one near the barn and added a 
few more females to those already in it and also to my tomato-can cage. 

That morning I again, collected on Bigelow's Lawn, and in the afternoon spent oyer 
an hour searching for larvee of Semidea but without success. Afterwards I took a walk 
over to the summit of Mount Clay and saw a few Semidea at different points on the way. 
One that I started up on the shoulder between Washington and Clay flew with the wind 
and I made sure it would be carried down into the Great Gulf, but just after being carried 
over the edge it dropped in a wonderful way into a comfortable nook on the sheltered 
slope, which shows, I think, that they are not so helpless in a wind as is sometimes sup- 



I examined the cages several times that day but could see only a very few eggs, and 
began to fear that I should secure but few, but the next morning, the 23rd, I saw at a 
glance that a large number had been laid in the one out of doors and a number in the; 
small cage also. 

3 (EN.) 



34 



I left the large cage undisturbed as long as possible, collecting in various directions 
and in several orders, but at no great distance from the summit, but about noon began to 
dismantle the cage with the following result : 

Eggs laid on green blades of sedge 2 

" " " dead " " " 21 

" " " stiff brown moss 45 

Total 68 

^Those laid on the brown moss were particularly conspicuous. 

At 2 p.m. I started down the mountain by train carrying the small cage with me and 
watched the behaviour of the imprisoned butterflies but could not see that they evinced 
any distress as we descended to the valley. A certain amount of restlessness was observed 
among some of the individuals, but nothing more than would be likely to be caused by 
the jarring of the mountain railway. 

On arriving at the Mount Pleasant House four individuals were liberated and flew 
readily a distance of forty or fifty feet before alighting, which is quite as far as they often 
fly on the mountain. 

That evening the weather turned wet and stormy, and an interesting question arises 
in this connection. Why were so many eggs laid that morning when so few had been 
laid during the two previous days 1 Can we suppose that the butterflies discerned the 
approach of bad weather and hastened to accomplish their oviposition before the weather 
changed 1 

Next day, the 24th, I went to the Profile House carrying the cage with the rest of 
the butterflies with me, and the following morning, the 25th, ascended Mount Lafayette 
taking six of them with me, as I was anxious to try the experiment of establishing the 
species on that mountain, the highest of the Franconia Range and rising above the Alpine 
limit, but I made an unfortunate mistake in putting them into too small a box, which 
resulted in their becoming so much enfeebled that when released they were quite unable 
to fly. I placed them upon a good sized patch of the same sedge that the larvae feed upon 
on Mount Washington and left them to their fate ; but as a tremendous hail storm occurred 
in the early afternoon there could hardly be any doubt of what their fate would be. 

Later in the afternoon I went to Littleton, still carrying the cage, and the next 
morning, Sunday, the 26th, let them go. One flew about thirty feet, one flew a few feet 
and one fluttered to the ground. In the afternoon three more were taken out but were 
too feeble to fly. 

Next morning, the 27th, the cage was dismantled and the following eggs, many of 
which had unquestionably been laid after my descent from the mountain, were secured : 

Laid loose or came off gauze 6 

" on left hind leg 1 

" " wire supports 18 

" " gauze 6 

li " brown moss and attached to it 3 

" •• " " but loose 20 

" " dead blades of sedge 7 

11 " the tin can 1 

Total 62 

I have also a memo, of three collapsed eggs, but whether or not these were in addi- 
tion to the above number I cannot now say. 

I had thus from these two cages a rich harvest of no less than 130 eggs, of which 
only two were laid upon green blades of sedge, while the large majority were laid upon 
the brown moss or the wire which was about the same color as the moss. Most of the 



35 



?ggs were of a creamy white color when laid, but two from my small cage were of the dis- 
tinct lilac shade, which they assume before the hatching of the larvae. About fifty eggs 
were mailed to Mr. W. TI. Edwards, but of these he said that only about fifteen or twenty 
hatched, which I could not understand, as nearly all I kept disclosed the larva?. Others 
were sent to Mr. Scudder, Mr. Fletcher, and the Rev. Mr. Fyles, and a good share was 
retained. 

The first eggs in my cage were laid July 22nd, and the first larvae hatched on August 
7th, giving an egg period of sixteen days, but whether or not this stage is more extended 
on the mountain J am, of course, unable to say. One of my eggs failed to hatch though 
it retained its color and shape, so careful watch was kept on it and on August 13th a tiny 
parasite emerged through a small circular opening near the base. This was one of the eggs 
from Mr. Scudder's cage and must have been laid and parasitized either on the 22nd or 
morning of the 23rd, so that the cycle of life from egg to imago of this interesting little 
parasite must have been twenty-one or at the most twenty-two days. Mr. Scudder also 
had one emerge on the same day but lost it. 

Being uncertain how such tiny specimens should be mounted, I did not attempt it 
myself, but upon a subsequent visit to Boston toward the end of the month Mr. Scudder 
mounted it for me in balsam. This, however, was unfortunate, as I afterwards learned 
from Mr. L. 0. Howard, who wrote, " I very much regret that you, or rather Mr. 
Scudder, attempted to mount the parasite in balsam, as these hard-bodied creatures, no 
matter how minute, can be better studied if mounted on an ordinary paper tag. As it is, 
the specific characters of the insect are entirely indistinguishable. It belongs to the genus 
Ttlonomus, and, so far as I can see, differs from the two species which are mentioned in 
Scudder's ' Butterflies of the Eastern United States,' but I should not attempt to describe 
it." 

I was travelling around a good deal from August 16th to September 3rd and carried 
the larvae with me everywhere, feeding them on grass. I even had some of their regular 
food plant mailed to me in a tin box from Mount Washington, but as I could not see that 
they ate it any more freely than ordinary lawn grass I did not send for any more. Their 
growth was exceedingly slow, and they were very sluggish, generally remaining at full 
length head downwards on the edge of a blade of grass. The mortality was heavy, but I 
succeeded in carrying about half-a-dozen past the first moult, but all these died before the 
second moult. This year again (1892), I have had eggs of Semidea through the kind- 
ness of Mr. Scudder, who sent me about twenty eggs laid between the 11th and 
14th of July. The first one hatched on July 25th and most of the others on the 
26th, giving an egg period this year of fourteen days, or two days less than last year, 
which is probably to be accounted for by the greater heat this year. Unfortunately I was 
even less successful this year than last, as I did not succed in getting any past the first 
moult. 



ON THE POWER OF INSECTS TO RESIST THE ACTION OF FROST. 

By J. Alston Moffat, London, Ontario. 

If the experiments with the larva of Laria Bossii, as related in Mr. Lyman's paper, 
entitled, " Can Insects Survive Freezing," were scientifically conducted, it demonstrates 
that some of them can. 

There is an endless diversity in the manner in which frost affects different living 
organisms, some can survive where the mercury freezes, whilst others succumb to the 
slightest touch of frost. There is a great difference in the degree of frost required to 
freeze different substances, and yet it is only a question of degree when all known sub- 
stances may be frozen. 



It is a well-known and generally conceded principle in science, that ° Life in nature 
is adapted to its environment," — a comprehensive expression which implies a great deal. 
It generally implies that long continued association has brought the life and 
the conditions into perfect harmony ; which may imply that it has unfitted that life for a 
different condition. How little of the life of the temperate zones can endure the condi- 
tions of either the arctic or the tropic zones, so that what would be true of the life in one 
would not be true if tried in the other. In considering this subject, then, we must take 
into account the conditions to which the life we are dealing with has become adapted ; it 
would never do to subject the life of temperate latitudes to the conditions of the Arctic 
regions, and draw our conclusions from the result. 

If any form of life, from whatever cause, changes its locality, it must accommodate 
itself to its new conditions or perish. ''There are a few forms of life that can withstand 
the extremes of heat and cold, but there are for every form average conditions, geologic 
and climatic, which are most favorable for its attaining to its fullest development." We 
know that some forms of life can accommodate themselves to altered conditions with 
comparative ease, some, with great difficulty, and some, not at all. If they succeed, they 
may have to undergo considerable change in life, form, colour or habit, to bring them into 
harmony with their new environment, hence what we have to discover specially, is the 
powers of resistance to frost that are possessed by the insects of our latitude. 

It will enable us to attain to a clearer comprehension of the subject, if we keep 
before the mind, the distinction that exists between warm and cold blooded animals. 
The one by their internal heat and external covering, can maintain an almost uniform 
temperature regardless of the state of the surrounding atmosphere, whilst the other has 
seldom any external covering, has little internal heat, and parts with that little readily 
whenever the external temperature goes lower. 

It has been stated as a general principle in physiology, that, " wherever there is life 
there is heat." This may be true of active life, but there is such a thing as inactive life. 
For instance a tree may be frozen to the core and yet not be dead ; there is no manifesta- 
tion of life, but that is simply the result of unfavorable conditions. A more correct 
principle, and one I believe of universal application, is " that wherever there is respir- 
ation there is heat." For example, active vegetation respires ; and the vegetative process 
is known to be productive of heat in some measure. The chemical combination by which 
heat is produced and maintained in warm-blooded animals, is, in great measure, well 
known and easily understood. Heat is the result of combustion. Combustion is obtained 
by a commingling of oxygen with carbon. The food taken into the stomach supplies the 
carbon, the air breathed into the lungs provides the oxygen, the blood flowing through 
the lungs is exposed over a superficial surface ol from a hundred to a hundred and fifty 
square feet, it is thereby oxygenized, then carried in the veins to the remotest parts of 
the organism, and when liberated unites with the carbon of the tissues ; combustion 
ensues, and calorification is the result. Wherever there is combustion there is waste, so 
waste matter is thrown off, and its place taken by fresh material. Then again, activity 
produces heat. Physical exertion produces rapid respiration and circulation, which pro- 
duces more rapid combustion; consequently more heat. But most animals have a regulat- 
ing apparatus of some kind for equalizing their temperature ; when this heat is excessive, 
the pores open and evaporation produces refrigeration ; when cold comes, these siose and 
their heat is economized. With those of them that hibernate, the same principles are in 
operation. During summer time they have been laying in a supply of carbon in the 
shape of fat ; on the approach of winter they retire to their hibernacula, settle themselves 
down and become somnolent. Being inactive, respiration is reduced to the minimum, 
consequently combustion is slow, and their heat is correspondingly reduced, but they are 
always warm, if alive, and they invariably leave their winter quarters greatly reduced in 
flesh. Now mark the contrast with cold-blooded animals, to which insects belong. They 
have but little heat to begin with, some requiring the most delicate instruments to detect 
the existence of any. Not being endowed with any regulating apparatus to save it, they 
part readily with what little they have as soon as the surrounding temperature goes 
lower, activity with them does not maintain heat, their activity depending entirely upon 



37 



the condition of the surrounding atmosphere. And when they go into hibernation, 
respiration is completely suspended, consequently there is no combustion and therefore no 
waste, and they emerge from their period of torpor, be it short or long, months or years, 
without the slightest perceptible loss in flesh. We are all aware of the difficulty of obtain- 
ing reliable information on scientific subjects from popular sources, even experts are often 
discovering that what appears to be is far from being what is. A fine illustration of this 
is given in connection with the controversy about the revivification of desiccated pond life. 

Near the residence of a Professor Zacharias, is a granite block with a cavity holding 
from two to three litres of water, which evaporates in from two to six days according to 
the weather. There has been living therein for fifty years, by actual observation, a par- 
ticular kind of Rotifer, and various Protozoans whenever the conditions were favorable. 
And this same fauna persisted in spite of complete desiccation, thousands of times re- 
peated ; and it was referred to as proof that the dried individuals revived. This persist- 
ence aroused the curiosity of Prof. Zacharias, and he went to work to investigate it, and 
he soon discovered that when the Rotifers and Protozoans were allowed to dry, they in- 
variably died, but the eggs were preserved by encystation, and were ready to emerge 
when the rain came. And after long and careful investigation in other departments, he 
arrived at the conclusion that there was probably no such a thing as desiccated animal 
revivification. 

The exact observations made by Dr. Hamilton, as recorded in the Canadian Ento- 
mologist, vol. XVII, beginning on page 35, are conclusive that certain beetles can resist 
the action of frost to a very great degree. Others have recorded similar observations in 
Lepidoptera. I have handled the pupae of Oecropia and Polyphemus moths when exposed 
to 10, 15 and 20 degrees of frost and they were not solidified, the cocoon could afford 
them little or no protection, and the mystery is, wherein lies the power of resistance 1 A 
mystery which yet remains unsolved. I quote the following extracts — authority not 
stated : " Protoplasm in certain cases can endure a temperature of zero or lower ; and in 
others can live at 90 degrees or higher temperature. This is a remarkable fact which 
neither physiologists nor chemists can explain. . . . The less active the life the less 
vulnerable 'it is, cold kills a great number of the lower organisms by reason of the dis- 
organization of the tissues which takes place when congealed, and this disorganization 
is complete in proportion to the amount of water the tissues contain." May we not here 
be on the verge of an explanation of the mystery ? We know that there are oils and 
spirits that resist a great degree of frost. May not the protoplasm of insects, larvae and 
pupae especially, be composed of fats with no water in their tissues for frost to act upon ? 
Chemical analysis ought to be able to decide. 

That a caterpillar is found in a cube of ice, is not proof that it is solidified. I have 
more than once seen the larva of Arctia Isabella embedded in ice, but as I did not investi- 
gate them as to their condition in that respect, I can add nothing ; but going back upon 
what has been already said, it seems reasonable to suppose they were not frozen. On the 
approach of winter they took refuge under a board, stick or stone ; when the cold in- 
creased they became torpid, snow fell ; then a thaw set in, but the heat did not reach 
them to rouse their faculties into action ; the water flowed in upon them, they could not 
drown, for respiration was completely suspended ; frost returns, the water is congealed 
around them, the ice is not any colder than the air would have been, so if they could 
resist the action of the one, they also could that of the other. And here I would remark, 
that by such considerations, we get the natural explanatiou of how the beetles survived 
the winter inundation without injur}'-, as related by Dr. Hamilton, in the article already 
referred to. 

It is a well-known fact in medicine, that poisons act slowly, and may even be quite 
harmless when the temperature is low. I daresay we are all familiar with the different 
action of the same cyanide under different temperatures, and feeble respiration is well 
known to secure insects for a length of time against the poisonous fumes of cyanide. And 
there can be little doubt, but that by one or other of these causes, or both combined, the 
life of Dr. Hamilton's Lixus Concavus was insured against the action of alcohol. I have 



38 



taken recently transformed beetles oui of decayed wood, that showed unmistakable signs 
of life, but were very lethargic, and they have resisted the fumes of strong cyanide for 
three days — no doubt the result of feeble respiration — although some claim that it ia 
difficult to kill some insects at any time, until they have fulfilled the functions of their 
existence. But then again I have seen water beetles in a pond where cattle were watered, 
quite lively under the ice, and when the ice was cut, the pressure above produced a rush 
of water that brought beetles with it, and when they were tossed out on the ice they were 
dead instantly. That could not have been the result of contact with the ice, but from 
exposure to the frosty air. Dr. McCook in his " American Spiders and their Spinning 
Work," gives an account of some experiments made by him, with a view to discover the 
effects of low temperature upon them, from which he draws the following conclusions : — 
Vol II, p. 435 : "It would seem, therefore, first, that the hibernation of spiders, of this 
species at least, is not accompanied with a great degree of torpidity ; second, they preserve 
their activity and spinning habit while exposed to cold ranging from the freezing point 
to zero Fahr. ; third, that alter long and severe exposure the recovering of complete 
activity, when brought into a warm temperature, is very rapid, almost immediate ; and 
fourth, that on the return of spring, even after a prolonged and severe winter, they at 
once resume the habits of their kind." 

" In all the above specimens the abdomens were full, indicating perfect health. 
Other spiders hung upon their webs with shrivelled abdomens, quite dead. . . . The 
living individuals were all characterized by the plump abdomen, as though there had been 
little or no absorption of tissues for nourishment of life. There appeared to be no 
growth during hibernation." 

It is quite evident that a great increase to our knowledge, obtained by careful 
observations, is yet required before any general conclusions can be safely drawn, yet this- 
much seems to be clearly established : That there are many insects, in some stage of their 
existence which can and do successfully resist the action of the severest frosts to which 
they are exposed in our latitude. 

That these could be congealed by severer frost is quite probable ; but that thejr 
would survive such freezing is yet open to doubt. That some are solidified by severe 
frosts and yet survive, is quite possible, but the evidence on this point is still defective. 

I copy the following from the Smithsonian report for 1887, article Zoology, p. 479, 
and give it for what it is worth. It is entitled : " Minimum Life Temperatures." " A 
series of experiments upon various animals have been made by Dr. H. Von Thering in ex- 
tension of Professor Pouchet's researches on the resistances which animals may offer to 
cold. About two dozen worms, arthropods, and mollusks, were made the subject of in- 
vestigation. The results have been summarized in the following terms : 

(1) "Lower animals become frozen at temperatures varying greatly in the different 
genera and species, the resistance varies with the actual body-heat of the animal, with its 
size, structure, and protective covering, with the freezing point of blood, etc." 

(2) " The resistance usually increases with progressive development, but sometimes 
the adults are more sensitive than the young." 

(3) " Nothing can be directly inferred from the geographical distribution." 

(4) " Perfectly frozen animals are never revivified." 

Shall we add, " In his latitude V 

But there is an important economic side to this subject, as well as one of pureljr 
scientific interest. The opinion prevails extensively amongst those that are most liable 
to suffer from the depredations of insects, that steady severe frost in winter will greatly 
reduce their numbers, and thereby save them labor and loss the following summer ; 
which is far from being the case. Those that have given the matter consideration know 
that such a winter is protective of insect life ; it is mild, open winters that are most injuri- 
ous. A large number of Lepidopterous insects pass the winter in the egg and pupal 
stages, and when warm weather in winter is sufficiently prolonged to start these toward 



39 



maturing, by just so much have their powers of resisting the action of frost been red uced 
and their liability to be injuriously affected by succeeding cold increased. Hence it is in 
the spring of the year that they suffer the most. A period of mild weather in early 
spring, followed by a protracted one of cold and wet, even when the frost is not severe^ 
may be, and often is the cause of death to myriads of them. This is one of nature's 
methods of reducing their numbers. Coleopterous insects are not so liable to be injuri- 
ously affected by this cause, the reason for this is clearly and beautifully placed before us. 
in Dr. Hamilton's paper. It is to be regretted that so little careful observation has been 
given to this interesting subject. 



FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC 

ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

The fourth annual meeting was held in the University building, Rochester, N.Y. V 
on Monday and Tuesday, August 15th and 16th. The President, Dr. J. A. Lintner, of 
Albany, N.Y., occupied the chair, and Prof. F. M. Webster, of Wooster, Ohio, filled the 
office of Secretary. The following members were also present : — C. V. Riley and L. O, 
Howard, Washington, D.C. ; D. S. Kellicott, Ohio ; John B. Smith, New Jersey; E. B 4 
South wick, New Yoik; H. E. Weed, Mississippi; M. V. Slingerland, New York; H. 
Osborn, Iowa ; J. Fletcher and C. J. S. Bethune, Ontario ; C. H. Perkins, Vermont j, 
P. H. Rolfs, Florida ; S. A. Forbes, Illinois. 

Owing to the ill-health of the President, the annual address was delivered by the 
Vice-President, Prof. Forbes, in which he treated especially ot the work that has 
recently been done on the contagious diseases of insects, and the satisfactory results that 
have thus far been obtained. He also referred to the successful importation of several 
insect parasites, and drew the attention of the meeting to the desirability and import- 
ance of studying the aquatic insects of America and their relation to fish culture. This 
able and highly interesting address was subsequently reported upon by a special com- 
mittee who warmly commended it and urged upon the attention of Economic Entomo- 
logists the recommendations in regard to " Aquatic Entomology " and its bearings upon 
fish culture. 

Prof. Kellicott read a paper upon " Hypoderus Columbse," a mite which is para- 
sitic upon pigeons. 

A paper by Mr. C. H. Tyler Townsend was read on " The possible and actual in" 
fluence of irrigation on insect injury in New Mexico," in which he showed that in that 
region of the country irrigation may be made to exert a valuable influence as an adjunct 
to the proper use of arsenites and kerosene. 

Prof. Kellicott read "Notes on iEgeriadae of Central Ohio, No. II.," which is pub- 
lished in the Canadian Entomologist, September 1892, p. 209. 

Prof. Smith said that adults of the Squash Borer (M. ceto) from last year's larvae 
were then flying on Long Island, and that all stages of the insect might be obtained in 
the same field. The moths assemble in the evening on the upper sides of the leaves and 
are collected in great numbers by the farmers. Messrs. Forbes, Slingerland and Smith 
stated that in their experience the iEgerians were not attracted by electric light. 

A paper on "The Bean Weevil (Bruchus obsoletus) " was read by Mr. M. V. Slinger- 
land, in which he described the mode of ovipositing and gave a brief account of the life 
history of the insect. He stated that bi-sulphide of carbon will destroy the insect in all 
stages. He also read a paper on " Drasteria erechtea " in which he stated that in 1889 
over two thousand specimens were taken by means of trap lanterns at Ithaca, N.Y. 
Last year he bred a number of specimens, and as a result of the study of the material thus 
obtained, together with about three hundred specimens from all sections of the country Vi 



40 



he came to the conclusion that there are two species, about equally common, included 
under the name erechtea, and that these should be called D. eerchea, Oram, and D. cras- 
siuscula, Haworth, with ochrea and distincta as varieties of the latter. He then pro- 
ceeded to describe the differences between the species, and recommended the plowing of 
the infested fields in order to destroy the larvse and pupae. 

A paper by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, of Kingston, Jamaica, on " Orthezia insignis 
as a garden pest," was read by the Secretary. The writer stated that the insect was 
first observed on a variety of exotic plants in the hot houses at Kew and elsewhere, and 
that he now found it injurious to several garden plants in Jamaica. 

A paper by Dr. F. W. Goding on " The Food Plants of North American 
Membracidae," was next read. This was followed by Prof. J. B. Smith's paper, " Notes 
of the Year in New Jersey," in which he referred to the principal insect attacks that had 
come under his notice. In the discussion that followed, remarks were made by Mr. L. 
O. Howard, Prof. H. Osborn, Dr. Lintner and Prof. F. M. Webster. 

Prof. Webster drew attention to the occurrence of. Phytonomus punctatus to an in- 
jurious extent in north eastern Ohio, and of Hylastes trifolii attacking peas in northern 
Ohio. He stated further that Otiorhyncus ovalus was found feeding upon the foliage of 
musk-melons. 

A paper on " Two Serious Pear-tree Pests," was read by Mr. M. V. Slingerland, of 
Cornell University. * 

1. The Pear-tree Psylla [Psylla pyricola ) This insect is described as one of the 
most serious pests that pear growers have to fear. It had appeared in the valley of the 
Hudson in enormous numbers during 1891. Orchards which had given promise of 1,200 
barrels of fruit having perfected less than 100 barrels. The pear-tree Psylla when 
mature is scarcely 3 mm. in Jength, shaped like a miniature cicada. The nymphs are 
oval and very flat and produce a great deal of honey-dew which renders the trees un- 
sightly. There are three and perhaps four broods in the year and it is in the perfect 
state that the insect hibernates. As a remedy Mr. Slingerland had found that the 
nymphs were easily destroyed by a very weak kerosene emulsion (two per cent.) Wash- 
ing the trees in winter to destroy the adults was also recommended. 

2. The Pear-leaf Blister-mite (Phytoptus pyri) was alarmingly on the increase in the 
United States and Canada. It is a very small mite which hibernates beneath the bud- 
scales of the pear tree and comes out when the leaves expand in spring and forms 
blister-like galls on the foliage. Spraying the trees during the winter with kerosene 
emulsion had been found successful. 

Prof. Lintner stated that P. pyri was very abundant in eastern New York. 

Prof. F. M. Webster had also found it abundant in Ohio. Spraying with Bordeaux 
mixture had shown no effect in reducing the leaf-blisters. 

Prof. J. B. Smith had found that in orchards sprayed with the ammouiacal solution 
of carbonate of copper mixed with London purple, the pest was perceptibly lessened. 

Mr. Southwick read a paper upon Depressaria heracleana, the Parsnip Web-worm, 
and gave an interesting account of the war waged upon it by the " Potter wasp " (Eumenes 
fraterna) and stated that he had bred from it a Hymenopterous parasite, a species of 
Limneria. 

Mr. Howard read the following paper on " An Experiment Against Mosquitoes," 
which was listened to with great interest : 

AN EXPERIMENT AGAINST MOSQUITOES. 

By L. O. Howard. 

One of the most reasonable of the recommendations which have been made from time 
to time, and which look toward the reduction of the mosquito plague during the summer 
months, is the application of kerosene to restricted and Ashless breeding ponds. Although 
this remedy has often been suggested, I know of no careful records of actual experiments, 
and consequently deem the following account of a recent experience worthy of publica- 
tion. 



41 



On the 5th of July of the present year I noticed for the first time a few mosquitoes 
on the porch of my cottage, in the Catskill mountains of New York. The elevation of 
this cottage is about 2,500 feet, and mosquitoes have hitherto been rare visitors. The 
month of June, however, was very wet, and as I had noticed several pools of surface 
water in the immediate vicinity, the presence of these mosquitoes caused me some 
anxiety, as I feared they would continue to breed throughout the summer and prove a 
serious annoyance later in the season. One of the surface pools mentioned was situated 
on my own grounds, and upon first noticing the mosquitoes I walked out to this spot. 
It was about dusk, and about a dozen or more female mosquitoes were found buzzing 
about the surface of the water. I immediately sprinkled four ounces of coal oil upon the 
surface of the pond. 

Upon the following day I carefully measured the little pool and found that it con- 
tained 60 square feet. From day to day until July 15th, when I returned to Washington, 
observations were made. Severe rain-storms occurred on the 8th and 10th of the month, 
and after the first of these the pool lost the glassy irridescent surface effect given by the 
almost continuous but infinitesimally thin layer of kerosene. Nevertheless the insecti- 
cidal effect of the latter did not seem to diminish, although I could no longer perceive any 
coal oil odor. Many dead insects were found floating upon the surface of the water the 
next morning after the application, and these increased rapidlv up to the time of my 
departure. The pool, which upon the evening of the 5th had been teeming with animal 
life, contained no living insects during the following ten days. 

The actual good accomplished is shown by the following facts : All aquatic larvae, 
including those of the mosquito, were killed. The kerosene, curiously enough, seemed 
to exercise no deterrent effect upon the adult female mosquitoes. They still continued 
to attempt to deposit eggs and in this attempt were destroyed. This is, in my opinion, a 
most important point, and one which has hardly been anticipated. 

On the tenth day after the application a careful count of the dead insects floating upon 
the surface of the water was made over a restricted portion, and from this count the 
entire insect surface contents of the pool was estimated, with the following result : 

Entire number of dead insects floating on the surface 7,400 

Number of mosquitoes 370 

Number of Epirrita inclinata, Walker — a small Geometrid moth 148 

Number of Heterophleps triguttata, H.S. — another small Geometrid .... 42 

Number of Chrysops hilaris, O.S. — a common gad fly of the region 27 

These were the most conspicuous. The others were mainly minute NematocerouS 
Diptera, although there were a large number of small Heterocerous Lepidoptera, a few 
aquatic Coleoptera — the largest species being the Dytiscid Agabus gagates, Aube* — and 
also a few specimens of Cryptocerate Heteroptera. 

It is difficult to say how certain of the non-aquatic species, particularly the Lepid- 
optera and the Ohrysops, happened to be caught. They may have visited the pool to 
drink, or they may have been attracted to its shining surface. 

The observation, it seems to me, possesses interest not only as proving definitely the 
efficacy of the remedy and as showing that adult mosquitoes are killed as well as their 
early stages, but also as affording an indication as to the amount of kerosene which will 
prove effective for a given surface of water, and also as affording some indication of the 
length of time for which a single application will be operative. It is true that upon 
this last point the observations were not complete, owing to my departure after ten days, 
but as already indicated, the influence of the kerosene outlasted all ocular or odorous 
evidence of its presence, and there is every reason to suppose that it would have con- 
tinued for some days longer. 

As a general thing, in larger ponds, which are of a more permanent character, the 
presence of fish is a check upon the multiplication of the mosquito. These insects breed 
mainly in marshy lands, where small pools, surrounded by wet soil, adjoin each other, 
and such spots, where accessible, can be readily and economically treated with coal oil. 



42 



The economy of the operation is shown by a simple estimate from the data which I have 
given, that 5 gallons of coal oil, costing say 60 cents, will treat 9,600 square feet of 
water surface, or, to carry the computation still further, a barrel of kerosene, costing 
$4.50 will treat 96,000 square feet of water surface. 

With this remedy and with the drainage of swamp lands where practicable, with the 
introduction of fish into ponds in which they do not already occur, and with the careful 
watching of rain-water barrels and tanks, the mosquito plague in many localities can 
be readily and greatly lessened. Where mosquitoes breed, however, in the long succes- 
sion of brackish marshes on the seacoast, remedial work is practically hopeless. I 
anticipate not the slightest practical outcome from Mr. Robert H. Lamborn's dragon-fly 
proposition, and believe that relief in such cases will only come from extensive improve- 
ments at the'public expense in the way of rilling in and draining the marshes. 

One word more in reference to water tanks. The use of kerosene is of course out of 
the question in such receptacles. A note was published in Insect Life (vol. iv., pp. 223- 
224) to the effect that the introduction of carp into water tanks in the Riviera was pro- 
ductive of the best results. This is a pertinent suggestion for trial in this country. The 
U. S. Fish Commission can doubtless furnish a limited number of carp for this purpose. 
All water tanks and barrels should, however, be tightly covered, and only opened 
occasionally for the purpose of aerating the water. When thrown open for this purpose 
it will not be difficult to ascertain whether larval mosquitoes (wrigglers) are present, and 
if so, and the tank is not too large, they can be removed by means of a fine-meshed hand 
net. 

Interesting notes of the year were read by Prof. Howard Evarts Weed. 

With regard to the Horn-fly Prof. Smith statei 1 that it was not more abundant in 
New Jersey than the ordinary Cattle -fly (Slomoxys calcitrans). 

Prof. Kellicott said that his son had found it very abundant in Central Michigan. 

Mr. Weed thought that dark coloured cattle were most subject to attack. He also 
recorded that the insect now occurred in Louisiana. 

Dr. Bethune stated that the Horn -fly had that month been noticed for the first 
time in the Province of Ontario, at Oshawa, Toronto and London, and was creating 
some alarm among stock owners. 

Mr. P. H. Rolfs had found the Horn fly in Florida. 

Mr. Osborn read Notes on Injurious Insects in Iowa. For want of time the discussion 
on this interesting paper was deferred. 

Prof. C. V. Riley read a paper on Rose saw-flies in which it was shown that there 
were three distinct species attacking roses. 

, Afternoon Session. 

On reassembling the following members were elected : 

Prof. P. H. Rolfs, of Florida; Mr. H. A. Gossard, of Iowa; and Mr. C. F. 
Baker, of Colorado. 

A paper on Plant Faunas by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, of Kingston, Jamaica, was read. 

Mr. James Fletcher read a paper on Injurious Insects of the Year in Canada; 
this gave rise to a long and interesting discussion on several points brought up in this 
paper, particularly with reference to the life history of Gortyna immanis, the different 
kinds of knapsack sprayers, and the most practical remedies for the Horn-fly. 

Prof. Webster read a paper on the aphidivorous habits of the common slug (Limax 
campestris), which was discussed by Messrs. Riley, Smith and Howard. $^ : 2$1 

Dr. Bethune had found slugs upon trees he had sugaied for moths. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President — Prof. S. A. Forbes, of Illinois. 
1st Vice-President — Dr. C. J. S. Bethune, of Canada. 
2nd VicePresident — Dr. J. B. Smith, of .New Jersey. 
Secretary — Prof. H. Garman, of Kentucky. 

And the meeting then adjourned. 



43 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB OF THE A. A. A. S. 

The Entomological Club of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science held its annual meeting at Rochester, N.Y., August 17th to 19th, 1892, 
under the presidency of Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of Washington, D.C. The President's 
address is published in the Canadian Entomologist for September, 1892, pages 213-224, 
and the full official report in the October and November numbers ; to these the reader 
is referred. The meeting was very interesting and successful, and was attended by over 
thirty persons. The Entomological Society of Ontario was represented by its President, 
Dr. Bethune, and Mr. James FJetcher, of Ottawa. The former was elected President of 
the Club for the ensuing year, when the meeting will be held at Madison, Wisconsin, 
in connection with the gathering of scientists at the World's Fair in Chicago. 



SOME INJURIOUS MICRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 



By J. Alston Moffat. 

The difficulty experienced in obtaining mature examples of some of these tiny 
creatures is often very great. The evidence of their work may be unmistakable by the 
injury that is being done by their larvae in the effort to appease the craving of their 
appetites, and yet it may be almost next to impossible to secure a specimen in the form 
that originated the mischief. 

There are two good reasons to account for it, one is that many of these moths are 
active unly at night, and secrete themselves most effectually during the day ; another is 
the extremely brief existence of many of them in the mature state. The females generally 
come into the world with their eggs full size, requiring only to be fertilized before- 
depositing. The male, as a rule, emerges first, and is awaiting the appearance of the 
females ; when fertilization is completed he dies. The eggs are then laid by the female, 
which may be all done in one night's time, and when that is finished she also dies of 
exhaustion. Hence the necessity for rearing them in confinement, so as to obtain con- 
clusive evidence of the particular moth that laid 
the eggs that produced the larva that we see is 
doing so much mischief. And as this requires a 
great deal of time, close observation and experi- 
ence to accomplish successfully, we see the need 
there is that some should be put in a position to 
be able to devote their whole time to it, that thereby 
the community may reap the benefit of the know- 
ledge thus obtained. 

A good illustration of the truth of these 
remarks is got in the case of the Codling- moth, 
Carpocapsa po?nonella, Linn. (Fig. 14). Almost 
everyone has heard of it, and knows with more 
or less distinctness that it is the cause of the 
unfortunate worminess of the apples they grow 
or have to use, and yet how few have ever 
seen the moth, or would know it if they did see 
it ? During all the years of my collecting I have 
never found it in its natural locations. My first 
specimen was given to me by a friend who took 
it on his cellar window. My next were obtained by enclosing a few infected apples in a 
box, and not until the latter part of June, 1889, did I secure a satisfactory supply of good 
specimens. I was stopping in the country at a place where an old house was used as a 




44 



store room ; in the spring the apple barrels had been removed from the cellar to this store 
room, with the remains of the winter's fruit. The warm weather was then maturing the 
Pomonellas, and the south windows of the old house were literally swarming with 
them, large sized and in perfect conditional took three dozen and might have taken 
as many hundreds. 

The sequence and nomenclature of the following species is in accordance with the 
most recent decision of the authorities. 

Pyralis, Linn. Asopia, Tr. costalis, Fab. fimbrialis, S. V. 

Pyralis costalis, Linn. The Clover hay-moth (Fig. 15.) Expanse of wings, about 
three-fourths of an inch ; varies considerably in 
size. Colors : Front wings glassy purplish 
brown and golden yellow ; hind wings lighter. 
An introduced species. 

For full description of its nature and habit s 
see the Twelfth Annual Report of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Ontario. It was quite plentiful 
in some of the hay lofts of London last summer. 
The figures represent it in its various stages. 

Mr. T. H. Hill, of London South, secured 
a very remarkable form of it last summer. The 
ground colour is a rich apple green, which, com- 
bined with the golden yellow of the spots, margin 
and fringes, makes it an exceedingly attractive 
object to contemplate. 

Mineola, Hulst. Phycis, Haw. indigenella, Zell. nebulo, Walk. 

Mineola indigenella, Zell. The Apple leaf crumpler (Fig. 16). Expansion of wings 
about seven-tenths of an inch. Colors : Pale brown and silvery white ; hind wings 
brownish white. Introduced. (See Fourteenth Annual Report). 






Fig. 17. 



Fig. 16. 

Zophodia, Hub. Dakruma, Grote. grossularitv, Pack, convolutella, Hubn. 

Zophodia grossularice, Pack. The Gooseberry fruit worm (Fig. 17). Expanse of 
wings, nearly an inch. Colors • Pale gray with darker streaks and bands. (See Second, 
Seventh and Nineteenth Annual Reports). 



45 



Canarsia, Hulet. Pempelia, Hub. Hammondi, Riley. 

Canarsia Hammondi, Riley. The Apple-leaf skeletonizer (Fig. 18). Expanse of 
wings, not quite half an inch. The cross lines in the figure under the moth indicate the 
natural size. Colors : Deep purplish gray, and two silvery gray bands on the [front 
wings, with a glossy surface. 

The Larva (Figure a, natural size) eats the green pulp from between the veins on 
the upper surface of the leaf, causing it to assume a blighted appearance 
figure are portions of th-3 larva greatly magnified. 



b and c in the 





Fig. 19. 



Fig. 18. 



Plodia, Gn. Ephestia, Gn. inter punctella, Hub. 

Plodia inter punctella, Hub. The Dried-fruit moth (Fig. 19). Expanse of wings, 
about half an inch. Colors : Yellowish and reddish purple. (See Twentieth Annual 
Report). 

A few years ago I saw a half barrel of dried apples that had remained undisturbed 
for some time, in an upstairs chamber, and this moth had found it to be a convenient 
breeding place. The mature insects were in surprising numbers, resting on the inside 
of the barrel, and when disturbed would dart down and hide themselves amongst the 
pieces of apple which were completely infested with the larvae in all stages of growth. 

Caccecia, Hub. Loxotcen'a, Steph. rosaceana, Harr. 

Caccecia rosaceana, Harr. The Oblique-banded leaf-roller (Fig. 20). Expanse of 
wings about an inch, but varies greatly. Colors : Front wings cinnamon brown, with 
markings of darker brown ; hind wings yellow. 

A very general feeder. (See First, Second, Third, Fourth and 
Twenty-second Annual Reports.) This moth was unusually abund- 
ant here last summer. In a bit of open woods near the city, with 
a thick undergrowth of oak and hazel about four feet in height, 
they could have been seen during the latter part of July and the Fl £- 20 - 

first part of August, resting on %he upper surface of the leaves so thickly as to arrest the 
attention of the most unobservant, and when a bush was jarred they would rise from it in 
dozens. 

Cac&cia Hub. cerasivorana Fitch. Cacoecia cerasivorana Fitch. The cherry-tree 
leaf eater. Fig. 21. 

Expanse of Wings, about three fourths of an inch. 
Colors : Front wings a rich reddish yellow, with much the shade 
of fresh bees- wax and darker shades with cross-bands of pale leaden 
blue. Hind wings, pale ochre yellow. 

Retinia Gn. comstockiana Fern. Retinia comstockiana, Fern. The Pitch-pine branch 
miner. Fig. 22. 





Fig. 21. 



4G 



Expanse of wings about three-fourths of an inch. 

Colors : Front wings, rusty brown, with white and leaden-hued markings crossing 
the wings. Hind wings, greyish brown. 

The figure shows the chrysalid magnified, also the larva, and its manner of working 
in the branches, with the effects produced in the injury and disfigurement of the tree. 
(See Fourteenth Annual Rport.) 




Fig 22. 



Fig. 25. 



Eudemis Hub. Penthina Fitch, botrana Schiff. vitivorana Pac < . viteana Clem. 
Eudemis botrana, Schiff. The Grape berry moth. Fig 23. 

Expanse of wings about half an inch. 

Colors • Front wings dull bluish of different shades with a metallic lustre. Hind 
wings, dull brown; an introduced species. (See Thirteenth and Fourteenth Annual Reports.) 

Phoxopteris Tr. nubeculana Clem. Phoxopteris nubeculana Clem. The Apple-leaf 



sewer. Fig 24. 



Expanse of wings about half an inch. 

Colors : Fronb wings white with brown markings j hind wings light gray. 

I have taken this moth only in the woods, but I do not find it so generally abundant 
as some of its congeners which have not yet been reported as injurious. It seems to have 
found the apple leaf quite to its liking, and the conditions in the orchard favorable to its 
increase. 



47 



Phoxopteris Tr. Anchylopera Wal. & Riley, comptana Frol. fragarioz W. & R. 
Phoxopieris comptana Frol. The Strawberry leaf roller. Fig. 25. 

Expanse of wings about half an inch. 

Colors : Front wings reddish brown, marked with black and white ; hind wings 
dusky. Jg An introduced species. (See Third Annual Report.) 

Aspidisea Clem, splendoriferella Clem, pruniella Clem, sacetella Pack. Aspidisea 
splendoriferella Clem. An apple leaf miner. Fig. 26. 

"fs$, Colors : Front wings leaden gray, with a metallic lustre, with golden and silver 
spots and streaks ; Hind legs gray with yellowish brown fringe. 




Fig. 26. 

a shows the work of the minute larva in the leaf ; the line at b gives its length ; d 
illustrates the cocoons attached to the branch, and A is a parasite greatly enlarged. The 
cross lines below indicate the natural size. 

Coleophora Zell. malivorella Riley, multlpulvella Cham, Coleophora malivorella 
Riley. The Apple-tree case-bearer. Fig. 27. 

Expanse of wings about half an inch. 

Colors : Wings brown, dotted with white ; thorax and abdomen white, dotted with 
brown. The parent moth deposits her eggs in July, the larva feeding on the underside 
of the leaf during August and Sepcember. On the approach of the cold weather they 
desert the leaves and fasten their cases to the twigs, as represented at (a) where they pass 
the winter. When the warm weather returns in spring they detach themselves and move 
about, feeding on the swelling buds, when they do the greatest injury; maturing about 
the beginning of July to commence another cycle. 



48 



Bucculatrix Zell. pomifoliella Clem, pomonella Pack. Bucculatrix pomifoliella 
Clem. An apple leaf feeder, as the name indicates. Fig. 28. 

Expanse of wings about three-eighths of an inch. 

Colors : Pale yellow and brown ; a in the figure represents a twig with cocoons 
attached, b a cocoon detached, c, the moth greatly magnified. 




Fig. 27. 



Fig. 28. 



Gelechia Zell. pinifoliella Cham. Gelechia pinifoliella Cham. The Pine tree 
leaf -miner. Fig. 29. 

Expanse of wings about three-eighths of an inch. 




Fig. 29. 



Colors : Front wings brownish yellow, dotted with fuscous, the lines crossing the 
wings white ; hind wings pale gray. 

The figure represents the insect in its various stages greatly magnified, and a' terminal 
shoot showing the mischief done by this tiny creature. (See Fourteenth Annual] Report.) 



49 



THE HORN-FLY. (Hcematobia serrata. Rob.-Desv.) 
By James Fletcher, f.l.s., f.r.s.c. 

During the past summer a new pest of the farmer has made its appearance in Can- 
ada in the shape of a small blackish fly which appeared suddenly in enormous numbers on 
cattle, and was first noticed in Canada towards the end of July at Oshawa, Ont., by Mr. 
Elmer Lick, who sent specimens to me for identification. Almost simultaneously it was 
recorded all along the boundary line, from Essex County, Ontario, as far east as 
Boucherville, P. Q , beiow Montreal. The flies appeared in such enormous numbers, and 
their attacks upon the cattle were so severe that farmers in the districts invaded at once 
recognized the losses they might incur by neglecting to take steps to protect their stock. 
Letters of inquiry came in from all directions asking for remedies and information con- 
cerning the habits of the fly. Much alarm was felt by stock-owners, and grossly 
exaggerated statements received wide circulation as to the injuries which had been in- 
flicted upon cattle of ail kinds by the fly. Such complaints as the following, which are 




tMXUs 



Fig. 30. 



The Horn-fly. a, egg ; 6, maggot ; c, puparium ; d, adult fly in biting position — all enlarged. 
(Figure kindly lent by the United States Entomologist.) 

actual reports I received, were by no means rare : " All the cattle in this district are 
being destroyed," "cows through the country are dying by hundreds," "several farmers 
have lost their cattle entirely," and a great many reports stated with more precision, 
that ** neighbors" had lost from two to twelve (the favorite number being seven). 
Whenever these reports came in, I endeavoured to find out the name of the " neighbor," 
so as to trace up the true history of the case ; but in no instance could I find a man who 
had actually lost a single animal from the attack of the flies. It was always " some 
other neighbour" or "I did not lose any myself, but I was told that someone else had." 
In fact, although this insect was undoubtedly the cause of much loss of revenue to farmers, 
as stated above, I have been unable to hear of even one instance where an animal was 
killed by its attacks. However, these exaggerated accounts of the possible loss served 
a very useful end, by stirring up negligent farmers to take some steps to protect their 
animals from the irritating attacks of their troublesome enemies. There was much cor- 

4 (EN,) 



50 



respondence in the newspapers, and the irrepressible " practical man " (self-styled) came 
bravely to the front with useless suggestions, and, as usual, very soon showed the true 
nature of the occupant of the lion's skin. Inaccurate statements as to the life history of 
the insect gained wide credence. Of these the following is a sample : " The eggs are laid 
either on the horns, into which the maggots bore and then penetrate the skull, or in the 
holes which they eat through the hide, lay eggs therein, which hatch out in large num- 
bers, and proceed with their boring operations until the vital portions of the cow are 
touched and death ensues." None of this is founded upon fact. The complete life- 
history has been worked out, and at once shows us the absurdity of such theories. The 
maggots do not feed upon flesh at all, but upon the manure of the cattle, and on this 
only while it is in a fresh and moist condition. 

It is in the perfect state alone that the Horn-fly is troublesome to stock, and the 
only injuries are those which result from the irritation of its bites. These, however, are 
sometimes considerable, for the flies occur in such enormous numbers, and worry the 
cattle so incessantly, that these fall off rapidly both in flesh and yield of milk, this latter 
product being reduced in some cases from one third to one half. The appearance of this 
insect amongst our Canadian herds is, therefore, a very serious matter, and one that demands 
the attention of all stock-owners, so that prompt steps may be taken early in the spring 
to wage an incessant and systematic warfare against it upon its first appearance. There 
are certain simple and easily-applied remedies which may be used successfully to mitigate 
the attack, and if all would apply them, its numbers could De controlled with comparative 



For the intelligent application of suitable remedies, it is most important that the 
true and full life-history of the pest should be understood. It is briefly as follows : 

The eggs, (Fig. 30a) which are about 1-20 of an inch in length, are laid singly on the 
freshly- dropped dung of cattle. They are brown in colour, and from this fact,- not easily 
seen where they are laid. The young maggots hatch in less than 24 hours and at once 
burrow down a short distance beneath the surface of the dung, where they remain until 
full grown, that is, about a week, when they are about | of an inch in length, white, and 
shaped as shown at fig. 306. When full-fed they burrow a short distance into the ground 
and assume the pupa form (fig. 30c), when they are -J of an inch in length. In hot 
weather the pupa state lasts only four or five days ; but the last brood of the season, from 
eggs laid in September, passes the winter in that condition a short distance beneath the 
surface of the ground, and the flies emerge the following spring. The perfect insect (fig. 
30d , male) is shaped very much like the common Cattle-fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) with 
which it is closely related, or the House-fly (Musca domestica). It is, however, much 
smaller, being only J of an inch in length or about ^ the size of those insects. Wi£h 
regard to the common Cattle-fly (S. calcitrans) there is an idea which is quite erroneous, 
but which is very prevalent among those who do not understand much about insects, that 
this is merely the common House-fly, which towards autumn acquires the bad habit of 
biting. It is much more abundant in autumn and from its annoying bites and frequent 
occurrence in houses is sometimes called " Biting House-fly." The true House-fly (Musca 
domestica) never bites, having only a sucking tongue with a flat disk at the tip, whilst 
the Cattle-flies have a sharp-pointed proboscis, which is really a case containing a slender 
lancet, with which they penetrate the skin of animals and suck their blood. When not in 
use this shining black dagger is carried projecting forward beneath the head, but when 
in use is turned down straight beneath the head of the fly and inserted into the tissues 
of the animal which is being attacked. The details of this complicated organ are fully 
explained and illustrated by Prof. J. B. Smith in Bulletin 62 of the New Jersey Agricul- 
tural Experimental Station. 

The Horn -fly is, without any doubt, a new pest in Canada, which has come to 
us from the United States. It is a European insect which was first brought to the notice 
of the U.S. Division of Entomology in 1887, and was probably imported with cattle from 
Europe, where it has been known since 1830. In 1889 its complete life history was 
worked out by Prof. Riley and his assistants, Messrs. L. O. Howard and C. L. Marlatt. 
This was published in "Insect Life," vol. II., pp. 93-103, and in the annual report of the 



51 



U.S. Entomologist for 1889 and 1890. Prof. J. B. Smith, of New Jersey has published 
a very full account of his investigations of the same subject in New Jersey Agricultural 
Experimental Station Bulletin No. 62. The figures used in this article have been very 
kindly lent for the purpose by Prof. Riley. 

The color of the Horn-fly is dark gray with yellowish sheen, and the body is covered 
with black bristles. The head consists almost entirely of the dark-red silvery-edged eyes. 
It will be at once distinguished from the common Cattle-fly by its darker colour, smaller size, 
greater activity and, above all, by the characteristic habit from which it takes its name, 
of gathering in clusters upon the horns of cattle, particularly upon the upper side. When 
very abundant the flies form a more or less complete ring around the horn, sometimes ex- 
tending two or three inches from the base towards the tip, as shown in fig. 31. This 
clustering on the horns seems to be peculiar to the species, and is probably due to some 
special characteristic. They merely settle there, however, as a convenient resting place, 
from which they cannot be easily dislodged by the animal ; for the same reason, they also 
congregate in clusters at the base of the tail and on the neck. Strange to say, while the 
closely allied Stomoxys calcitrans bites the legs of cattle very much, the Horn fly very 
seldom settles there, and while the Stomoxys bites men, dogs and horses, the present 




Fig. 31. 

Cow-horn showing band of resting flies— reduced. 

(Figure kindly lent by the United States Entomologist.) 

apecies has not been recorded to give trouble in that way. A milkman, however, told me 
that on one occasion he was much bothered by Horn-flies biting his bare arms when milk- 
ing, and that the bite was much more severe than that of the common Cattle-fly. It is 
probable that they will occasionally bite human beings, particularly when, as in the above 
instance, working with bare arms among cattle, and thus getting their odor on the skin. 

Cattle of all breeds are subject to annoyance from this pest, but I have observed 
very great differences in susceptibility to injury, not only in different breeds, but also in 
individual animals of a given breed according to the health of the animals, temperament 
or the texture of their skins. 

When feeding, the flies work their way down through the hairs until they can pierce 
the skin of their victims with their short beaks. They are exceedingly agile, and when 
biting keep their wings partly spread, ready to take flight at the least disturbance. A 
slash of the tail or a swing of the head of a bitten animal only disturbs its tormentors for 
a second, when they will rise in a cloud but to settle again and resume the operation of 
torture the next instant. The bites seem to produce great irritation, and sores are fre- 
quently formed on the necks and bodies of animals by their rubbing themselves against 
posts or trees or by licking bitten places, where the irritation cannot be allayed by rub- 
bing, as inside the thighs, around and on the udder and along the milk vein. 



52 



This insect has great powers of increase. It appears early in the spring from the pupa 
cases, having passed the winter under ground, and also probably some specimens pass the 
winter in the perfect state. It breeds rapidly, only about two weeks being required in 
summer for each brood to mature, and there are probably six or eight broods in a season. 
Mr. L. O. Howard found that, at Washington, the time required from the laying of the 
egg to the appearance of the fly was from 10 to 17 days, and that the fly breeds from 
the middle of May till the middle of September. '$g%W2MM TUTT^* 

Although only brought under my notice in July last, from enquiries made I have 
no doubt that this pest has been present on our Canadian stock farms throughout the 
summer. It was introduced into the United States only six years ago and has spread in 
all directions over many States of the Union and has now invaded Canada also. It has 
reached the most southern States and lately as far west as Texas. Curiously, how- 
ever, long before it had ever reached Texas it was spoken of by farmers as " the Texas 
fly," and to-day in Canada more enquiries are made concerning it by this name than any 
other. 

Remedies. 

Notwithstanding the great loss which will undoubtedly result to stock-owners if they 
neglect to attend to this new enemy, there is no reason why it should not be kept within 
control by simple, cheap and well tested remedies. It is a most important matter and one 
that should be taken up by all Farmers' Institutes and Dairymen's Associations, so that if 
possible some united effort might be made to control it while the numbers are small in 
spring, and eventually to stamp it out. All that is necessary is for everyone to try first 
of all to learn what the true life history is, and in accordance with this to apply the best 
remedy and try to induce his neighbors to do the same. 

The remedies are cheap and easily applied ; but will require constant attention to 
make them effective. They are of two kinds, (1) preventive, or such as keep the flies from 
biting the animals ; (2) active, or such as aim at the destruction of the insects either as 
maggots or flies. 

1. Preventive. Almost any greasy substance will keep the flies away for several 
days. Lard, train oil, tanner's oil, fish oils, with a little sulphur, carbolic acid or oil of 
tar added, will keep the flies off for from five to six days. The two latter will have a 
healing effect on any sores which may have formed. Carbolic acid and oil of tar will mix 
sufficiently well with fish oils if the two substances be placed together in a bottle and well 
shaken. One ounce of either may be added in two quarts of oil. Axle grease and tallow 
have been also used to advantage. It may not be amiss to point out that no injury 
whatever results from the flies settling on the horns, as they only go thereto rest, and 
cannot possibly do the horn any injury. Tar has been largely used to put on the horns 
of cattle, but it answers no better than the greasy substances mentioned above, and 
makes the animals in a horrible mess ; moreover, if the flies are driven from the horns 
they merely fly to the animal's body, where they can do much more harm. 

The remedy of this class which will eventually be found to be the best, is the 
mixture known as the Kerosene Emulsion, which consists simply of a mixture of soap- 
suds with twice the quantity of ordinary coal oil, made as follows : Boil two ounces of 
common soap in one quart of rain water until the soap is dissolved, then turn it into 
two quarts of coal oil and churn it violently with a syringe or force pump for five 
minutes, when it will be of a smooth, creamy nature. This gives the stock emulsion, 
which must be diluted before using with nine times its measure (that is 27 quarts) of 
water. It will mix much more easily with the water if done at once, before the 
stock emulsion cools. This mixture may be applied to the animals either by means 
of a sponge, or, what will certainly be found most convenient where there are many 
animals to treat, by means of a force pump and spraying nozzle. This can be done in a 
few minutes after milking, and one or two pints will suffice for each animal. 



53 



2. Active. Of applications to destroy the perfect flies, several hive been recom- 
mended, as pyrethrum powder, tobacco dust, etc., but these are little if any better than 
the kerosene emulsion, which when sprayed over cattle killed all the flies reached and 
prevented others from coming for from three to seven days. But these remedies for 
the destruction of the perfect flies are only to be advised for use upon the first 
appearance of the pest in a new locality, or early in the season for the destruction of 
the first brood. The true way to fight this enemy is by the treatment of the cattle 
droppings so as to destroy the egos and larva). The maggots can live in the dung 
only while it is in a moist condition. Any means, therefore, which will ensure its 
drying up will destroy them. For this purpose, lime, land plaster, and wood ashes are 
suggested. The last named of these will probably be found the best, not only from its 
strong alkaline properties, which are destructive to insect life, but also from its great 
value as a fertilizer, and the ease with which it can usually be obtained on every farm. 

Messrs. Riley and Howard state that " throwing a spadeful of lime upon a cow- 
dung will destroy the larvae living in it. If the evil should increase, it will well repay a 
stock raiser to start a load of lime through his fields occasionally, particularly in May or 
June, as every larva killed then represents the death of very many flies during July and 
August. We feel certain that this course will be found in many cases practical and of 
great avail, and will often be an advantage to the pasture besides." 

I believe that Canadian wood ashes would be far superior to lime, and if neither of 
these were easily obtainable, a good shovelful of dry earth or road dust would soon absorb 
the moisture necessary for the development of the larvae. 

Of all the remedies I have tried or seen suggested, the one which commends itself 
to me as the most practical is by Prof. J. B. Smith, who says : " By sending a boy over the 
pasture every other day with a shovel to thoroughly spread out the cow-droppings, all eggs 
and larvae would be destroyed." I think if this were done twice a week it would be 
sufficient, and the remedy would be equally effective in wet weather, when the substance 
would be washed away, as in dry when it is dried up. 



Spread of the Horn fly. — A correspondent in Uniontown, Pa., writes us that 
the Horn-fly has made its appearance in that vicinity, having first been noticed last 
season and having become very abundant the present summer. While spending a few 
weeks in Greene County, N.Y , we noticed this insect in comparative abundance, but not 
yet numerous enough to attract attention by the habit of congregating upon the horns. 
Another new locality has been given us by Mr. J. H. Woodruff, of Watertown, Conn., 
who has found the fly to be very abundant in his vicinity, and still another locality is 
Waller County, Tex. We are indebted to Mr. F. W. Thurow for specimens from this 
region. During the month of August complaints have also come in from quite a number 
of correspondents, among others from the following : Elisha Slade, Bristol County, Mass. ; 
Miss E. J. Phillips, Cuyahoga County, Ohio ; George L. Oliver, Otsego County, N. Y. ; 
Devoe and Shumway, Montgomery County, N.Y. ; T. C. Ross, Jefferson County, Iowa; 
B. F. Koons, Tolland County, Conn. ; I. N. Rauls, Citrus County, Fla. — Insect Life, 
Sept., 1892. 



CLOTHES MOTHS. 

By James Fletcher, F. L. S., F. R. S. C. 

In a northern climate, with such winters as we enjoy in Canada, furs and woollen 
clothing are indispensable. Only too well known to all housekeepers are the miserable 
little creatures which in their various forms and different species are grouped under the 
name of Clothes-moths. There are few indeed who have not felt the irritation of finding 
at some time irretrievable damage had been committed in the family supply of winter 
clothing, particularly of woollen underclothes, socks, mitts and furs, which it was th ught 
had been " peppered and put safely away last spring before the moths appeared," to say 
nothing of the stripped patches of carpet under the piano and sofas, or even of the little 



54 



holes which had appeared suddenly in the pater-familias' dress suit, that had only been 
left out " for a few days after he came back from his summer holidays." All of these ills 
are only too well known to most people, and it is one of the grim satisfactions of careless 
people that at any rate the most careful get sometimes caught. 

There has been very great confusion concerning the proper identification of the 
different caterpillars of moths which injure clothes in houses, and this confusion has been 
much added to by the absurd name Buffalo moth or Buffalo carpet moth, which has been 
given to the imported carpet beetle, Anthrenus scrophularice. In an account given in 
our Annual Report for 1873, there are evidently two species confounded. The whole 
matter was carefully revised by Prof. Fernald in 1882, and the synonymy given, together 
with descriptions of the three species which are found in North America, in Canadian 
Entomologist, Vol. XIV, p. 166. There is also an excellent illustrated article by Prof. 
C. V. Riley in Insect Life, Vol. II, p. 211. Figs. 32 and 33 used in that article have 
been kindly lent by Prof. Riley. 

Of the three species mentioned, two only have come under my notice in Canada as 
household pests. Of these by far the commonest is the small creamy white or buff 
coloured moth, Tineola biselliella, Hum. This species Prof. Fernald tells us, was separated 

from the genus Tinea by Herrick Schaeffer be- 
cause of the absence of the maxillary palpi. 
The small moths (Fig. 32), less than a quarter 
of an inch in length, are extremely active, flying 
and running rapidly to hide when disturbed. 
The head is dull ochreous yellow ; the forevvings 
paler and of a silvery sheen without any spots. 
The under wings are of a slightly different shade 
of color. The minute yellowish eggs are laid 
upon the substance which is afterwards to be the 
food of the young caterpillar. Immediately 
upon hatching, the tiny caterpillar spins a silken 
path upon which it travels in search of food. It 
never, however, forms a case, as is done by the 
next species to be described, until it is full fed, 
when it makes a cocoon generally of portions of the material upon which it has been 
feeding. The food of this troublesome insect is very varied, but consists mainly of 
fabrics composed of animal hairs ; any clothes packed away in a soiled condition are 
much more liable to attack than those which have been well shaken and brushed. 
Carpets are often attacked, particularly in darkened rooms and under heavy pieces of 
furniture which cannot be easily moved, and where therefore frequent sweeping is not 
possible. Dust in the cracks of floors and under skirt-boards provides a constant supply 
of food for this insect, and the active little moths penetrate drawers and boxes through 
very small fissures. Sable-hair paint brushes seem to be a special delicacy for these 
little fiends, to which, however, few things in the shape of animal hair come amiss. 
Some instances of their injuries which have been reported to me are the following : the 
felt facings of the dampers and hammers of a piano were so destroyed in a single summer 
as to necessitate a complete renewal; another instance of considerable injury from this 
little enemy was the cutting of the woollen cord by which a large and valuable picture 
was suspended ; the picture fell and was not only injured itself, but did considerable 
damage to other objects beneath it. 

Frequently collections of insects suffer from the depredations of Tineola biselliella y 
and I have in my collection not only Lepidoptera, of which the wings have been destroyed, 
and several locusts, to which it seems very partial, but what seems to me very remark- 
able, a large greasy specimen of Necrophorus orbicoltis, of which the interior has been 
eaten out, and the only indication of the marauder is its empty pupa case, protruding 
between the head and thorax of the beetle. 

The white grub-like caterpillar of this species never forms a true case as does that of 
another species, Tinea tapetzella, which makes for itself a silken gallery mixed with 




Fig. 32. — Tineola biselliclla. 



55 



fragments of the material it is destroying"; but it spins a more or less complete silken 
tube through the hair when attacking fur. 

Although the moths appear throughout the summer, it is stated that there is in the 
north only one brood in the year, but I think this can hardly be the case, and, although 
I have this season failed in rearing the young caterpillar from the egg, a brood hatched 
early in June contained some specimens which were 4.50 mm. by the middle of August, 
when the whole of them died without any apparent cause ; and the perfect insects were 
to be found flying from the month of May until September the 28th. The caterpillar 
attains full growth in autumn, when it builds for itself a close cocoon in which it remains 
unchanged until spring For this purpose it occasionally takes other materials than 
those it has been feeding on. I have one cocoon composed of asbestos fibres which were 
in a drawer with some paint brushes that had been destroyed, but the asbestos fibre alone 
had been used in the formation of the cocoon. Another cocoon is composed of fibres of 
cotton wadding and the caterpillar had apparently subsisted almost entirely upon the 
gummy coating with whieh the surface of the wadding had been dressed. 

Tinea pellionella is thought by Prof. Riley to be the commoner species in northern 
regions, but this has not been my experience. In fact, it has only been sent to me from 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and on one occasion from Toronto. In this latter case, it 
had certainly been recently imported from England. In Prof. Riley's interesting account 
in Insect Life, its habits are 
thus briefly described : " The 
small light brown moths dis- 
tinguished, as shown at Fig. 
33 by the darker spots at 
intervals on the wings, begin 
to appear in May, and are 
frequently seen flitting about 
as late as August. They pair, 
and the female then searches 
for suitable places for the de- 
position of her eggs, working 
her way into dark corners and 
deep into the folds of garments, 
apparently choosing by in- 
stinct the least conspicuous 
places. From these eggs hatch 

the white soft-bodied larvae (Fig. 33,), each of which begins immediately to make a case 
for itself from the fragments of the cloth upon which it feeds. The cases are in the 
shape of a hollow roll or cylinder, and the interior is lined with silk. As they grow, 
they enlarge these cases by adding material to either end and by inserting gores down 
the sides which they slit open for the purpose. The larva reaches its full growth toward 
winter and then, crawling into some yet more protected spot, remains there torpid 
through the winter within its case, which is at this time thickened and fastened at either 
end with silk. I have known these larvae in autumn to leave the carpet upon which they 
had fed, drag their heavy cases up a 15-foot wall and fasten them in the angle of the 
cornice of the ceiling. The transformation to pupa takes place within the case the 
following spring. The heat of a dwelling-house does not seem to affect the development of 
the pupae, but the caterpillars remain unchanged till spring even in a highly heated office." 

With the exception of the difference in making their cases, the habits and injuries of 
these species are very similar, and the same remedies will apply for both. A most 
interesting experiment, demonstrating the manner in which the case of T. pellionella is 
made, can be tried by providing the young caterpillars with different colored materials 
for making their cases. I have cases showing rings formed from scarlet and black wool, 
blue peacock's feathers and white lamb's wool. 

Perhaps the most remarkable result of the work of any insect which has ever come 
under my notice, was a piece of a pillow-case which was sent to me by Miss Lucy 0. 
Eaton, of Truro, Nova Scotia. The specimen at first sight has the appearance of beau- 




Fig. 33. — Tinea pellionella — enlarged. — adult ; larva ; larva 
in case (after Riley). 



56 



tif ully soft grey velvet or short plush. The surface is perfectly even and very smooth to 
the touch. Since the specimen was received I have shown it to a great many, and until 
placed under the microscope together with one of the feathers with which the pile was 
made, it has proved altogether too much for anyone's credulity to believe that it was the 
work of insects. When magnified, however, the identity of the minute threads of the 
pile with the portions of the plumules of the feathers with which the pillow-case had been 
formerly stuffed, is made quite evident. The pillow-case was made of ordinary strong 
cotton ticking, conspicuously striped with wide blue, and narrow black and red stripes. 
After the remarkable operation described below the blue and red stripes were entirely 
obliterated, and the black stripes could only be discerned faintly through the feather felt- 
ing. Miss Eaton gives the folio wing particulars with regard to this new fabric : 

" The pillow was made in the fall of 1889 and was filled with turkey feathers, which 
as you probably know are very downy near the base, and it is with portions of this down 
that the pillow is covered. The pillow was made in 1 889 and I opened it in the winter 
of 1891, during that time it had very little actual use. People who slept on this pillow 
made no remarks about it ; but I found it in the morning more often on the floor than 
in the bed. It remained for about six months in an unused room, when one day think- 
ing nothing of the matter I placed it on my own bed and I found that I actually could not 
sleep for the noise, which was like something crawUng slowly back and forth. I turned 
it over several times ; but it always seemed right under my head. Then I began to think 
that I had discovered the reason why other people had thrown it on to the floor so 
often, and I myself threw it out of bed. I then left it alone for about six weeks and 
tried it again ; but the noise was still there. I then put it on one side thinking that 
when I had time I would open it and get the insects for my collection. It was some 
time before I found a convenient opportunity, I then took it into an empty room, put a 
sheet on the floor and cut open the pillow-case and was much surprised to find it in the 
condition you see by the specimen I send you. The feathers were entirely stripped of 
their down. It was the insects I was looking for though, so I stirred the feathers up with 
a stick and the fine particles of down rose in such a cloud, that I was obliged to tie a 
towel over my nose and mouth to keep from being choked. From the noise that I had heard 
and the destruction, I looked for an insect about the size of a grasshopper at least ; but 
saw nothing but the little thing I send. There were about a hundred ; but 1 saved only 
a few. I could not believe that I had found the right insects, I thought they must be 
larger. I did not actually see the insects alive amongst the feathers but only found the 
cocoons." 

Miss Eaton kindly forwarded me specimens of the injured feathers and also cocoons 
of the moth Tinea pelli-mella, which she had taken from the pillow. These cocoons show 
under the miscroscope that they, like the felting of the pillow-case, are also composed of 
the debris of the injured feathers. The minute bristles of the plumules of feathers, when 

examined under a microscope show plainly their barbed 
nature by which they serve so admirably the purposes 
required of them in causing the plumules to adhere 
lightly to those touching them in the feather to which 
they belong ; but at the same time allowing the plumules 
to be separated without injury, and then binding them 
together again. It is owing to these very barbs on the 
particles, that the felting of the cotton pillow-case was 
possible, the feathers having been cut up into fine 
morsels, these are rendered sufficiently rigid in propor- 
tion to their length to work their way through the 
feathers little by little, every time the pillow is moved, 
by reason of their barbs which all point one way, until 
the pillow-case is reached, here, if short enough, they 
work their way a short distance into the cotton cloth 
Fig. 34. Bearer fur magnified 250 and remain fixed there by their barbs. The beautiful 
diameters. evenness of the pile is, I imagine, due to the fact that 

unless the particles are very short they will not be 




57 



rigid enough to work their way through the feathers and into the cloth. This barbed 
character is found also in the hair of many animals, and is taken advantage of in the mak- 
ing of felt as was formerly done from the hair of the beaver, for making the shapes of hats. 
This is fully explained and a magnified illustration, (Fig. 34.) is given, of the hair of the 
beaver in Mr. Horace T. Martin's new and excellent work " Castorologia " where, not 
only this, but almost every other imaginable information about the beaver is to be found. 

Miss Eaton also sent some specimens to the Smithsonian Institution and to the United 
States Entomologist. In Insect Life Vol. IV,, p. 404 the matter is referred to and 
some interesting data are given of similar work by other insects, as follows : " There is 
occasionally sent in to the National Museum or the Department of Agriculture, a sample 
of the felting of bits of feathers into the substance of bed ticking or pillow-casing which is 
said to have been done by some insect. This felting is frequently very beautifully done, 
and the inside of the cloth next to the feathers appears like a velvet tissue. Ordinarily 
the breaking up of the feathers which results in this felting, is done by Attagenus piceus, 
a Dermestid beetle which is particularly fond of feathers. We have just received a very 
fine specimen from Lucy 0. Eaton, of Truro, Nova Scotia, in which the work was done by 
Tinea pellionella, one of the commonest of the northern clothes moths. It must be re- 
membered in these cases that the felting is not done by the insects, but by the mechanical 
action of the feather barbules themselves. When the feathers have once become broken 
up into small bits by the action of the insects, then through the constant pressing together 
of the pillow they gradually work themselves into the cloth covering in which they are 
held by their microscopic retrorse serrations. To one who looks at a fine specimen of this 
accidental felting, there can not fail to come the suggestion that feathers could be com- 
mercially used in this way. The matter has been occasionally referred to in print, notably 
in the American Naturalist for December, 1882, and in Insect Life, Vol. II., pp. 317-318, 
another instance is given of the felting of a pillow-case from duck feathers which had been 
destroyed by Dermestid beetles. It is described as being ' entirely covered with a fine 
growth of down as evenly and thickly as the fur on a mole-skin, which it very much re- 
sembles; it is firmly attached, the down breaking rather than pull off." 

The editor of Insect Life stated at that time: " Pillows in which this felting of the 
ticking occurs have been infested by one of the Dermestid beetles, (in all of the cases with 
which I am familiar it has been Attagenus megatoma) whose work has resulted in the 
comminution of the feathers, and the felting results from the subsequent mechanical action. 
The small feather particles are barbed, as you are aware, and, whenever caught in a cot- 
ton fabric by their bases, become anchored in such a way that every movement of the 
pillow anchors them still further." 

In addition to the above the following interesting information is given : 

" A similar bit of ticking was exhibited at the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences, April 5th, 1883, and elicited the information that one of the members had some 
years previously examined a similar material known to have been formed from the frag- 
ments of gull feathers, and that a cloak had been made from it which wore well." 

With regard to the distin3tive differences between these three troublesome immigrants 
from the old world, it may be well to mention the following points : 

1. Tineola biselliella is the same insect as has been frequently treated under the name 
of Tinea flavifrontella. This is the commonest species in Canada. The caterpillar spins 
only a silken path or tube over the surface of, or through, the article attacked. The motn 
is pale yellow without spots, and when at rest, it holds its wings slanting. Fig. 32. 

2. Tinea pellionella. The caterpillar of this species from the very first lives within 
a case, which it carries about with it ; the moth is darker in colour with a few black 
spots on the wing3, which lie flit on the back when the insect is at rest. Fiij. 33. 

3. Tinea tapetzella. The caterpillar of this species spins for itself a silken gallery 
mixed with fragments of the material it is attacking. It remains at all times hidden 
within this gallery. The moth is easily distinguished from the others by the front wings 
which are black from the base to the middle and white or gray beyond. 



58 



Remedies. With regard to remedies for these troublesome insects, chere is nothing 
better than giving the clothes, furs, etc., a thorough beating and brushing, and then pack- 
ing them away in spring, if possible before the moths appear. They should be folded 
neatly and wrapped in strong paper ; of course if the edges are pasted, so much the safer. 
I have seen in the City of Detroit large paper sacks prepared specially to keep out moths, 
in which dresses can be hung up without folding. In Insect Life, Vol. II, page 214, a 
plan of Mr. L 0. Howard's is recommended : " He buys for a small sum from his tailor 
a number of paste-board boxes in which they deliver suits, and his wife carefully folds and 
packs away all clothing, gumming a strip of wrapping paper around the edges of the cover 
so as to leave no crack. These boxes will last for a lifetime with careful use. Others 
use for the same purpose ordinary paper flour sacks or linen pillow-cases, which answer 
well. The success of these means depends entirely on the thoroughness of the preliminary 
work." 

As many have found to their sorrow, camphor, pepper, cedar chips, and that abomin- 
able malodorant naphthaline, do not kill the insects and are only partially successful in 
keeping them away. 

When carpets are found to be attacked, the furniture should be removed, the 
carpet thoroughly swept and the edges of the room freely sprinkled with benzine or gaso- 
line. But as both of these liquids are extremely inflammable, great care must be taken, 
not to take a light into the room until some hours afterwards or until the room has been 
thoroughly aired. In the case of upholstered furniture or carriage linings, these may be 
sprinkled freely with gasoline, which will destroy the insects in all stages, and the un- 
pleasant odor soon disappears when the articles are left in the open air. Prof. Riley 
recommends for carriage linings sponging them with a dilute solution of corrosive 
sublimate in alcohol, made only just strong enough not to leave a white mark on a black 
feather. The extremely poisonous nature of this substance, however, demands that the 
greatest care should be exercised in its use. 

For clothes which may have to be used only occasionally during the summer, it is well 
when the house is known to be infested, to hang them in some place where they will not 
be forgotten and will be frequently moved. 



THE WEB-WORM TIGER (PLOCHIONUS TIMIDUS, HALD). 
By Mary E. Murtfeldt, Kirkwood, Mo. 

It would seem appropriate that this hitherto somewhat rare and inconspicuous little 
carabid should be brought to notice in its new role of a benefactor. 

I have been observing its habits for two years, and am confident that to it, more than 
to any other agent, do we, in the neighborhood of St. Louis, owe our present comparative 
freedom from the Web-worm nuisance. Whereas formerly almost every other tree 
would, at this season of the year, be infested with one or more of the disfiguring nests, 
they are now so few and far between that it requires some search to find one. I was 
particularly struck with the difference, in this respect, between this section and the 
Atlantic slope, on my journey to Washington last August, the eastern woods and orchards 
being in many places almost defoliated and presenting a very unhealthy and unsightly 
appearance from the ravages of this insect. 

It is impossible, of course, to ascertain just when or how the beetle under considera- 
tion acquired the habit of preying upon the Web- worm ; but 1 think it could not have 
been much previous to its discovery. In 1888 Hyphantria was abundant in Kirkwood, 
and for the purpose of obtaining fresh specimens of the moth, as well as of its usual para- 
sites, I transferred a colony from a box elder tree to the rearing cage. From these a large 
number of perfect insects were bred and also parasites of two or three species, but no 
larvae or imagines of Plochionus were observed. 



59 



Early in June, 1890, I had been struck with the wasting away of one or two 
colonies of Hyphantria and was about to examine into the causes, when I received from 
Mr. J. C. Duffey, the Horticulturist of the Shaw Botanical Garden, a note informing 
me that larvae of a small carabid had been found in a nest of Web-worms, upon which 
they were evidently feeding. Accompanying this communication was a box containing 
one of the infested colonies. Unfortunately the box had been broken in transit, and when 
I called for my mail the Web-worms were pervading the office, and the distracted post- 
master was engaged in a vain attempt to confine them in a newspaper, and expressing 
himself with some emphasis concerning the sort of mail posted by entomologists. Un- 
doubtedly many of the predaceous larvae escaped with the caterpillars, but upon examina- 
tion, after reaching my study, I found seven oreight of the larvae in the fragments of the 
web and a sufficient number of Web-worms to afford them sustenance. Placing them on 
fresh leaves in a small rearing cage on my desk, I soon had ocular verification of Mr. 
Duffey's interesting observations. 

The Hyphantria larvae had all passed the last moult and many were nearly full 
grown ; the carabids were also nearly mature, varying in length from one-fourth to one- 
third inch, somewhat alligator-shaped, the head provided with sharply pointed trophi, 
with rather long and strong legs, the body above dark and horny ; they had quite a 
formidable aspect. By preference this larva attacks its victim from the front, biting into 
the under part of the thoracic segments ; but in many cases I have seen it seize hold of 
the side of a caterpillar, into which it would soon almost bury its head, and not the most 
violent contortions on the part of its prey were of avail to dislodge it. By the time its 
appetite was appeased the Web-worm would be fatally injured and a fresh one would be 
required for its next meal In this way one beetle larva was capable of destroying a great 
number of the worms in the course of its development. The two species, web-worm and 
carabid, reach maturity about the same time, the period of carabid adolescence being about 
one week less than that of the insect on which it preys. The change to pupa takes place 
both on the surface of the ground and in the remnants of the web on the tree — in the 
latter case it (being very soft and white and not enclosed) is subject to destruction by 
birds and other insects. The beetle appears in from eight to ten days after the change 
to pupa, and requires a day or two to acquire its dark brown color and the firmness in 
texture of maturity. It is very swift and furtive in its movements and remains hidden 
as far as possible during the daytime, but is, even in the rearing cage, quite active at 
night, using its wings freely. It feeds, sparingly, on aphides and similar soft insects. 
This season I found it in considerable numbers in the two web-worm nests that occurred 
in our orchard, and to test its destructive capacity I placed thirty-six three-fourths 
grown Hyphantria larvae in a large glass jar, with three nearly mature Plochionus larvae. 
A large number of the caterpillars were killed in the course of the following week, and 
from the three dozen larvae I bred seven parasites (Meteorus hyphantria) and but three 
moths ; the remainder had evidently succumbed to their coleopterous foes, all three of 
which developed into fine beetles. 

I believe the perfect insect occurs sparingly in many sections of the country, but it 
may not in every locality acquire the habit of preying on Hyphantria. It is to be hoped, 
therefore, that the divergent type will slowly spread from State to State until it, in con- 
nection with other predaceous and parasitic species, will practically relieve us of one of 
our most prominent arboreal pests. 



NOTES ON KILLING, PRESERVING AND RELAXING INSECTS. 

By James Fletcher, Ottawa. 

There is perhaps no statement more frequently made to entomologists by observant 
travellers, or those who live in localities far removed from civilization, than " ! I wish 



60 



you had been with me, I so often saw lovely insects ; but I did not know how to save 
them for you." From novices the enquiry often comes, " What is the best way to relax 
specimens after they have become dry." 

Killing and Preserving. Having collected a specimen the first thing, of course, is to 
till it. For beetles and hard -bodied insects nothing is simpler than to drop them for a second 
or two in scalding water ; they must be taken out again at once and dried on blotting 
paper, or upon a cloth. The easiest way, however, for killing all insects is to make a 
" cyanide bottle." This may be made either by placing a small quantity of cyanide of 
potassium in the bottom of a wide-mouthed bottle and pouring in sufficient wet plaster- 
of-paris to cover it ; or a hole can be hollowed out in the cork and a piece of cyanide 
inserted. This can be kept in a place either with a plug of cotton wool, or a piece of 
chamois leather or linen may be tied over the cork. It must be remembered that the 
active principle of cyanide of potassium being prussic acid it is intensely poisonous — any 
left on hand after the bottle is made should be at once destroyed. 

Insects put in this bottle will be killed in a few seconds by the poisonous fumes 
given off by the cyanide of potassium j they should then be taken out and packed away 
whilst soft and pliable. After a few days they become dry and are very easily broken. 
If there are only one or two specimens these may be wrapped in soft paper or cotton wool, 
and put away in a suitable box. If the collector, however, is likely to get several speci- 
mens, it will be well to prepare a box or bottle on purpose. Beetles or bugs may be pre- 
served for a long time in clean saw-dust dampened with alcohol ; grasshoppers, ants, 
wasps, bees, flies, etc., although they are far better preserved by being pinned at once 
after killing, may be packed away like beetles and bugs in tubes of paper. These are 
made by winding two or three thicknesses of a strip of paper one and a half inches wide 
around a lead pencil, leaving about one-quarter inch over the end, which is turned in and 
pressed flat before taking the case off the pencil. Into this short, hollow tube drop the 
specimens and turn in the other end with the tip of a pencil, or fill up the mouth with a 
plug of cotton wool. Several specimens, according to their size, may be placed in each 
tube, and the date and locality having been written on the outside they are ready 
to be packed away in a dry place. Being slightly elastic and very light they pack closely, 
and a large number can be sent by mail at the same time. 

Moths, butterflies and dragon-flies may be killed in the ordinary " cyanide bottle/' 
and then placed in three-cornered envelopes made by taking small squares of paper and 
folding them across, almost in the middle, so as to make a triangular form with one flap a 
little smaller than the other ; when the insect is placed between the two flaps, the two 
edges of the larger one are folded over the lesser, and the specimen is then ready to have 
the date and locality written on it and to be packed away where it will not be disturbed. 

Relaxing. The easiest way to soften insects is simply to place them in a covered 
jar upon damp sand for from twelve to fourteen hours. A few drops of camphorated 
spirits dropped on the sand will prevent mould from forming on the specimens. Pinned 
specimens can be either placed in the sand jar or pinned upon a piece of cork and floated 
on water in a closed jar, or in a basin with a damp towel over the top. Butterflies and 
moths stored in the envelopes mentioned above are best relaxed by putting the envelopes 
carefully without opening them, between the folds of a damp towel placed between two 
sheets of glass. The cloth should be wetted and then wrung out as dry as possible with 
the hands. Fold it smoothly and spread out the envelopes separately between the folds. 
Small butterflies and moths will relax in twelve hours and the largest in twenty -four 
hours. Beetles and bugs in paper tubes may be dropped into warm water and will be 
ready for setting in a few minutes ; wasps, bees and flies should be placed in the sand 
jar to soften. Mr. W. H. Harrington, who uses these tubes extensively for all kinds of 
insects, finds that specimens can be conveniently relaxed by putting the tubes on a piece 
of wet blotting paper in the bottom of one saucer with another inverted over the top. The 
advantage of this plan is that if specimens should be accidently forgotten, or it should be 
inconvenient to mount them at once, the small amount of moisture soon evaporates, and 
there is no danger of mould. 



61 



THE MOLE CRICKET— GRYLLOT ALP A BOREA.LIS. 

By E. W. Dorajst, College Park, Md. 

In the Report for last year, page 87, Mr. Jame3 Fletcher had an interesting article 
on his " pet " mole cricket (Fig. 35). At his suggestion T send a few notes upon the 
larval form of the same species. 

On January 4 last, Mr. A. I. Hayward, connected with our State Experiment Sta- 
tion, brought me five larvae of the mole cricket, which were found in rather a peculiar 
situation. He had a number of men putting up ice. The ice had 
been removed from a considerable space, when, wading around in the 
water with tall rubber boots on, he found the young mole crickets 
swimming around upon the water. It seems there was no connection 
between the open space and the land ; besides, as the weather was 
very cold, they could not live upon or near the surface of the ground. 

The only reasonable theory in regard to the matter is that they 
were buried in the mud at the bottom of the pond, which is a tem- 
porary one, having been flooded with water only a month or two. 
The wading through the mud dislodged them, when they at once 
came to the surface. However, there are some difficulties in the way 
of accepting this hypothesis. For example : Could the crickets 
exist beneath the water in the soft mud so near the surface for so 
long a time 1 Westwood says in regard to the European mole 
cricket, G. vulgaris, that the villose coating of the body and wings 
appears to protect them from the water. Our species has a similar 
coating of fine hairs; but in the larvae especially it seems scarcely 
sufficient to protect it from the effects of the water in a prolonged 
submersion. Besides, could it live so long entirely surrounded by 
water, cut off from the air ? They must have been in the thin mud 
very near the water to have been thus stirred out. Fig. 35. 

They seemed very little affected by the cold or their bath; in fact, they were as- 
" lively as a cricket," and were apparently very much at home upon the water. 

The life history of our American species, G. borealis, seems not to have been studied 
extensively. At any rate I have been unable to find figures or descriptions of the pre- 
paratory stages. It is stated that G. vulgaris requires three years to come to maturity, 
and borealis seems to be very slow in growth. When these specimens were taken they were 
but little more than half an inch in length. They are at this time (March 15) about 
.7 inches long. In two and a half months they have increased in length but little 
over one-tenth of an inch, though they have been kept in a warm room and supplied 
with plenty of food, consisting chiefly of the roots of growing wheat, earthworms, etc. 
As the female deposits her eggs in early spring, they are probably nine or ten months old 
now. The mature insect is an inch and a half long, while these are but little more than a 
third as long. Westwood says that vulgaris is inactive in winter. These have been 
active at all times ; that is, not in any sense torpid, nor were they when taken. 

When I first secured them I put them in a jar of earth, and give them no further 
attention for several days. In the meantime one disappeared, and probably served to 
satiate the appetite of the rest, as they are known to devour their own kind sometimes 
when they can obtain no other food. 

Since then, in exhibiting another before my class, it was accidently injured and died. 
I shall try to rear the remaining three to maturity, and figure the various stages. I cm- 
not say what stages they have already passed through. The larvae of vulgaris are white 
before the first moult. These were dark velvety, and had moulted once or twice, I sup- 
pose. They have not moulted since. 

I have written these notes in the hope of cilling out other observations upmthe 
early stages of the insect. And I should be glad to know of any one who has studied or 
figured the preparatory stages. 




G2 



THE SONGS OF OUR GRASSHOPPERS AND CRICKETS. 
By Samuel H. Scudder. 

Everyone is familiar in a general way with the songs of our common meadow 
grasshoppers and of our crickets. But not everyone is aware that much as with birds 
each different species may ordinarily be distinguished by its peculiar note or call, if 
sufficiently close attention is paid to it. Moreover, just as one may recognize in a strange 
song the general group to which a bird belongs, so in many cases one may tell the group 
to which a given insect belongs whose note is heard for the first time. Indeed every 
vocal family of animals utters ils distinctive cry. In general the crickets have the high- 
est pitched notes and the short-horned grasshoppers or Acridians the lowest, the long- 
horned grasshoppers or Locustarians falling between them. 

Thus each large family group of the Saltatorial or stridulating Orthoptera* may be 
recognized by the peculiar pitch of its note. This is perhaps due to the extent of the 
delicate vibrating membrane of the wings which is brought into action, since this is 
largest in the crickets and smallest and much broken in the Acridians. 

But there is not infrequently some difficulty in distinguishing the song. Indeed in 
some cases the notes are too shrill to be heard by some ears ; they are beyond their limits 
of audition. " Crossing the Wengern Alp with a friend ," writes Tyndall in his work on 
Sound, " the grass on each side of the path swarmed with insects, which, to me, rent the 
air with their shrill chirruping. My friend heard nothing of this, the insect world lying 
beyond his limit of audition." So when I first went to Europe and heard the song of an 
Orthopteran new to me, I asked a distinguished student of Orthoptera, walking with me 
by the bush from whence a volume of stridulent song burst forth, what genus it was ; 
but he could hear no sound whatever. 

Or, again, the notes may be very feeble and be overwhelmed by the volume of other 
shrilling in the neighborhood. To distinguish them clearly, one must bring his ear to 
within a few feet, or even inches, of the insect during its stridulation — a process which 
requires great caution lest the shyness of the little violinist should overcome his egotistic 
love of song. The observer must walk quietly toward the sound until it ceases, and wait 
motionless for its renewal ; the direction of the chirping can then easily be determined, 
although its distance is deceptive. After drawing an imaginary line towards the spot 
from whence the sound proceeds, cautious steps must be taken around the arc of a wide 
circle until another line is fixed at about a right angle to the first, and the location of the 
songster approximately determined. Then walking quickly but quietly to within five or 
six feet of the insect, the observer will fall upon his hands and knees, and produce a quill 
edge and file, which, on being rubbed together, imitate, with great exactness, the note he 
has just heard. He will begin his mock stridulation after a short delay; at first the 
sounds must be subdued and separated by considerable intervals, then loud and repeated 
in quick succession; usually a response is heard before a minute has elapsed, and some- 
times it comes at once. When the insect has forgotten his fears and begins to stridulate 
violently, the observer may cease operations and carefully approach him. In this way 
one can place himself within a few inches of any species living in the grass. 

Orthoptera stridulate in four different ways : first, by rubbing the base of one wing- 
cover upon the other, using for that purpose the veins running through the middle 
of the wing ; second, by a similar method, but using the veins of the inner part of the 
wing; third, by rubbing the inner surface of the hind femora against the outer surface of 
the wing covers; and fourth, by rubbing together the upper surface of the front edge of 
the wings and the under surface of the wing covers, f The insects which employ the 



* Very few other Orthoptera stridulate at all. 

f A modification of this is given below under Dictyophorus reticulatus. 



63 



fourth method stridulate during flight, the others while at rest. To the first group 
belong the crickets ; to the second the Locustarians; to the third and fourth certain kinds 
of Acridians. With few exceptions the males alone stridulate. In general terms one 
may say : 

Crickets shrill and creak. 

Locustarians scratch and scrape. 

Acridians shuffle, rustle and crackle. 

In the following pages we propose to pass in review what is known of our American 
species in this particular, beginning with the crickets and treating the species in system- 
atic order. In doing this we shall have occasion to make our statements perhaps a little 
clearer by the introduction of a few illustrations, in which a peculiar system of musical 
notation is employed. It should first of all be explained that this is done only to express 
the time limits of the song and the rapidity of the successive notes. As the notes are 
always at one pitch (which, when specified, has been determined by the aid of a piccolo 
flute), there is, properly speaking, no song at ail ; but it is to the insect what song is to 
the bird, and so this tropical use of the word may here be allowed. Each bar represents 
a second of time, and is occupied by the equivalent of a semibreve; consequently a quarter 

note |*, or a quarter rest ^ represents a quarter of a second ; a sixteenth note f, or a 

sixteenth rest J], a sixteenth of a second and so on. For convenience's sake I have intro- 
duced a new form of rest ( '■^ or or ), which indicates silence through the remainder of 
a measure. 

Gryllidae. 

Gryllotalpa borealis Burm. This insect, our common mole cricket (Fig. 35, page 61) 
usually begins its daily chirp at about four o'clock in the afternoon, but stridulates most 
actively at about dusk. On a cloudy day, however, it may be heard as early as two or 
three o'clock ; this recognition of the weather is rather remarkable in a burrowing insect, 
and the more so as it does not appear to come to the surface to stridulate, but remains 
in its burrow, usually an inch below the surface of the ground. The European mole 
cricket {Gryllotalpa vulgaris), is said to chirp both within its burrow and at its mouth 
(plerumque sub terrd, Fischer says), and it may be that our species sometimes seeks the 
air in chanting ; but the chirp, as far as I have heard it, always has a uniformly subdued 
tone, as if produced in some hidden recess. Fischer says that the European species 
which i3 twice as large as ours, cannot be heard more than from one hundred and fifty 
to two hundred feet [ultra spatium 20-30 passuum). Ours, when certainly beneath the 
surface, is easily distinguished at a distance of five rods ; and one would presume that it 
could be heard, if above ground, nearly twice as far away. Its chirp is a guttural sort of 
sound, like grii orgreeu, repeated in a trill indefinitely, but seldom for more than two or 



gru gru gru gru gru gnl grii grii grQ grti 

Figure 36— Note of Gryllotalpa borealis. 

three minutes, and often for less time. It is pitched at two octaves above middle 0, and 
the notes are usually repeated at the rate of about 130 or 135 per minute, sometimes, when 
many are singing, even as rapidly *as 150 per minute. Often, when it first begins to chirp 
it wives a single prolonged trill of more slowly repeated notes, when the composite char- 
acter of the chirp is much more readily detected, and afterward is quiet for a long time. 
When most actively chirping, however, the beginning of a strain is less vigorous than 
its full swell, and the notes are then repeated at the rate of about 120 per minute ; it 
steadily gains its normal velocity. Zetterstedt compares the chirp of the European species 



64 



to the song of Hyla arborea. The note of our own sounds like the distant croaking of toads 
(Bufo), at spawning season, but is somewhat feebler. McNeill says he has "been struck 
with the resemblance of its note to that of CEcanthus niveus. To my ear the only dis- 
cernible diflerence is that of pitch. This song is a simple chirp, very low in pitch for an 
Orthopteran, repeated at intervals of about a second." I have also observed its resem- 
to that of GEcanthus, where the latter is heard at some distance. 

Gryllus negleclus Scudd. The note of this common cricket, which Saussure regards 
as only a form of G. pennsylvanicus Burin, is cr-rur-ri, or crrri, or .km d ; the 
rapidity with which it is uttered seems to vary very much even in a single strain by 
one insect. Sometimes the notes are produced as slowly as two per second, but they may 
be twice as rapid ; the mean seems to be the usual rate. The note is sharp and shrill and 
is apparently pitched at E natural, two octaves above middle C. 

crrri crrri crrri crrri crrri 

- r g y |rg r rs r l-re r re?- 

Fig. 37.— Note of Gryllus neglectus. 

In listening one night in midsummer to the chirping of insects, I heard two choirs, 
one on either side of me, separated by a garden fence. The individuals of each chirped 
together at the rate of about two notes per second, but whether owing to the influence of 
a warmer situation, or a fuller exposure to the moonlight, one choir invariably chirped a 
trifle faster than the other, and fourteen seconds elapsed between the perfect accord of 
the choirs and their complete discord ; from this, fourteen seconds more to their iormer 
synchronism. These cycles occurred twice per minute, and followed each other^with 
remarkable regularity for about an hour. 

The first notes of Gryllus (species undetermined), were heard in Cambridge, 
Mass,, in 1867, on June 15; in 1868 on June 13 ; but in 1880 (if Nemobius was not 
mistaken for it), on May 16. I think that in .New England all fully developed males 
that go into hibernation die during the winter and that the earliest stridulation come 
from those which have hibernated as pupae. 

I may add that when in Oairo, Egypt, early in the month of November, I 
heard a Gryllus chirping in the early evening when the thermometer was about 67° 
Fahr. at the rate of about 230 notes per minute j when three weeks later at the same 
hour, the thermometer standing at 61° Fahr., the notes were produced by what ^ was 
apparently the same insect at the rate of only 130 per minute. 

Nemobius vittatvs Harr. The chirp of this cricket ^is very similar to that of Gryllus 
and can best be expressed by ru or rruu, prouounced as though it were a French word. 

ru r u ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru ru r u 



ru ru ru ru 



ru 


** 


ti 


r\\ 


ru 


ru ru 


ru 


1 , 


f j» 




tr 


. I 


1 f 


' 


V 


' J 


1 f 


i r 


I 1 



-0-^mm- 



Fig. 38, Note of Nemobius vittatus. 

The note is trilled forcibly and lasts a variable length of time ; sometimes^forjseveral 
seconds, at others it is reduced to a short sharp click. 

I once observed one of these insects singing to its mate. T^At? first the song was mild 
and frequently broken ; afterward it grew impetuous, forcible and more prolonged ; then 
it decreased in volume and extent till it became quite soft and feeble. At this time the 
male began to approach the female, uttering a series of twittering chirps ; the female ran 



65 



away, and the male, after a short chase, returned to his old haunt, singing with the same 
vigor as before, but with more frequent pauses ; at last, finding all persuasion unavailing 
he brought his serenade to a close. The pauses of his song wer j almost instantly follow- 
ed by a peculiar jerk of the body ; it consisted of an impulsive movement backward, and 
then as suddenly forward, and was accompanied by a corresp#nding movement of the 
antennae together and then apart. The female was near enough to be touched by the 
antennae of the male during the first movement, and usually started in a nearly similar 
way as soon as touched. 

The tegmina of the male are held at an angle of about twenty degrees from the body 
during stridulation, and perhaps at a slightly greater angle from each other. Even 
when most violent, the sound is produced by the friction of the inner edges of the teg- 
mina only, and not by the whole surface. 

In different years I have noted the first time in spring that I have heard this creature 
stridulate in the vicinity of Boston, Mass. In 1869, June 13 ; 1874, May 31 ; 1875, 
May 26 (and the same year at Compton, N.H., June 1); 1878, May 18 (on the summit 
of Blue Hili, Milton); 1879, May 31. July and August, 1867, were spent north of the 
White Mountains, at Jefferson, N.H., and no Nemobius was heard there before Aug. 7. 

Mr. W. T. Davis says that on Staten Island there is a s uall form of this species, 
p 3rhaps distinct, in which the stridulation is " a continuous rolling whirr, instead of the 
ordinary creak, creak, creak.^ 

Nemobius fasciatus Scudd. I have noticed no difference between the chirp of this 
species and that of the preceding, of which it is probably only a long winged form. 

(Ecanthus niveus Serv. The song of the common tree cricket (Fig. 39), consists of 
a continuously sustained, equable, creaking roll, which varies much in intensity and 
differs by day and hy night. Dr. Harris speaks only of their song by 
night, remarking: "When arrived at maturity the males begin their 
nocturnal serenades at the approach of twilight and continue it with 
little or no intermission till the dawn of day. Should one of these 
little musicians get admission to the chamber, his incessant and loud 
shrilling will effectually banish sleep." 

The day song of this insect is exceedingly shrill, and may be re- 
presented by the accompanying figure, though the notes vary in rapidity ; 
when slowest they are about sixteen a second. The song is of varied 
length, sometimes lasting but two or three seconds, sometimes con- 
tinuing for a minute or two uninterruptedly ; it h a nearly uniform, 
equally sustained trill, but the insect often begins its note at a different pitch from the 
normal one — the fourth F above middle C — as if it required a little practice to attain it. 
When singing the tegmina are raised at fully a right angle to the body. The night song 
consists of thrrr repeated incessantly, three parts of song and one of rest in every three 
seconds. 




thr 

fr' 



tttwwwtiwwtttttwttuttt 



i 




tttttWMMMttMMt l www 

Fig. 40. Note of (Ecanthus niveus by day. 

McNeill remarks that the day song indicated by the musical notation given above 
11 seems to be the song of fasciatus, while the night song certainly resembles that of 
angustipennis more than the song of niveus." These different species were not recognized 
by me when I made my earliest notes, represented by the notation above, so that a 
revision of the "score" of our (Ecanthus seems desirable. 
5 (EN.) 



Davis describes the note of this species as a " beat, beat, pulsating sound." Riley says 
the [chirp "is intermittent, resembling a shrill l re-teat, re-teat, re-teat 1 with a slight 



000000000000000 010 0000000 



tr 

-0—0—0—0—0—0—0— 01-0— 0—0—0— -mm | -0- 



# t t t i t v #\t t t t *t t t 

Fig. 41. Note of QEcanthus niveus by night. 

pause between each." McNeill calls it " the well-known trrrree, trrr-ree, repeated with- 
out variation or pause sixty or seventy times a minute," or as he says in another place 
" t-r-r — r-e-e, t-r-r — r-e-e, repeated. . . .about seventy times in a minute," and adds : 

"In. the vicinity of Davenport, Iowa, this song is heard as early as the twenty-third 
of July and it continues until the persistent little songsters are killed by the heavy frosts 
of the late fall. This song is heard only at night and occasionally on cloudy days, but in the 
latter case it is only an isolated song and never the full chorus of the night song produced 
by many wings whose vibration in exact unison produces that characteristic 'rhythmic 
beat' — as Burroughs has happily phrased it. It is this effect of many united songs that 
has lead the same author to speak of 'purring' crickets. Thoreau calls it the 'slumbrous 
breathing' and the 'intenser dream' of crickets, but Hawthorne has given it a more 
spiritual interpretation than either Burroughs or Thoreau. He describes it as an 'audible 
stillness,' and declares if ' moonlight could be heard, it would sound like that.' " 

Fitch writesof this insect in New York as follows: "In the southern part of oui State 
the song of the flower cricket begins to be heard as early as the first of August, but it is a 
week later before it commences in the vicinity of Albany, and later still in the more northern 
parts of thf State. Perched among the thick foliage of a grape vine or other shrubbery, 
some feet up from the ground, and as already stated, remaining in the same spot day 
after day, its song begins soon after sunset and before the duskiness of twilight arrives. 
It is distinctly heard at a distance of several rods, and the songster is always farther off 
than is supposed. Though dozens of other crickets and katydids are shrilling on every 
side at the same time, the peculiar note of this cricket is at once distinguished from all the 
rest, consisting of repetitions of a single syllable, slowly uttered, in a monotonous, melan- 
choly tone, with a slight pause between. The children regard the cricket as no votary 
of the temperance cause ;,they understand its song to consist of the words treat — treat — 
treat — treat, which words, slowly uttered, do so closely resemble its notes that they will 
at once recall them to the recollection of almost every reader. And the song is thus 
continued without the slightest variation and without any cessation, I think, the whole 
night through. I, however, have sometimes heard it at the first commencement of its 
evening serenade uttering three syllables resembling the words treat, treat, hvo ; treat, 
treat, two — as though the songster was supplicating a libation for his voiceless mate as 
well as himself — a longer pause following each third note. This prelude is probably 
performed in limbering or otherwise adjusting his organs, preparatory to performing the 
regular carol, which is struck into in a few moments." 

(Ecanthus fasciatus Fitch. Of this species McNeill says: "The song is a high trill 
continuing usually for several minutes with the intervals between the trills of very 
irregular length. It sings all day as well as all night, apparently in th - bright sunshine 
as well as on cloudy days and in the dusk of evening." Davis calls the song "a long and 
comparatively loud, continuous whirr often lasting several minutes." My notes, which 
probably refer to this species, make the chirp to be at a somewhat lower pitch than 
that given by me for the preceding species, namely, at the third B above middle 0, and the 
song itself is described as more rapid and vigorous. See also the rotes under CE. niveus. 



67 



Oecanthus latipennis Riley. Riley describes the note as follows : " The shrill cry 
of litipennis is continuous and recalls the trilling of a high-pitched dog-whistle in the 
distance. The key varies, however, and is sometimes much less high and more musical 
than at others. The commingled shrills of the species recall also the distant croaking of 
frogs in the spring. The broad wings are thoroughly elevated during the act, or even 
bent forward, and the vibration is so rapid that there appears to be no motion." 
McNeill says : " Its song has been described as a ' continuous, high-keyed trill, continued 
for fifteen minutes or more.' This is exactly the song oifasciatus. Since there has been 
so much confusion in the species of this genus, there is a chance that the song described 
above is mistakenly referred to latipennis." 

Oecanthus angustipennis Fitch. McNeill says of this species, that it " has a song 
which resembles that oifasciatus in some degree, but it is very much fainter and lasts 
for about five seconds, with an equal interval between the trills." Davis says its song is 
■" a faint continuous whirr, lasting only about five seconds, with an equal interval of 
rest." See also the notes under (E. niveus. 

Anaxipha exigita (Say). Perhaps the same as A. pulicaria (Burm.) The only one 
who has spoken of its song is Davis, who simply says it " has a particular silvery tone." 

Orocharis saltatrix XJhl. Riley writes : " The stridulation of this cricket is a rather 
soft and musical piping of not quite half a second's duration, with from four to six trills, 
but so rapid that they are lost in the distance. The key is very high, but varies in 
different individuals and according to moisture and temperature. It most resembles the 
vibrating touch of the finger on the rim of an ordinary tumbler when three-fourths filled 
with water, repeated at intervals of from two to four per second, and may be very well 
likened to the piping of a young chick and of some tree frogs. As the species is very 
common in the south-west, its chirp is everywhere heard, and is so distinctive that when 
once studied it is never lost amid the louder racket of the katydids and other night 
choristers. It is also frequently heard during the day time when the weather is damp 
and cloudy." 

Locustidae. 

" These," writes Riley, " are the merry choristers that make our woods and valleys 
ring with their pleasant songs during the evenings of late summer and early fall. They 
are chiefly nocturnal in their habits, but not entirely so, for each afternoon during the 
courting time, and long before the sun has disappeared in the west, a few of them may 
be seen flying about from place to place, while others are occasionally heard in their 
retreats as though tuning their instruments preparatory to the grand evening concert." 

Scudderia angmtifolia y (Harr). This insect is more noisy by night than by day, 
and the songs differ considerably at these two times. The day song is given only during 
sunshine, the other by night and in cloudy weather. I first noticed this while watching 
one of these little creatures close beside me. As a cloud passed over the sun, he 
suddenly changed his note to one with which I was already familiar, but without 
knowing to what insect it belonged. At the same time all the individuals around, 

bzrwl bzrwi bzrwl 

Fig. 42. — Note of Scudderia angustifolia by day. 

whose similar day song I had heard, began to respond with the night cry. The cloud 
passed away and the original note was resumed on all sides. Judging that they pre- 
ferred the ni£jht song to that of the day from their increased stridulation during the 
former period, I imitated the night song during sunshine, aud obtained an immediate 
response in the same language. The experiment proved that the insects could hear as 
well as sing. So on another day, at 4 p.m., the sun suddenly beclouded, I heard four or 



68 



five individuals close beside me immediately change their note from the day call to'the 
night call. 

This species is exceedingly shy, and the observer must be patient who would hold 
converse with it. One insect which I had disturbed and beside which I was standing 
could not at first decide to resume his song ; he was afraid of the intruder, but, enticed 
by a neighboring songster, gave utterance several times to a barely discernible short 

tchw tchw tchw tchw tchw tchw tchw tclrw 



V } 9 9 V 9 9 9 

Fig. 43.— Note of Scudderia angustifolia by night. 

click or ti ; after five or six of these efforts his desires overcame his fears. ^The note by 
day is tzip or bzrwl, and lasts for a third of a second. The night song consists of a 
repetition, ordinarily eight times, of a note which sounds like tchw. It is repeated at 
the rate of five times in three-quarters of a second, making each note half the length 
of the day note. 

In 1867 this species and Orchelimum vulgare were the first Locustarians to sing at 
Jefferson, N.H., where I first heard them on July 28. 

This species is the Phaneroptera curvicauda of my previous notes on stridulation. 

Scudderia curvicauda (DeGeer) — Of this species Riley writes : " The shrill of the 
male is by no means so loud as of the oblong-winged species [Amblycorypha oblongifolia~], 
in which its sound is always drowned in the woods. It consists of a softer zeep, zeep> 
sometimes uttered singly, but generally thrice in succession. The call is occasionally 
responded to by a faint chirp from the females, produced by stretching out their wings as 
if for flight, and is as often heard in the day as at night." 

McNeill says : " Its note is not generally heard until the middle of the afternoon. 
The note cannot be supposed to represent more than the first two syllables of the ' Katy- 
did ' or ' Katy-didn't ' of its congeners. It is made but once and the rasping, jerky 
sound has been very well represented by Mr. Scudder as bzrwi" (but this refers properly 
to S. angustifolia, as noted above). 

Scudderia f areata Brunn. McNeill says that the note of this species is indistin- 
guishable from that of the preceding species, but is much less frequently heard. 

Amblycorypha oblongifolia (DeGeer) Stal. Harris says of this insect that " when 
it flies it makes a whizzing noise somewhat like that of a weaver's shuttle," but the noise 
is very feeble and subdued. He adds : " The notes of the male, though grating, are 
comparatively feeble." I have not studied its note attentively, and only recorded that 
according to my then recollection it gave three rapid notes in succession like the true 
katydid, but feeble. One observed subsequently, confined in the house, emitted two 

notes close together every few seconds, resembling tch-tch. McNeill also says that "its 
note is a quick shuffling sound which resembles ' Katy ' or ' Katy-did ' very slightly." 

Amblycorypha Scudderae Brun. — Bruner says : " Like oblongifolia y this katydid 
produces the peculiar chick chick noise which is so characteristic a sound ^ in our groves 
during the months of August and September." 

chic - a - chee chic - a - chee 

P P P P P P 

Fig. 44. — Note of Amblycorypha rotundifolia. 

Amblycorypha rotundifolia Scudd. — This insect stridulates both by day and by 
night and without variation. The song consists of from two to four w notes — almost 



69 




» }[Fig. r 45. — 1, represents the mature winged Katy-did, Microeentrum retinervis ; lb, the 
immature young ; la and 2b, the eggs, deposited on twigs and leaves, overlapping each 
other ; 2 and 2a, a small chalcid fly parasitic on the eggs, Eupelmus mirabilis Walsh.] 



70 



invariably three and almost never four — sounding like chi6-a-chee, repeated rapidly so as 
to be almost confounded, and when three requiring just one-third of a second ; the song is 
repeated at will, generally once in about five seconds for an indefinite length of time. 

Microcentrum laurifolium (Linn.) McNeill says the note of this grasshopper 
11 may be represented by the syllable tic repeated from eight to twenty times at the rate 
of about four to the second." 

Microcentrum retinervis (Burm). Fig. 45. Riley gives an admirable account of this 
insect in his Sixth Missouri Report, from which the following statement regarding its song 
is taken : 

" The first notes from this katydid are heard about the middle of July and the 
species is in full song by the first of August. The wing covers are partly opened by a 
sudden jerk, and the notes produced by a gradual closing of the same. The song consists 
of a series of from twenty-five to thirty raspings, as of a stiff quill drawn across a coarse 
file. There are about five of these raspings or trills per second, all alike, and with equal 
intervals, except the last two or three, which, with the closing of the wing-covers, run 
into each other. The whole strongly recalls the slow turning of a child's wooden rattle, 
ending by a sudden jerk of the same ; and this prolonged rattling, which is peculiar to 
the male, is universally and instantly answered by a single sharp '■chirp' or ' tschick' from 
one or more females, who produce the sound by a sudden upward jerk of the wings." 

" Both sexes are for the most part silent during the day, but during the period of 
their greatest activity their stridulations are never for an hour remitted, from the time 
the great setting sun hides behind the purple curtains of the west till he begins to shed 
his scarlet rays in the east— the species being so numerous that the sound as it comes 

from the woods is one continuous rattling, not unlike the 
croaking of the frog, but set to a higher key. * * ■ 
I have noticed no particular difference in the day and 
night note, except in the greater intensity of the latter." 

Davis says of the same species that it " produces 
two somewhat different songs, or perhaps more correctly, 
varies the same song in time or extent of utterance, so 
that unless the same individual is listened to for some 
time, the notes might be attributed to different species." 

Cyrtophyllus concavus (Harr.) Since 1 began to study 
the character of the notes produced by different species 
of Orthoptera, it has been my fortune to hear that of this 
the true katydid (Fig. 46) but once or twice. This 
insect lives in tree tops, one or two only in a tree, in 
little colonies scattered here and there over most of the 
United States east of the Rocky Mountains. One such 
colony I encountered in the heart of the city of Spring- 
field, Mass., and spent an evening endeavoring to reduce 
the notes to scale. The insects which I observed were 
from fifteen to twenty rods distant, perched in the tops 
of maple, jherry and elm trees, not far above my window. 
They ordinarily call " Katy," or say " She did " rather 
than " Katy did;" that is, they rasp their fore wings 
twice, more frequently than thrice ; thsse two notes are 
of equal (and extraordinary) emphasis, the latter about 
one-quarter longer than the former ; or, if three notes 
are given, the first and second are alike and a little 
shorter than the last j the notes are repeated at the rate 
of two hundred per minute ; and while the interval 
between two series of notes varies to a certain degree, it is seldom greater than two and 
one-third seconds, or less than a second and a quarter ; usually it is between one and 
seven-eighths and two seconds. 




Fig. 46. 



71 



The note, which sounds like xr, has a shocking lack of melody ; the poets who have 
sung its praises must have heard it at the distance that lends enchantment ; in close proxi- 
mity the sound is excessively rasping and grating, louder and hoarser than I have heard 



xr! 



xr! 



-0—0/—0—0—0j'-—m— \—vm—r-w—*—?j 0—0/-+-0— 0—0—0/— ^. \ 



i z i ' V ^ i — i - r v 




9 \ 9 9 ' [ 9 



Fig. 47. — Note of Oyrtophyllus concavus. 



from any other of the Locustarians in America or in Europe, and the Locustarians are 
the noisiest of all Orthoptera. Since these creatures are abundant wherever they occur, 
the noise produced by them, on an evening specially favorable to their song, is most 
discordant. Usually, as I have said, the r otes are two in number, rapidly repeated at 
short intervals ; perhaps nine out of ten will ordinarily give this number ; but occasionally 
a stubborn insect persists in sounding the triple note ; and as katydids appear desirous 
of defiantly answering their neighbors in the same measure, the proximity of a treble- 
voiced songster demoralizes a whole neighborhood, and a curious medley results ; notes 
from some individuals may then be heard all the while, scarcely a moment's time inter- 
vening between their stridulations, some nearer, others at a greater distance ; so that the 
air is filled by these noisy troubadours with an indescribably confused and grating clatter. 
This renders special observation of the notes of any individual all the more difficult, and 
it is only by great patience and careful selection that it can be accomplished, unless one 
places himself upon the outskirts of a colony. 

Harris gave us the first account of this insects' song. He says in his classical Report : 
" The musical organs of the male consist of a pair of taborets. They are formed by a 
thin and transparent membrane stretched in a strong half-oval frame in the triangular 
overlapping portion of each wing cover. During the day time these insects are silent, 
and conceal themselves amongst the leaves of trees ; but at night they quit their lurking 
places, and the joyous males begin the tell-tale call witfi which they enliven their silent 
mates. This proceeds from the friction of the taboret frames against each other when 
the wing covers are opened and shut, and consists of two or three distinct notes almost 
exactly resembling articulated sounds, and corresponding with the number of times the 
wing covers are opened and shut ; and the notes are repeated at intervals of a few 
minutes, for hours together. The mechanism of the taborets, and the concavity of the 
wing covers, reverberate and increase the sound to such a degree, that it may be heard, 
in the stillness of the night, at the distance of a quarter of a mile. At the approach of 
twilight the katydid mounts to the upper branches of the tree in which he lives, and as 
soon as the shades of evening prevail, begins his noisy babble, while rival notes issue from 
the neighboring trees and the groves resound with the call of ' Katy-did, she-did ' the 
livelong night." 

McNeill writes of it in Illinois : " This is the true ' katydid,' common wherever 
there are trees. Its song is better known, and the insect itself less known, because of 
its arboreal habits, than either of the other katydids. This species moves about so little, 
that it is not unlikely that in many cases an individual spends its whole life upon a 
single tree. I have listened to the song of one katydid on a certain tree every evening 
for more than two months. I have noticed repeatedly that on any evening when they 
are singing, there are the same number of individuals as indicated by the number of 
songs. • • • So far as I know this is the only species of Orthoptera in which the 
male is not smaller and more active than the female. It is thu only green-winged 
Locustid with which I am acquainted that does not have the wings longer than the 
elytra. These facts are not improbably mutually related. It may be surmised that, in 
the evolution of species, the katydid that developed in the greatest degree its musical 
apparatus had the least need of hunting up his partner when the mating season came 
round, and as it was so well protected by its form and color and arboreal habits as to 



72 



have little need of wings, these organs have gradually degenerated into a musical and 
protective apparatus. As the male was released from the necessity of hunting up the 
female, he would naturally lose after a time his slighter but more active body ; it is easy 
to see how arboreal habits once acquired may react upon the entire organization." 



brw chwi chwi cbwl chwi chwi chwl chwi chwi chwt chw! 

I I ^ u u uiu u u u u ^II. 

chwl chwl chwl chwl chwi chwl chwi chwi chwi chwi chwi 



• • • * '•'£ v * • ^ ^ ' U 

Fig. 48. Note of Conocephalus ensiger. 

Fernald says : " I cannot imagine what ingenious person first discovered that their 
song resembled the words " Katy did," instead of some other words ; for many persons 
besides myself fail, upon hearing them for the first time, to recognize them by their sound." 

Conocephalus ensiger Harr. This insect has but a single song and stridulates only 
by night or during cloudy weather ; it begins its song as soon as the sky is obscured or 
the sun is near the horizon ; it begins with a note like brw, then pauses an instant and 
immediately emits a rapid succession of sounds like chwi at the rate of about five per 
second, and continues them for an unlimited time. Either the rapidity of the notes is 
variable, becoming sometimes as frequent as twenty-three in three seconds, or else there 
is some deceptive character in its song. In a number of instances I have counted the 
notes as rapid as the highest rate given above, but on a nearer approach to verify them 
the rate was invariably reduced to five per second ; it is doubtful whether this was due 
to alarm at my approach, for this is one of the least shy of our Locustarians. 

McNeill says " its song is a loud rasping zip-zip-zip repeated indefinitely. It does 
not begin to sing until dark," and in another place he compares the song to the first 
staccato part of the song of Orchelimuyi vulgare. 

Davis writes of it on Staten Island that it is the first Conocephalus to be heard, 
" and with ik-ik-ik, as if sharpening a saw, enlivens low bushes and particularly the corn 
patch. This insect seems to especially delight in perching near the top of a corn-stalk 
and there giving forth its rather impulsive song. I have often watched one crawl, with 
many a spiral turn, up the stem, fiddling all the while. My notes on its first heard stridu- 
lation show considerable uniformity, and the average date may be taken as July 15." 

Conocephalus nebrascensis Brun. Of this species McNeill writes : " If ensiger may 
be said to sing the first part of the song of Orchelimum vulgare, the well-known zip-zip- 
zip-ze-e-e-e, nebrascensis may be said with equal truth to sing the last part of the song, 
that represented by the ze-e-e-e ; but the sound is much more resonant, being really in 
quality much more like the song of a C'cada, but not so loud and without a swell. It 
begins to sing earlier in the evening than ensiger" 

Conocephalus robustus Scudd. This grasshopper is exceedingly noisy and sings equally, 
and I believe similarly, by day and night. The song resembles that of the harvest fly 
Cicada canicularh. It often lasts for many minutes, and seems, at a distance, to be quite 
uniform ; on a nearer approach, one can hear it swelling and decreasing in volume, while 
there is a corresponding muscular movement from the front of the abdomen backward, two 
and a half times a second. This is accompanied by a buzzing sound, quite audible near at 
hand ; it resembles the humming of a bee, or the droning of a bagpipe. 

McNeil says of this species that " its song is indistinguishable from that of dissimilis," 



73 



but the song of the latter has never been described as far as I know * ; perhaps he means 
that of C. nebrascensis, which is described by him, as above, in the same paper and which 
it certainly resembles, to judge from the description. He says further that C. robustus 
* l lives both upon trees and in the "grass ; but while its song may be heard in the grass 
while the sun is high, I have never heard it from trees until after dark." I have never 
found it in Massachusetts except in grass or in corn-fields. 

Davis says of it on Staten Island that it ," resides for the most part mid the grass on 
sandy ground near the sea shore, though an occasional individual finds its way inland. 
Along the sea beach they stridulate in early afternoon, especially if slightly cloudy, and 
when approached they have a curious fashion of dropping to the ground." 

Oonocephalus exiliscanorus Davis. "Its stridulation," says Davis, " as well as it s 
form, resembles that of ensiger more than any other native Oonocephalus. We cannot 
count with any accuracy in ensiger the number of times one wing is drawn over the other 
as indicated by the rise and subsidence in the song, but exiliscanorus is such a slow singer 
that this estimate can be easily made, one wing being rubbed on the other about one hun- 
dred and fifteen times in a minute." And in another place : " The sound produced when 
stridulating is very faint, not louder than that made by Gryllus abb n 'eviatus, and I was 
much surprised to hear such a faint song come from so large an insect. I have, in conse- 
quence of this faint song, named it the • slightly musical " Oonocephalus." 

Orchelimum nigripes Scudd. McNeill says the song of this species " is difficult to 
distinguish with certainty from that of vulgare, but usually the zip-zip is repeated once or 
twice very rapidly and the ze-e-e-e -e does not continue so long. The earliest recorded date 
for it here [Illinois] is the 1st of August." 

Orchelimum silvaticum, McNeill. " Its stridulation," says McNeill, " is quite distinct 
from that of vulgare. It consists of the same two elements, but the zip is repeated many 
times very rapidly so as to make almost a continuous sound and the ze-e-e-e is compara- 
tively short and very constant, lasting about eight seconds. The first part of the song 
lasts from three to five seconds." 

Orchelimum volantum McNeill. McNeill says of this : " The song has a new note 
in it. It may be represented as follows : zip-zip kr-ze-e-e kr-ze-e-e, the last part of the song 
not lasting more than a half to three- quarters of a second and is always preceded by the 
sound which I represent imperfectly by kr." 

Orchelimum vulgare Harr. With Scudderia, angustifolia this is the earliest Locus- 
tarian to sing in northern New Hampshire ; one year it sang there for the first time on July 
28 ; the following year I heard it in the vicinity of Boston July 15. When about to sing 
on a hot, sunny day, the male mounts a stalk of grass to about a foot from the ground 
where it clings with its four front legs, allowing its hind legs to dangle on either side the 
stalk that they may not interfere with the movement of the tegmina. Its song is more com- 
plicated than that of our other Locustarians. Beginning with ts it changes almost instantly 
into a a trill of zr ; at first there is a crescendo movement which reaches its volume in half 
a second ; the trill is then sustained for a period varying from one to twenty seconds 
(generally from six to eight seconds), and closes abruptly with p. This strain is followed 
by a series of very short staccato notes sounding likejip / repeated at half second intervals ; 
the staccato notes and the trill alternate ad libitum. The staccato notes may be continued 
almost indefinitely, but are very rarely heard more than ten times in direct succession ; it 
ordinarily occurs three or four times before the repetition of the phrase, but not more than 
two or three times when the phrase is not repeated. I have known it to be entirely omit- 
ted, even before the repetition of a phrase. The interval between the last jip I and the 
recommencement of the phrase never exceeds one quarter of a second. The night song 
differs from that of the day in the rarer occurrence of the intermediate notes and the less 
rapid trill of the phrase ; the pitch of both is at B flat. 

*Davi8 says of G . dissimilis : " I have found this insect stridulating when its head was gone, picked 
off perhaps by some vagrant chick !" 



74 



?RK C Harris says of it: " During the evening, and even at other times in shady places 
the males make a sharp clicking noise, somewhat like that produc ed by snapping the point 
of a pen against the thumb nail, but much louder." 



to 


zr 








tr 










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1 M 1 1 I 1 1 — 


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■ 




ir~~~~. 










rrrrr 


0-0-0-0-0-$ 


»-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-i 

i rTT TT i f=H=t 


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=32 


n i ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


zr 




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00-00-0- 


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0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0 


0-0-0-0 

t±±± 


0-0-0 




J!P J1P J'P J1P J'P J1P 



\^W p*p* pm* 



jip ts 



• tr„ 








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-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0 Z 0-0 Z 0-0-0-0 :Z f 








tir^y^yy-yyyyyy^ 


Tf^TfTf^ •-*-*-* 


^g^g^5jS£i£5^N 




— PH 












£r__ ,__~_^~~~~~ 


-0-0-0-0 


-0-9-0-0-0-0-0 0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0 


-0-0-0-0-0 



P Jip 



tr 

m 



-r 



Pig. 49. Note of Orchelimum vulgare. 



McNeill, writing of Illinois, says : " I have heard its note as early as the 21st of 
July. Its song is the familiar zip-zip-ziji-zip-ze-e-e-e. The staccato first part is repeated 
about four times, usually about twice a second j the ze-e-e-e continues from two or three to 
twenty or more seconds." 



75 



Xiphidiumfasciatum Serv. The note of this species resembles that of an Orchelimum, 
but is very faint. McNeill says of it : " Its song is a faint echo of that of Orchelimum 
vulgare with the zip-zip omitted. ... Its faint little quaver is the first note of the 
great chorus that sounds in all the meadows from the first of August until the first of 
October or until cold weather." 

Xiphidium nemorale Scudd. " The song," says McNeill, " is louder than that of 
fasciatum ; it consists of two parts, the first a short abrupt note which is very well repre- 
sented by the syllable zip, the second is the familiar ze-e-e which lasts about half a second 
and is made from one to five times ; the zip is not repeated." 

Acrididae. 

Dictyophorus reticidatus. Many years ago I received a couple of females of this 
bulky species alive from the south and kept one of them for some time. In the sunshine 
she stridulated by raising her tegmina directly upward against the half opened wings, 
making a rough scratching sound which was repeated rather rapidly, but variably, from 
two to ten times. 

Subsequently Dr. Shufeldt figured this insect in Science (vol. 2) and gave an inter- 
esting account of it from observations in southern Louisiana. He says : " The only sound 
that I ever heard this grasshopper give vent to is now indulged in by the male. It con- 
sists simply of a series of pecular hisses (this word expresses it better than anything else) 
and is only heard when we seize and handle one of them, or during their mating. The 
sound seems to be produced largely by the [fore] wings ; for these members are elevated 
at this time, as I have shown them in my plate, where the male exhibits his beautiful 
hind- wings, — a relief to his otherwise sombre tints that is only to be experienced on such 
occasions." And later : " Whatever part of the entertainment these sable gentlemen [the 
males] entered into, they constantly kept up a very audible buzzing racket with their [fore] 
wings, which they elevated and lowered at few seconds' intervals, showing the inferior 
carmine pair each time they did so, with telling effect." 

Melanoplus femur-rubrun. At Andover, Mass., I once observed on Oct. 5 a pair of 
this species, male and female, near together alternately answering each other with a slight 
quick movement of the hind legs on the tegmina as if in stridulation. I made no note of 
whether any sound was actually produced and do not now recall any. 

Chloealtis conspersa Harr. The song of this insect is of varied rapidity, according to 
the amount of sunshine ; in the sun this insect makes from nine to twelve notes, at the 
rate of fifty -three in fifteen seconds ; the usual number of notes is ten. In the shade the 









Fig. 50. — Note of Chloealtis conspersa in the sun. 

rate falls to forty-three in fifteen seconds, the number of notes remaining the same. 
The femur is evidently scraped gently upon the tegmina to produce the sound, for 
frequently, at the beginning, two or three noiseless movements are made, the leg failing 

< r ?rgr?gTg? r g r g r i | r? r jr - 

Fig. 51.— Note of Chloealtis conspersa in the shade. 

to touch the tegmina. I once found three males singing to a single female, who was 
busily engaged laying eggs in a stick of wood, her abdomen plunged into a hole she had 
bored to the depth of half an inch j two of the males were near enough each other to 
cross antennae. 



76 



Stenobothrus curtipennis Scudd. When about to stridulate, these insects place them 
selves in a nearly horizontal position, with the head a little elevated ; they then raise 
both hind legs together, the hind tibiae bent back snugly against the femora during the 
movement, and grate the thighs against the outer surface of the tegmina. The first one 

Fig. 52. — Note of Stenobothrus curtipennis. 

or two movements are frequently noiseless or faint. In sunny weather the notes are 
produced at the rate of about six a second, are continued from one and a half to two 
and a half seconds, and when undisturbed are repeated with intermissions of from five to 
six seconds.; ^When the sky is overcast, the movements are less rapid. 

Gomphocerus sp. " The males of several species of this genus," says Riley, " pro- 
duce a loud rattling or hissing sound, somewhat resembling the rattle of the large gray 
rattlesnake, by rubbing the inside of the thighs against the elytra." The reverse resem- 
blance is indeed so close that I once stooped to search for the stridulator when I heard 
the warning of a rattlesnake, but fortunately discovered my error in time to withdraw 
precipitately. In an undetermined species discovered near Georgetown, Colorado, July 
17, the note sounded like tch, repeated with exceeding rapidity, while the legs moved 
very quickly over a very short arc ; the repetition was so rapid as to seem like one 
note, and it lasted from one to two and a half seconds ; it was always fainter at the 
start and strongest just before the end. 

Bootettix argentatus Brun. Bruner says this insect produces " a sharp stridulating 
sound," resembling ,f that produced by some of the Stenobothri." 

Arcyptera gracilis Scudd. This is a very shy insect, but it stridulates more loudly 
than other^Tryxalinae ; its note can be heard at a distance of fifty feet. It usually makes 
four notes, but the number is sometimes greater. The first, a quarter of a second in 



Fig. 53.— Note of Arcyptera gracilis. 

length, is duller than the others, and is followed by a pause of a quarter of a second ; 
the other notes are of the same length, but sharply sounded and follow each other 
rapidly. 

Arphia sulphurea (Burm) Stal. This insect sometimes crackles when flying, but 
undoubtedly the power of doing so is under control. 

Ghimarocephala viridifasciata (DeGeer) Scudd. This insect usually produces a shuff- 
ling or rattling sound uniformly during the whole of its undeviating flight ; but the power 
of making the sound is apparently under control, for it may be frightened into silence. 

Encoptolophus sordidus (Burm). Precisely the same may be said of this species as of 
the preceding. 

Tropidolophus formosus (Say) Thorn. This crested locust has a short, rather feeble 
straight flight of about three or four rods in length, the insect rising at once to a height of 
about six or eight feet from the ground and gradually settling, going with the wind, the 
distance of its flight being partly determined by the for«e of the same. During this flight 
it makes, as if it were not at all under control, a continuous and regular very subdued 
clicking sound, like the very rapid but somewhat muffled ticking of a watch. 



77 



Dissosteira Carolina (Linn). Townsend describes what he regards as an act of court- 
ship in this species, as follows : " On the 14th of August last, in the afternoon. I saw one 
of this species fly up from the dry parched grass, and remain nearly stationary about two 
feet in the air for some time, by means of a rapid beating of the wings. Presently it flew 
back to the ground. In a few minutes another one, which had witnessed the performance 
at a short distance, flew quickly over and alighted by the side of the performer. They rant 
by each other several times, occasionally touching each other, but did not make any further 
manifestations, and finally the last one flew away, leaving the other motionless in the 
withered grass. Though it is probable that the females are attracted by these perform- 
ances of the males, and that the males vie with each other in their exhibitions, still I think 
that the two just spoken of were both males, and were disposed to fight from a feeling of 
rivalry, the one that flew off having been beaten." 

11 On the 24th of the month I noticed the same thing over again. An individual per- 
formed three times in succession, and then another alighted on the ground by its side ; they 
ran by each other several times, apparently clasping, probably in conflict, for I am quite 
sure they were both males. At last one of them flew away, and the other soon after 
renewed the performing. I regret to say that I did not capture specimens to ascertain 
the sex; but, judging from size, I do not think I have seen any but the males taking 
active part in the aerial exhibitions. In going through with the performance they rise 
at first generally about three or four feet, making a light purring or beating sound, and 
then, rising higher, change the motion of the wings, when a curious, sharp, see-sawing 
sound is produced. Some rise even higher than six feet in the last act ; others rise only 
one or two feet. Of course some excel others in the beauty and ease with which they 
accomplish the feat; many do not remain in just the same place while hovering, but 
vary, falling or jerking about while endeavoring to keep the same point in the air. I 
am of the opinion that the females are sensitive to the grace with which this is performed.'' 

I have repeatedly witnessed this ascent from a single spot, and hovering thereover 
so well described above, during which an interrupted crackling sound is produced, evi- 
dently at will, with particular movements of the wings, but the sound is a muffled one, 
though decidedly louder and sharper than that heard during its ordinary flight. I have 
seen it lise to a height of ten feet, particularly when in face of a bank, aud it often 
remains a considerable time in the air nearly stationary or moving slightly up and down. 

Spharagemon aequale (Say). This insect stridulates only during intervals of flight, 
having evidently per.ect control in the matter ; at nearly every turn it makes in its 
somewhat wayward flight, it accompanies the swoop with a crackle which lasts but a 
portion of a second. 

Spharagemon bolli Scudd. According to McNeill this locust acts like Dissosteira 
Carolina in remaining " stationary a few feet above the ground and in some manner pro- 
duces a dry rustling note." 

Lactista gibbosus. According to Coquillett this grasshopper •■ sometimes makes a 
rattling noise while on the wing." 

Trimerotropis vinculata. Coquillett makes precisely the same remark of this as of 
the preceding. 

Trimerotropis perplexa Brun. Bruner says " this is a noisy insect and produces a 
very decided clatter when upon the wing, showing that it is not distantly removed from 
the various members of the genus Circotettix." 

Trimerotropis citrina Scudd. A species which is either this or very closely allied to 
it was heard by me at Garland, Colorado, making a dull continuous muffled thrrr during 
its short flight. 

Trimerotropis Columbia Scudd. (Ms.) This dark locust (allied to and perhaps not 
distinct from T. saffusa Scudd.) I heard in Wyoming making during its flight a clack- 
ing sound lasting from a quarter of a minute to a minute and a half, made up of a suc- 
cession of sharp clacks, usually about five per second, but occasionally, and especially 
just before alighting, hurrying to six per second. 



78 



Circotettix verruculatus (Kirby) Sauss. This insect stridulates at will during flight, 
and is the noisiest of our eastern Acridians. At each turn in its flight, it accompanies 
the movement with a swoop-like curve, and emits a crackling sound. The sound is like 

kla kla kla kla kla kla kla 



0± >- 0-- Mi. H_ \_0- 0* # i 01 

I I L ^ L, I L I 

• w ^ ■ • • • • 

kla kla Ida kla kla kla 

_ 1— # ! 0'- 1— % 0'- 0± 0± S 

I L L [11 L C L * 

• ^ ^ » • • • • 

Fig. 54. — Note of Circotettix verruculatus. 

hi or &Za (the a having the sound of a in fat), the former at a distance, the latter nearer 
by ; it is repeated at the rate of about five per second j just before alighting, it crackles 
more rapidly and frequently. 

Circotettix carlivgianus (Thorn.). This Acridian is the noisiest of the family known 
to me. I have had my attention drawn to it by its obstreperous crackle more than a quarter 
of a mile away. In the arid parts of the west, it has a great fondness for rocky hill sides 
and the hot vicinity of abrupt clifls in the full exposure to the sun where its clattering 
rattle is re-echoed from the walls. Its noise is like that of the preceding species vastly 
intensified, — a bold and defiant challenge to the collector, who will find him nimbler and 
warier than he cares for on a hot day. 

Circotettix lapidicolus Brun. This is another of the noisy tribe, according to Bruner, 
who says that " during the hottest, brightest hours of noonday " it " is to be seen and heard 
fn the air, producing its clattering music, which is anything but soothing." 

Circotettix maculatus Scudd. This species is a remarkable contrast to the others of 
the genus. It is much the smallest form and is far from noisy. The sound it makes is 
similar to that of the other species but very much subdued, so as greatly to surprise me 
when I first captured it at Truckee, California. I could not at first believe it to be that of 
a Circotettix. 



I have notes of the stridulation of several other western Acridians, but the species are 
not yet definitely determined and therefore not mentioned here. 



AN INSECT DESTRUCTIVE TO SQUASH VINES. 

By Samuel H. Scudder. 

During the month of August the leaves of our squash- vines often present a riddled 
appearance, disclosing the presence of an enemy. If we examine the edges of the holes 
we shall find the plump, rounded larva of a beetle feeding sometimes on the upper though 
generally upon the under surface of the leaf. It belongs to the family of Coccinellidce or 
lady-bugs ; and although, as a general rule, the species of this group are of positive benefit 
to vegetation in destroying large numbers of plant-lice which blight our fruit and shade 
trees, a few are herbivorous in nature, and among them the insects of which we are 
speaking. In the larval state, during which they inflict almost all the injuries of which 
they are capable, they are of a bright yellow color, covered above with long, branching 
black thorns, sometimes tipped with white, and arranged in six longitudinal rows. The 
space between the two middle rows is widened anteriorly by the more lateral insertion of 
the three first spines. Behind the thorns of the first segment, there is a transverse row 



79 



of short, fine, black-tipped hairs. The head, the legs, and the under side of the abdomen 
are covered with short fine hairs ; the tips of the legs are black. When fully grown, the 
larvae are about three-eighths of an inch in length, by little less than half an inch in 
breadth. They crawl but sluggishly, using their terminal segment as an additional leg j 
and live in large numbers on the squash-vines, where their voracity is attested by the 
rapidity with which their cast-off skins increase in size and number. These skins are 
white, transparent pellicles, covered with the characteristic thorns, and preserving in some 
measure the shape of their former inhabitants. 

Toward the latter part of August, or the first of September, the larvae are fully 
grown, and begin to change to their pupal state ; they stop eating and crawl to a suitable 
place, generally upon the top of a leaf, where they can fasten themselves by their 
terminal segments to one of the veins ; then slough their skin and appear as pupae. 

The pupa is of the same general color as the larva ; the eyes are dusky and the 
stumpy feet crowded together on the breast. The whole body, but more especially the 
head, thorax and appendages, is covered with short, simple, black spines. The outer por- 
tion of the posterior edge of the first thoracic segment is bordered with black, as are also 
both edges of the elytra, or wing-covers, though the color fades away before reaching the 
tips. There are two other black bands upon the elytra, parallel to the first, and nearly 
uniting as they approach the tip. Between the elytra, at their base, are two little black 
dots. The edge of the first abdominal segment is marked by two black bands, nearly 
meeting in the centre, and having each end bent forward ; the second, third and fourth 
segments have a short, black dash upon either side of the outer posterior edge ; the fourth 
and fifth segments are darker than the others ; the last segment is furnished with two 
long, fleshy protuberances, by which the pupa clings to the old, wrinkled, larval skin which 
still conceals that portion of the body lying beyond the tip of the wing-covers. All the 
markings which have been described, excepting the two dots between the elytra and the 
black dashes of the second, third and fourth abdominal segments, are frequently wanting. 
Out of a large number of specimens which I obtained in Connecticut, scarcely one had 
any of these markings, while they were invariably present in those examined at Cape 
Cod. 

No similar differences were apparent in the perfect insects reared from 
the different kinds of larvae. The pupae are about one-third of an inch in 
length by one-fifth in breadth and one-eighth in height, and remain but a 
few days in the pupal state. When they emerge they do not seem to be 
possessed of a roving disposition, but may still be seen for several days 
on the plant where they have spent their lives, and for whose leaves they 
have still a relish. Fi S- 55 - 

In the perfect state these beetles (Fig 55.) are of the same general color as before, al- 
though the shade is darker. The elytra have two transverse rows of roundish black spots, 
five in number, the first row extending across the basal portion, the second traversing the 
central region ; the middle spot in each of these rows is divided by the suture of the 
wings. In the centre of the remaining apical portion of each elytron is another larger, 
round black spot ; there is a black spot upon the thorax, in the middle of the posterior 
border ; and three other spots, smaller and sometimes fainter, are placed one upon the 
middle of the anterior edge and the others upon either side of the thorax. The eyes and 
end of the jaws are black, and the under side of the body is occasionally quite dusky. 
The whole body is minutely punctured and closely covered with short, fine hairs, invisible 
to the naked eye ; its length is one-third, and its breadth one-fourth of an inch. 

This beetle was first described by Thunberg under the name of Coccinella borealis^ 
but is now placed in the genus Epilachna. Being of so large a size, and affording such 
evident indications of its presence, this insect can be readily destroyed by hand-picking. 
There can be no excuse for those who complain of its ravages if they fail to make use of 
this simple, rapid and effectual expedient — the more rapid and effectual the earlier it is 
put into practice. Where squashes are grown on a large scale for marketing purposes, 
it will be advisable to destroy this insect when it appears, by the use of a weak mixture 
of Paris green and water sprinkled upon the affected leaves. 




80 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

AN EXPLODED REMEDY FOR THE PLUM CURCULIO. 

We are surprised to notice still going the rounds of the press an account, often with 
editorial endorsement, of a curculio remedy which has long since been proved unavailing. 
Tt con ists in tying corncobs soaked in molasses on the branches of the tree to be pro- 
tected, and the theory is that the insect will lay its eggs in the sweetened corncobs in 
preference to laying them in the fruit ! 

Another of those utterly worthless pseudo-remedies which, we regret to say, has 
found space in some of our most valuable journals, is of practically the same nature, 
except that in place of corncobs the writer advises the use of tomato cans filled with a 
mixture of molasses, vinegar and water. — Insect Life. 

SUCCESS OP VEDALIA IN EGYPT. 

Rear-Admiral Blomfield, to whom we sent several consignments of Vedalia for use 
against Egyptian Fluted Scale, and whose letters announcing the success of the later 
consignments we have published from time to time, has written us that the beneficial 
Australian insect has recently made its appearance in a garden in Ramleh, a distance of 
more than three miles from the original trees upon which the first specimens were 
reported. The experiment is evidently turning out very successfully. — Insect Life. 

ON THE CARBON BISULPHIDE REMEDY AGAINST STORED GRAIN PESTS. 

Allow me to add an important item in the method of keeping weevils and rats out 
of a corn crib, by the use of the vapor of bisulphuret, or bisulphide of carbon. 

The improvement I expect to make this year is to place on the floor of the bin an 
oblong box made out of two 12-inch boards, the upper part coming to a sharp point. The 
box is to be long enough to run two-thirds through the bin, boxed up at the inner end to 
give it support. There is to be for a few feet from the inner upper edge an opening cut 
out about half an inch wide to give free vent for the vapor to penetrate the corn. The 
necessity of this arrangement is, after the bisulphide has disappeared by evaporation, to 
replace it with a fresh supply. This is to be done in particular to keep out rats the year 
round. One good fumigation of the vapor is sufficient to kill the weevils, but it will take 
somewhat a continuation of the evaporation to keep out rats. 

As you are aware, the bisulphide of carbon is a highly volatile fluid, and the contents 
in an open bottle will readily disappear by evaporation. To replenish the fluid by the 
use of the long box, say every few months, would be all that is required, and instead of 
using several bottles at once imbedded in the corn, I would use but a single bottle at a 
time. By this method the experiment would be brought to a successful issue, and the 
expense of protecting a bin of corn is not materially increased, but rather diminished. 

To place a bottle of bisulphide in the box described, take a wooden shovel with a 
little box attached to the end of it to snugly hold the bottle. Let the handle be about 
an arm's length shorter than the box. Before introducing the fluid I would close up the 
bottle with a few layers of muslin, and by the aid of the shovel place it inside of the box 
nearly at the inner end, leaving the shovel with the bottle inside ; then close up the 
entrance at the door with old bags or something of the kind. 

I learn that some have apprehensions as to the personal safety in using the bisul- 
phide of carbon, and the effect it may have on the corn. As I have ascertained by experi- 
ments, the line of ignition is close to the body of the fluid itself, therefore there is no 
danger in taking a light into the bin. As to the effect on the corn, everything is in its 
favor. My last year's corn treated with the carbon proved that hardly a kernel failed to 
germinate, and the shucks were eaten by the stock, I thought, with unusual relish. The 



81 



cause of this is obvious. The corn grew rapidly and with vigor, and was considered the 
best in the neighborhood. Whether the bisulphide had anything to do with it, I will not 
say ; but I am somewhat inclined to think it had. We know that solutions of some of 
the metallic salts have a tendency to stimulate favorably the growth of seed that ia 
immersed in it. 

I only know of one great danger in handling the bisulphide, in which T nearly lost 
my own life. The experimenter may pour it into the opening of an ants' nest to destroy 
them, and safely ignite it at the hole with a match. After the explosion it leaves for 
a while an invisible flame at the opening. If he is tempted to recharge the opening from 
a full bottle of the fluid in his hands it will explode and send him without a moment's 
notice into the other world ! 

It is supposed that nearly 50 per cent, of the corn in Texas is annually destroyed by 
weevils and rats. The destruction is so great that nearly all the corn used in this part of 
the State comes from Kansas. — G-. P. Hachenberg, M.D., Texas, in Insect Life. 

WIREWOEM REMEDIES. 

In answer to a question in relation to destroying wireworms, the larvae of click 
beetles, of which there are a large number of species, elaborate experiments by Prof. 
Cornstock, of Cornell University, N.Y., shows that the beetles can be easily attracted to 
baits of clover which have been poisoned by wetting with one of the arsenicals — Paris 
green water for instance. These baits consist of small bunches of the freshly cut plant, 
about one-fourth pound in weight, distributed throughout the field and protected and 
kept moist by b^ing covered with boards. 

As an indica ion of the efficiency of this method it is stated that a series of twelve 
traps yielded in three days 482 beetles, or an average of more than forty per trap. These 
traps .should be put out during the early summer, and the beetles killed in a majority of 
ci^es will not have deposited their eggs aud the consequent depredations of their larvae, 
the wireworms, will be greatly diminished. It frequently happens that the infested areas 
are rather limited in extent, and do not cover the entire field, and where this is the case 
the labor of distributing bait will be greatly lessened. The bait should be renewed once 
or twice per week daring the early part of the summer. In place of the clover, cornmeal 
d mgh and sliced potatoes are used, but clover has proved itself the most valuable. 
Where a fi^ld h .s become extensively infested by the worms there is little which can be 
done so far as any actual experiment has shown. 

The wireworm is the larvae of a beetle, commonly known as the click-beetle. This 
is a small brown or black beetle, and is sometimes recognized from the fact that when 
placed in any unnatural position it regains its feet by throwing itself into the air by an 
action of the body which produces a short, sharp, clicking sound. There are, of course, 
m my species of elick-be^tles, the number being co-extensive with the different varieties of 
wire worms. — Prairie Farmer. 

ELECTRICITY versus CATERPILLARS. 

Edison originated electrocution on a practical scale when he waged successful war on 
cockroaches. We are greater believers in the humanity of electricity as a destroying 
auent when thus applied than when used punitively for man. We now hear that Edison's 
original device has been greatly improved upon, and applied to prevent caterpillars from 
climbing up trees. Alternate wires of copper and zinc are run around the trunk of the 
tree, at the distance of about half an inch apart. The casual caterpillar begins to mount 
the trunk of the tree, and unlimbers himself with the confidence and vigor born of an 
impending feast. Presently he reaches the copper wire, pokes his no3e over it, and lets 
another kink out of his backbone. Half an inch further up his front feet strike the zinc, 
the circuit is completed, and the unfortunate larva is a martyr to science. — Science 
Gossip. 

6 (EN.) 



82 



INSECTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES. 

Many experiments have been conducted with a view to combine substances which 
are known to have both insecticide and fungicide qualities. While the results have been 
variable, it would appear on the whole that the combination of an insecticide does not 
add to the efficiency of a fungicide, but often detracts from it ; but the reverse of this 
does not hold true, as experiments have proved that while Bordeaux mixture combined 
with arsenites does not act well as a fungicide, it is decidedly beneficial as an insecticide, 
as the arsenites can be used so much stronger. Professor Maynard found that one pound 
of Paris green in 500 gallons of sulphate of copper solution proved very injurious to his 
trees, but that one pound of Parit green in 200 gallons of Bordeau mixture secured a very 
large crop of plums while other txees not treated lost their fruit from curculio. He also 
decided that black knot was less upon the trees sprayed with this latter mixture. —Dr. 
C. V. Riley ; Address before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

ARSENITES IN THE ORCHARD. 

Recent experiments made at a few of our experiment stations, which have sufficient- 
ly competent Entomologists, have thrown much light on the comparative value of 
different arsenical mixtures as insecticides, and as to the relative injury they do the 
foliage of different trees. The testimony of some experimenters would indicate that the 
peach is more susceptible to the influence of London purple than to Paris green, and that 
there is less danger of injury when the leaves are young than when they are old. The 
cause of injury by London purple is doubtless due to excess of soluble arsenic. Pro- 
fessor Bailey found that heavy spraying with one pound of Paris green to three hundred 
gallons of water did not injure the foliage. But perhaps the most valuable results 
obtained are those given by Professor Gillette, who states that London purple used with 
Bordeaux mixture in the proportion of one pound to fifty gallons was entirely harmless 
to the peach and plum ; that the oldest leaves are most liable to injury ; that dews and 
probably direct sunlight increase injuries done by arsenites to foliage ; that leaves kept 
perfectly dry can hardly be injured by them ; that leaves suffering from fungous disease 
are more susceptible than healthy ones ; that freshly mixed and applied London purple is 
most injurious, while freshly mixed and applied white arsenic is least injurious to foliage, 
but the longer the mixed white arsenic stands the greater the danger of inj ury ; that lime 
added to London purple or Paris green in water lessens the injury they will effect on 
foliage, while lime added to white arsenic in solution increases the liability to injure the 
same unless the poison is wholly dissolved, when the opposite effect is produced ; that 
London purple can be applied without injury, eight or even ten times as strong, if com- 
bined with common Bordeaux mixture instead of water ; that arsenites cannot, by ordin- 
ary methods, be mixed in a kerosene emulsion ; that they mix readily in rosin compounds 
and seem no more injurious than when applied in water ; that when put into strong, 
soapy water they do much more harm than in clear water ; that they mix readily in 
carbonate of copper solution and are as harmless as when in clear water ; that London 
purple in sulphate of copper solution is vastly more harmful than when in water only. 
— Dr. C. V. Riley; ibid. 

THE FLUTED SCALE. 

No more striking event has happened during the past two years than the extermina- 
tion of this insect, most destructive to the orange growing interests in Southern Califor- 
nia. It is difficult for one unfamiliar with the facts to realize that this scale, which two 
and a half years ago hung like a blight and plague over leaf, branch and trunk of all 
citrus, and many other kinds of fruit trees and shrubs of Southern California, has been so 
effectually swept away by the little Australian lady bird, Vedalia cardinalis, which was 
imported for this purpose. In the language of Assistant Secretary Willits, •' It seems 
almost like an entomological romance. " The history of this scale Icerya purchasi, has 
made everything pertaining to the genus interesting and during the past year four other 



83 



species have come to my knowledge. The Icerya rosse from Key West and limited in its 
range ; Icerya iEgyptiacum, from Alexandria, Egypt ; Icerya Montserratensis occurs on 
the island of Montserrat, W.I., and Icerya Palmeri, found by Dr. Edward Palmer, in 
1887, upon a grape vine in the province of Sonora, New Mexico, but only on the Muscat 
of Alexandria variety. The practical lesson to be learned is, that our fruit growers of 
Florida, Texas and California should take every care to quarantine all plants from infected 
foreign points until examination shows them free from such pests. — Dr. C. V. Riley ; ibid. 

USEFULNESS OP TOADS. 

At Greeley, Colorado, two species of leaf-roller moths were very abundant and 
destructive in their attacks upon fruit and other trees. Mr. Gillette in closing his ob- 
servations upon them says : "While speaking of the remedies for leaf -rollers, I should da 
wrong not to mention the valuable services of the toads. One of the most interesting 
sights that came under my observation in Greeley last summer was the large number of 
well-fed toads that hopped lazily about on the walks under the trees from morning to 
night, looking for leaf-roller caterpillars that were dropping on every side. The rollers 
were usually snapped in by the toads even before they could reach the ground. As many 
as fifty of these toads were counted under a single tree, and it was not uncommon for 
people to take the middle of the street to avoid the toads along the walk. Toads seldom 
do harm and feed almost entirely upon inseccs, and should be carefully protected as they 
are decidedly beneficial." — Colorado Bulletin No. 19. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



A Text Book of Agricultural Entomology : Being a guide to the Methods of Insect 
Life and means of prevention of Insect Ravage. For the use of Agriculturists and 
Agricultural Students. By Eleanor A. Ormerod. Second Edition — London : Simp- 
kin, Marshall & Co., 1892. One vol., pp. 238 ; 164 figures • Crown 8vo. 

About nine years ago Miss Ormerod delivered a series of ten Lectures for the Insti- 
tute of Agriculture in England, and afterwards published them in book-form as " A Guide 
to Methods of Insect Life." This proved to be an excellent and highly useful work, but 
was not in much demand until recently, when it was found to contain the information 
that was required in this department of agricultural instruction, and accordingly the 
necessity of a second edition speedily arose. The result is the work before us, in which the 
authoress has expanded her original lectures and produced an admirable text-book for 
the use of students and others interested in Economic Entomology. 

The first two chapters of the book give an account of the structure and transforma- 
tions of insects, describing their varied conditions of life in the larval, pupal and perfect 
states, and a brief explanation of the various orders and their characteristics. Any intelli- 
gent reader will get a very fair elementary idea of Entomology by studying these two chap- 
ters, and they are written so clearly and in such simple language, as free as possible from 
technicalities, the few employed being always explained — that they can be fully grasped 
by any one of the most ordinary attainments. 

The next two chapters deal with Flies (Diptera) and Fleas (Aphaniptera). The 
principal species that cause injury to the farmers by their attacks upon his crops and live- 
stock are treated in detail, and the best modes of opposing their ravages are clearly and 
succinctly given. In describing the Wheat Midge (Cecidomyia tritici) the authoress says : 
11 In Canada, or where the weather can be reckoned on and the date of appear- 
ance of the Wheat Midge can be reckoned on also, injury from attack is avoided by sow- 
ing so that the wheat shall flower before or after this special time. In one case the young 
grain is too firm for the Red Maggot to hurt it ; in the other, the flower and germ is not 
far enough advanced for there to be anything to attack until the Wheat Midge has passed 



84 



away ; consequently the corn is safe. We sometimes benefit in this way here [in Eng- 
land] by accidental circumstances, but we cannot depend on being able to arrange it as 
in less changeable climates." 

" Our best method of prevention is to destroy the Eed Maggot (or the Chrysalis, if 
it has turned to it) in its winter shelter. Deep plowing, such as will turn infested stubble 
thoroughly down, will act well, for once deeply buried the Gnat-fly either will not develop 
or cannot come up again. It is not enough considered in these matters that we may by 
our own common knowledge often guide ourselves. If a weak small grub (so small 
that we can scarcely see it) has a weight of earth put on it, somewhere about as much as 
if at least thirty or forty yards deep of earth were placed on one of ourselves, it is very 
unlikely that, where it is not specially supplied with powers for piercing the ground, it 
will come up again as a grub ; and the Gnat-Midge, if it does develop, certainly cannot 
make its way through." 

" This is one of the points that show us how to keep insects in check ; we need often 
merely to consider just what is before our eyes and act on it. Once down, and left down 
(for, of course, if we bring the grubs up again by a second equally deep plowing we lose 
our labor), we have, in all probability, buried the coming attack safely away." 

But while giving such information as this on methods of prevention of insect attacks 
the authoress distinctly disclaims any intention of making the book a Manual of Economic 
Entomology, and expressly states that the details of treatment are given in order to impart 
the principles on which the treatment is based. " There are certain habits," she says ; 
"certain times when the creature is inactive ; certain treatment which will get rid of it 
equally in the egg, or the chrysalis state, and so on. Therefore, though I hope the 
short histories may be serviceable for field use further on, yet now these points are 
entered on chiefly as showing general methods of treatment that we may apply to all 
similar kinds of attack." 

From the account of the Ox Warble fly (Hypoderma bovis) we extract the following : 
11 The yearly loss from this attack is enormous. Firstly, there is the loss on milk, and 
on many other points of damage consequent on the wild gallop of the cattle when terrified 
by the fly. Secondly, there is the loss on condition of the infested animal. Every 
warbled hide is a sign of so much out of the farmer's pocket, for the food he spent in 
feeding grubs in his cattle's backs, which should have gone to form meat and milk, 
instead of being wasted in foul maggot-sores. Thirdly, there is the loss falling mainly on 
the butchers, consequent on damage to surface of carcase known as 'licked beef ' or ' but- 
cher's jelly.' Fourthly, there is a great loss on the injured hides." In proof of this she 
quotes some returns from dealers in hides ; one from Newcastle-on-Tyne states that " in a 
period of twelve months, 102,877 hides passed through the market; of these 60,000 were 
warbled. Loss estimated at £15,000." 

" The above loss, in all its details, is wholly unnecessary. By the use of simple 
measures we have now found, from the experience of our leading farmers, cattle-owners 
and veterinary surgeons, during about nine yeas, that the attack may to all practical pur- 
poses be stamped ont." 

" Squeezing out the maggots is a sure method of getting rid of them ; but they may 
be destroyed easily and without risk by dressing the warble with any thick greasy matter 
that will choke the breathing pores of the maggot, or poison it by running down into the 
cell in which it lies and feeds. ... To prevent fly-attack in summer, train-oil rubbed 
along the spine, and a little on the loins and ribs, has been fonnd useful ; so has the 
following mixture : 4 oz. flowers of sulphur, 1 gill spirits of tar, 1 quart train oil ; to be 
mixed well together and applied once a-week along each side of the spine of the animal. 
With both the above applications it has been observed that the cattle so dressed were 
allowed to graze in peace, without being started off at the tearing gallop so ruinous to 
flesh, milk, and, in the case of cows in calf, to produce." (The above would, no doubt, 
prove valuable as deterrents to one new pest, the Horn-fly). 

The fifth and sixth chapters are devoted to Beetles (Coleoptera), and contain a clear 
outline of their classification with short descriptions and excellent figures of a large num- 
ber of representative injurious species, and the best modes of dealing with them. 



85 



The next chapter treats of Butterflies and Moths (Lepidoptera). After giving an 
account of many different species with their varied modes of attack and the special meas- 
ures to be adopted in each case, the authoress goes on to say : " But for the most part 
these and various other means of prevention or remedy have to be applied, 
not as broad measures of treatment, but as special measures for each special 
attack, involving necessarily special outlay. For these reasons the pressing 
need has long been felt of having some kind of application at hand which is cheap and 
sure in its action, and which can be brought to bear at once> when required, on any or 
all sorts of Moth-caterpillars together (whatever their various natures or previous histories 
may have been), and will kill the whole collection of ravaging hordes at once, without 
damaging the leafage ; the experiments have been made, which have resulted, in some of 
our fruit-growing districts, in the successful introduction of spraying caterpillar-infested 
leafage with Paris-green, which has long been found serviceable in the United States and 
Canada." To Miss Ormerod, indeed, it is due that the British fruit-growers have been 
introduced to the use of arsenites, that their prejudices have been largely overcome, and 
that the successful experiments have been carried out. For several years she has been 
urging in her Reports the adoption of spraying with these poisons and using kerosene 
■emulsions, and now the good results of acting upon her advice have become apparent in 
many quarters. 

Chapter eight treats of Saw-flies, Ichneumons, Wasps and other members of the 
order Hymenoptera. Especial attention is paid to the beneficial species of Ichneumons 
that are parasitic upon various insects of all kinds. The next chapter deals with the 
Bug tribe (Hemiptera), including the Aphides and Scale-insects (Homoptera) and the 
Plant-bugs (Heteroptera) ; and the last chapter with Slugs, Eel-worms, Millepedes and 
Red-spider. In this concluding chapter there is given much sensible advice for ordi- 
nary people as to the way in which they should observe insects and deal with their attacks. 
We may make one or two quotations : " With a slight knowledge of the habits 
of insect life, added to his own of the agricultural measures that could be used 
to destroy the pest, or at least lessen the effect of its ravages, each grower would be 
fairly able to cope with attacks as they occurred ; whereas if he depends only on advice, 
besides the damage from delay, he is very likely to get suggestions not suited to the 
particular circumstances. The farmer may not know the history of the insect ; but on 
the other hand, the Entomologist very seldom knows the practical workings of growing 
a crop, which it is necessary to know before advising measures which can be depended 
on to answer at a paying rate." 

11 In many cases the different items of treatment which go to make up good farming 
will of themselves keep down a great deal of insect attack. By good cultivation 
of the soil, and proper as well as liberal manuring, by rotation of crops, and 
clearing fields and borders of useless trash and weeds, we turn out a great 
■quantity of the pests which are harboring in the ground, and also ensure a 
good, healthy growth, such as will support the crop under moderate attack ; and by 
the rotation of crop and absence of weeds we are often able to present starvation to our 
grubs, as many of them will only (or, perhaps, we should say, can only) live on special 
food. These are the broad principles which are sure to be of use. We shall not be 
free from insects any more than we shall be free from weeds ; and we need a great deal 
more solid field information about the habits of crop insects (and experiences of paying 
means of prevention) before we can think we have them thoroughly in hand. Never- 
theless, the last few years have added enormously to our information, aud have shown 
<us how at least we may greatly diminish the amount of injury our crops suffer." 

This stock of information, as far as Great Britain is concerned, has been almost 
•entirely brought together by the unselfish labors and painstaking enthusiasm of Miss 
Ormerod herself. While aided by a large number of practical observers scattered over 
the country, she stands alone among hundreds of collectors of insects, and many 
■eminent students of entomology, in devoting her talents, her knowledge, her time and 
her means to the most useful and patriotic pursuit of the study of the science in its 
•economic aspect. 0. J. S. B. 



86 



Special Report op the State Board of Agriculture on the Extermination of the 
Gene? la Dispar, or Gypsy Moth. Boston : Wright & Potter Printing Co., 1892. 

This official pamphlet gives an interesting account of the very remarkable and 
unique efforts that are being made in the State of Massachusetts to exterminate the 
Gypsy Moth. This insect, imported from Europe, was accidentally permitted to estab- 
lish itself about twenty years ago, and has now multiplied to such an extent as to be a 
serious pest throughout a considerable area of the State. In March, 1890, the Legis- 
lature passed an Act appointing three Commissioners to " provide and carry into 
execution all possible and reasonable measures to prevent the spreading and secure the 
extermination of the Ocneria Dispar or Gypsy Moth in the Commonwealth ; " the sum 
of $25,000 was also appropriated for the work. Last year the Commission was merged 
into the State Board of Agriculture, and a further grant of $50,000 was mad ^ to it. 
The Report before us gives the details of the work carried out and the modes adopted for 
waging war against the insect. They were very largely under the direction of Professor 
Fernald, as Entomological adviser, and Mr, Forbush, as Superintendent of Field Work, 
The number of men employed varied with the season, and at one time, in June last, was 
as many as 242. The work began with the destruction of the eggs ; when these 
proceeded to hatch out, spraying the caterpillars with insecticides was adopted, and 
towards the close of the season the eggs were again made the objects of attack. An 
enormous number of the insects were destroyed, and a perceptible diminution in the 
amount of injury was observed in some places. We shall look forward with great 
interest to the result of the present year's operations, and hope in time to be able to 
record a great victory in this field of practical Entomology. C. J. S. B. 

Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade Trees, by Alpheus S. Packard, M.D., Ph.D. 
(Fifth Report of the Entomological Commission of the United States). 1 vol., 
8vo., pp. 957. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1890. 

About ten years ago (in 1881) what was then called the Entomological Commission, 
consisting of Messrs. Riley, Packard and Thomas — three very eminent men — issued a 
work by Dr. Packard on " Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade Trees" (Bulletin 
No. 7), a goodly volume of 275 pages, well illustrated and replete with valuable infor- 
mation. Recently a revised and much enlarged edition of this publication has been 
issued by the Department of Agriculture at Washington, bringing the original work 
more nearly down to date, and furnishing, as far as possible, a complete manual on the 
subject. The new volume is more than three times the s<ze of the former edition, 
consisting of no less than 950 pages, illustrated by over 400 wood cuts and forty plates, 
twelve of which are colored Some idea of the extent of the work, as well as of the 
importance of the subject, may be found from the fact that descriptions are given of over 
three hundred species of insects that affect the oak, and the names of nearly one 
hundred and fifty more are mentioned ; sixty-one are described as attacking the elm, 
and thirty more mentioned ; one hundred and fifty-one described that affect the pine, 
and a list of twenty more given ; and so on for a large number of other trees. Economic 
entomologists for the most part devote their attention to the insects that attack fruit 
trees, crops and vegetables, as these most directly affect the public; but surely no m>rj 
important matter can be studied than the preservation of our forests, which are annuilly 
being depleted for the purposes of commerce, as well as by fire and insects. Ct is high 
time that more attention was paid to this matter, and that people generally should be 
aroused to the dangers that will surely result if we allow our country to be stripped of 
its woods and forests. In some countries of Europe, notably in Germany, a very rigid 
oversight of the forests is maintained by the government, and no wanton or careless 
destruction is permitted. In connection with this, they encourage scientific men to 
devote their studies to the insect enemies of trees, and as a result s>me rafcgnifiierit 
books have been published, chief among these are the grand work of Ratzeburg and the 
perhaps less widely known publications of Kaltenbach. Alongside of these Dr. Packard's 
book will assuredly take its place, as his work is very carefully and completely done. 
The life-history of each insect described is as far as possible fully given ; the best 
published descriptions of each stage are quoted and references given wherever the author 



87 



has not made personal observations himself, or wherever he thinks that some one else's 
record is better or fuller than his own. Thus the work is made complete to date, and 
succeeding observers will know what investigations have been made, and what 
remains to be done in this vast field of entomological research. The colored plates are 
beautifully and accurately done, and the wood cuts and other , illustrations give careful 
details or full representations of a large number of the insects referred to in the text. 
Such a publication ought to encourage our own Government to follow the noble example 
set them in this respect at Washington. C J. S. B. 

A Series of Thirty Colored Diagrams of Insects Injurious to Farm Crops. 

Drawn from nature by Miss Georgiana E. Ormerod. W. & A. K. Johnstor, 

London, England, 1891. 
These diagrams are beautifully and accurately executed, and will be found most 
useful by anyone who is called upon to lecture to classes in entomology, or give addresses 
to farmers' institutes. They are sufficiently large, being thirty inches long and twenty- 
two wide, to be seen at some distance in a hall or class-room, and will serve to illustrate 
descriptions of an economic character. Though intended for England, nearly all of 
them are equally applicable to this country. They are divided into five sets of six each, 
which deal with the following objects : — (1) Common Insect Attacks : Ox Warble Fly, 
Horse Bot-fly, Large White Butterfly, Cockchafer, Turnip Flea-beetle, Onion Fly ; (2) 
Insects affecting Various Kinds of Crops : Surface Caterpillars, Daddy Long-legs, Eel- 
worms, Plant Bugs, Hessian Fly, W r ire-worm ; (3) Insects Affecting Particular Crops : 
Mangold Fly, Hop Aphis, Bean Beetle, Corn Thrips, Gout Fly, Corn Saw-Fly ; 

(4) Insects affecting Fruit Crops : Winter Moth ; American Blight (Aphis), Goose- 
berry and Currant Saw-fly, Apple Blossom Weevil, Codlin Moth, Magpie Moth ; 

(5) Insects Affecting Trees : Pine Beetle, Pine Weevil, Pine Saw-fly, Goat Moth, Spruce 
Gail Aphis, Leopard Moth. The diagrams are sold singly at one shilling and sixpence 
each, or in sets. On each is shown the natural size of the insect as well as the greatly 
enlarged picture, a very necessary matter, as otherwise most erroneous impressions are 
formed by the ignorant of the real dimensions of the creature referred to. There is 
also printed on each a general description, by Miss Eleanor A. Ormerod, of the life 
history of the insect depicted, and of the best remedies to be employed against it. 

C. J. S. B. 

A Manual of North American Butterflies, by Charles J. Maynard : 8vo., pp. 226. 
Boston, DeWolfe, Fiske & Co., 1891. 

We are always glad to welcome the publication of a new book which is likely to 
render more easy, and consequently to popularize, the study of entomology. The author 
of the work before us has, no doubt, had this object in view when preparing this manual, 
in which are brought together " for the first time, descriptions of all the species of 
butterflies which occur in North America, North of Mexico." He has evidently taken 
a great deal of pains in the execution of his task, and expended much labor upon the 
descriptions of over six hundred and thirty species of butterflies, and in the preparation 
of the illustrations, for " not only is a colored plate given of one species of nearly all 
the genera, but wood cuts are given of some portion of about two hundred and fifty 
species, illustrating some peculiar character by which the insect may be known ; both 
plates and wood cuts have, with a single exception, been drawn and engraved by the 
author himself." The wood cuts, giving a wing or a portion of a wing, of a number of 
closely allied species, will be found very useful helps by any one employing the book for 
the identification of his specimens, and are much superior to the coloured plates. Anyone 
with a large stock of specimens on hand, and with a few named in different genera to 
start with, will find this book a very useful and handy manual for the naming of his 
material, but this, we fear, is the extent of its value. The author has adopted the 
comparative method in his descriptions, which involves a constant reference to some 
other species, which the beginner in the study may chance not to have, and be woefully 
puzzled in consequence. There are no synopses, or comparative tables, of either genera 
or species given, but the author selects a species as his " type " and compares the other 
members of the genus with it. If the student possesses a specimen of this typical 



88 



species his way will be fairly easy, but without it the investigation will be sadly difficult,, 
if not hopeless. Another very serious defect in the book is the entire absence of all 
reference to the preparatory stages of the insects, and consequently to their food-plants, 
habits, dates of appearance, etc. We trust that the author may be enabled to Ls-ie a 
second edition of the work, and make it a thorough and complete " manual " by 
remedying the defects we have referred to. That this may be done in a concise form 
and in a most useful manner is admirably proved by Stainton's " Manual of British, 
Moths and Butterflies," which we would commend to our author as a model for imitation, 
when he enters upon the preparation of his next edition. C. J. S. B. 



OBITUARY. 

The Abbe Provanoher. 

It is our painful duty to record the death, in his 72nd year, of the Abbe Le'on 
Provancher, who for many years, despite great discouragements and disadvantages, 
laboured zealously a ad assiduously to develop and disseminate a knowledge of the 
natural history of Canada, and especially of his native province. He was born in 1820, 
at Begancour, Que., and for some years was Cure* of Portneuf, and one of his earlier 
entomological writings was a list of the Coleoptera of that district. Compelled by 
enfeebled health to relinquish the regular and more active duties of the ministry, he 
removed to Cap Rouge, near Quebec, and devoted his remaining time and strength 
almost entirely to the study of the natural sciences. In 1869 he commenced the 
publication of the Naturalise Canadie.n y and, notwithstanding many discouragements, 
completed in 1891 the 20th volume, when its issue had reluctantly to be abandoned 
through the Quebec Government refusing to continue the scanty annual grant it had 
received. As early as 1858 Provancher published an elementary treatise on botany, 
and in 1862 his Flore du Canada. Subsequently he devoted his attention specially to 
entomology, and in 1874 commenced his Faune Entomologique du Canada — Vol. I., 
treating of the Coleoptera, was completed in 1877, with three supplements in 1ST 7, 
1878 and 1879. Vol. II. was commenced in 1877 and completed in 1883, and contains 
the Orthoptera, Neuroptera, and Hymenoptera. In 1885-1889 he published Additions 
aux Hymenopteres, and issued Vol. III. upon the Hemiptera, which was completed in 
1890. He was also an enthusiastic conchoiogist, and his last publication was a treatise 
upon the univalve molluscs of the Province of Quebec. His writings include the account 
of a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, an excursion to the West Indies, treatises on agriculture, 
etc. He will be best known, however, by his entomological work, and as he described 
a large number of new species and genera, particularly of the Hymenoptera and 
Hemiptera, it is sincerely to be hoped that his collections may be placed where the types 
will be carefully preserved and be accessible to students of entomology. There is a 
disposition on the part of some American students to ignore the work of Provancher, 
and to accuse him of want of care, etc., in the determination of genera and species, 
The enormous disadvantages under which he labored must, however, be considered, 
for he was remote and isolated from libraries, collections and t'ello v- workers, and in his 
writings he often laments the fact that so few could be found to take any accive interest 
in his pursuits, or to assist him in his labors. His entomologicd work would have been 
more exact and complete had not the publication of the Naturaliste greatly interrupted 
his investigations, and forced him to spend much of his time in other directions. His 
labors had the result of starting natural history collections in some of the colleges in the 
Province of Quebec, but our French citizens do not appear to have any special leaning to the 
sciences he loved, and he has left behind him no entomological student of any distinction. 
Above all, Provancher was an ardent Canadian, strongly imbued with love of his racs, 
lauguage and religion, and often in his writings he impresses these sentiments upon his 
readers. A few years ago he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Oauada, and 
he was also a member, active or honorary, of many other societies. W. H. H. 



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